In Search of... The Origin of Nations
THE ORIGIN OF THE WHITE RUSSIANS AND BALTS
In this chapter we discuss the origins of the White Russians, Lithuanians and Latvians. Various other nations will be touched upon.
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* that Abraham had descendants other than Israelites who are still somewhere on this earth
* who the Baltic peoples such as the Lithuanians and Lativians descend from
* where many of the Aryan tribes of northwest India migrated
Abraham had a concubine, Keturah. Upon his full conversion he sent her away to the east country (Gen 25:6). The birthright continued through the line of Isaac (Gen 25:5) and this has led to competition between the two lines, particularly through Asshur, son of Jokshan, son of Keturah which will become clearer in chapter fourteen.
The descendants of Abraham through Keturah settled in the region of the Caucasus, both north and south of the mountain range1407. After multiplying greatly, they came pouring down into Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia (with some settling south of Edom in northwest Arabia), being known at that time as the Hurrians1408. One branch of Hurrians became known as the Mitanni and their rulers the Maryanni. They were evidently named after their forefather Midian. Dr Cowley suggests that these Mitanni are direct descendants of Midian1409.
The Mitanni were of the Aryan branch of the Indo-Europeans1410 with their fair skin and often-times blonde hair. The bust of Queen Nefertete (a Midianitess) and the wife of Pharoah Amenohotep, reveal her features and facial type as clearly Nordic1411. They invoked the actual gods of the Aryans and used their Vedic names. It may be significant that the first god they invoked is the Vedic Sun-god, Mitra or Mithra which may have been Midan himself, deified. In so many ways they were quite similar to their neighbours the Hittites1412. Dr Gayre writes:
"The evidence for the connection with Aryans rests not only on the evidence we have given, and their location, but on such things as god-names. Thus they had Teshup, who is identical with Tarku, Huthor of Anatolia. The nearby Hittite military aristocracy had Mitra, Uranna and Nasaatiia (Mitra, Varunna, Indra and Nasatya). One of the Mitannian tribes was called the Kharri, and some think this is Arya"1413. [emphasis mine]
1408. Cottrell 1975 : 178
1409. Bristowe 1971 : 12
1410. Bashan 1959:29
1411. Kalyanraman 1969 : 1 : 79
1412. Gayre 1973 :23
1413. ibid: 23-24
Many Mitanni settled for a time in Asshur which was merely the linking up of "contiguous" peoples1415 as their military ruling classes were related1416. Their royal names reflected their worship of the Aryan deities and they possessed specialised knowledge of horse-breeding like their relatives in north-west India1417. One of their gods was Teshub, the god of battles, with his thunderbolt in his hand; he was later called Thor in Europe. Like the Hittites, their relatives, they were a very warlike people1418.
What became of these mysterious Mitanni after their kingdom fell cl400 BC? Haddon comments
"The 'Aryans' of Mitanni were called by the Greeks Mattienoi; they are possibly the ancestors of the modem Kurds"1419.
Indeed, the Kurds may well be the mixed remnant of the Mittanni and Hittites. But what of those which did not mix? Of them Field notes that "nothing more is heard of them; they disappear in unknown India"1420.
If so, where are they located today?
The Land of Rashu
A famous prophecy in the book of Ezekiel speaks of a ruling class (or formerly ruling class) over the Great Russians (Meschech and Tubal):
"Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meschech and Tubal"1421.
The marginal note for this verse reads "or, Prince of the chief. The translaters derived this from Jerome's Latin Vulgate which read "Principem Capitis", because the Hebrew word for "chief prince" is "Ro'sh"1422, meaning "head" or "leader"1423. The Septuagint rendering is "Ruler of Rosh".
Who is Rosh? Where is Rosh? And what has Rosh to do with the vanished Mitanni? Everything.
You may search the scriptures from one end to the other, and you will find only one Rosh mentioned, and that is in Genesis. He was a son of Benjamin1424, one often brothers. When we come to the book of Numbers, only five are mentioned1425. Later, in I Chronicles, only three are referred
1414. ibid: 20-21
1416. Kalyanaraman 1969 : 1 : 178
1418. Gayre 1973: 29
1419. Haddon 1912 : 21. "Large numbers of the Mitannians were, however, evicted and transferred to the land of the Hittites, where the Greeks subsequently found them, and where they are believed to be represented by the modern Kurds, the hereditary enemies of the Armenians." (Mackenzie cl900: 283).
An article appeared in The Times and reprinted in The Australian (20-21 April 1991): "The oldest Sumerian records show that about 2000BC a people called Kuit, later Kurtie, was living in the mountainous region of the upper Tigris ... The ancient Greeks and Romans thought the Kurds were the original Aryans, the great-grandfathers of all Indo-Europeans, and called them Medes."
1420. Field 1970: 152
1421. Ezekiel 38: 2
1422. Bullingercl890: 1161
1424. Gen 46: 21
1425. Num 26 : 38; see I Chron 8:1-2
to1426 Why? Either because their line had become extinct1427, or because they had migrated outwards as they were, by instinct, a pioneering, adventurous and exploring people. The tribe of Benjamin, or rather a part of it, was possibly in Asia Minor at some stage1428 and if so, probably dwelt with the Mitanni. Both because the Mitanni were blond and/or because Rosh lived with them, the Kingdom of Mitanni became known as the "land of Rashu"1429, Rash or Rosh meaning "blond". Also, nearby dwelt the Urartians, descendants of Arphaxad. Their last great ruler was Rusa II who built great cities and huge defences. He established the religious centre and fortress of Rusai-urau.tur or Rusa-patari which means 'the small city of Rusa'1430. Where are the Rosh today?
Herodotus wrote that the Matienians from the land of Rosh were with the peoples of Tubal and Meschech1431; while Pliny wrote of the Matiani as moving into southern Russia over the Caucasus1432. Dr Gesenius in his Hebrew and English Lexicon wrote that
"Rosh was a designation for the tribes then north of the Taurus Mountains, dwelling in the neighbourhood of the Volga"1433.
He concluded that in this name we have the first trace, historically, of the Rus or Russian state.
Rosh - the original Russians
Bishop Lowth of England wrote in 1710 that Rosh should be taken as a proper name in Ezekiel from whence the Russians derive their name.1434
I feel that it is important to quote at length from another source to cement this important concept in the reader's mind. This time from an incredible author during the early years of this century, G.G. Rupert, who wrote the famous Yellow Peril. In it he quotes from Dr Daniel Schenkel's Bibel-Lexicon:
Rosh in Hesek 38:2, 3; 39:1, is the name of a people of the north, named along with Meschech and Tubal, and all together as subject people of Gog...Rosh as a proper name for a people does not, to be sure, occur anywhere else before the tenth century A.D., when it is found in use by Byzantine and oriental writers; but the statements concerning the same people, dwelling in northern Taurus, as also towards the Muscovite Mountains, or, as some other authors maintain, on the Taurian Peninsula (Crimea), and still further to the north along the Volga, - agree in a most striking manner with the combination of Rosh, Meschech, and Tubal ... Rosh is the oldest historical name to designate the tribal peoples of the Russians of history, a combination which already Bocharat has made, and for whom as a connecting link he has taken the Roxolani or Roxalani mentioned by Pliny (62-110), Ptolemy, and others, taking it for granted that the latter name arose from a connection of the Rox-Rosh with the Alani"1435.
1426. 1 Chron 7 : 6
1427. Bullingercl890: 540
1428. Hannay 1916:246
1429. Orr 1939 : art "Rosh"
1430. Boardman 1982 : vol 3: 360
1431. Herodotus Thalia: 94
1432. Pliny Bk vi .sec 18
1433. Gesenius 1872 : 534, 626, 955, 1121
1434. quoted in Cumming
1435. quoted in Rupert 1911 : 127-28
The German scholar, Dr Keil, after very thorough grammatical analysis of Ezekiel 38:2-3 states that the work translated "chief prince" should be correctly rendered as a proper name, Rosh. He says, that many Arabic and Byzantine writers frequently mention a people which they call Ros or Rus dwelling among certain Scythian tribes in the country of Taurus1436. Another researcher, Victor Kachur, in one of his works, makes mention of the Rusi who were in southern Russia; they claimed that many of their tribe were living with the Cimmerian Scythians1437. Interestingly, Bowie maintains that although the name "Rus" is a Norse word, there is enough evidence that it is of Iranian origin1438. The Mitanni-Rosh dwelt on the border of ancient Iran and spoke the Aryan/Iranian tongue.
What does "Rus" mean? It means 'blond.'1439 Interestingly, the White Russians or Byelorussians claimed that Ross or Russ was their ancestor1440. Byelorussia, also spelt Belorussia and called White Ruthenia, is situated close to the Baltic Sea (see any modern map of the Soviet Union). According to Lubachko, the name of Belaia Rus or Belarus derives from the fact that they are a people with light-coloured hair1441.
Cross lists their tribes as the Polyanians, Derevlians, the peoples of Novgorod, Severians, Dregovichians, Polotians and the "Buzhians, who live along the river Bug”.1442 But Geipel lists them as Severjane, Radimichi, Krivitchi, Polotchane and Dregovitchi 1443. The tribe of the Nervy may be their ancestors1444
The Varangian Rus
The true origins of Russia are related in the Chronicle of Nestor or Russian Primary Chronicle which was written in Perchersky Monastry of Kiev toward the end of the 11th century, placing the following event in 862 AD. Of these tribes it says:
“Among them there was no law, and tribe rose up against tribe, and there were feuds among them, and they began to fight each other. And they spoke among themselves : 'We must find a prince who will rule justly over us'. And they crossed the sea to the Varangians, the Rus, for the Varangians were called Rus, as others are called Swedes, others Norwegians and Anglians, others Gotlanders, thus also these men. The Chaudes, Slovenes, Krivichi and Vesses said to these Rus, 'Our land is great and rich, yet there is no order in it. Come therefore and rule over us”.1445
They knew that these peoples possessed apparent leadership and administrative qualities. Who could their ancestors be? Professor Hannay explains that the tribe of Benjamin, or a part of it, migrated into Scandinavia.1446 No wonder that area of Russia south of the Baltic Sea became known as "Swithoid the Great" or "Sweden the Great". Thus it seems that the Vikings who gave the name of Rus to the White Russians1447.
1436. Keil 1891 : 2 : 157
1437. Kachur 1972: 5, 7
1438. Bowie 1958 : 154 Many theories abound as to the origin of the Rus. See Davidson 1976 : 59-60
1439. Poliakov 1974 : 113. The Russian "rysyi" = reddish-blonde (Moonwoman 1994:45). An alternative hypothesis suggests that the word may be of Scandinavian origin, meaning 'raft'.
1441. Lubachko 1972 : 1
1442. Cross 1952 : 55
1443. Geipel 1969 : 229; See also Encyc Brit 15th ed, art "USSR"
1444. Vakar 1956 : 39
1445. quoted in Davidson 1976
1446. Hannay 1916:465-66
1447. Yamauchi 1982 : 20
While western scholars accept this as the origin of the Rus, Soviet scholars contend that the Rus were Slavs from the southern steppes1448. Both are probably correct as we have seen for there is no evidence of a tribe from Scandinavia called Ros or Rus. But a tribe of the Antes was known as the 'Ros' and later modified to 'Rus' which resided along the river Ros, a tributary of the Dnieper in the southern Ukraine, just north of the Black Sea1449.
The Varangian Vikings created the first Rus state with the capital at Kiev. They went on wild raids further south not unlike that of their brethren into Britain and France during the same general period of history1450. Dr V.Thomsen, writing in The Relations between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia, and the Origin of the Russian State relates how the Russ became familiar to Constantinople as they (the Viking-Varangian-Rus) threatened that city1451. The ninth chapter of the work by Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (written c 950AD) is titled About the Rhos who came from Russia to Constantinople with their boats. He gives the names of the rapids through which the Rhos came. The 'Russian' words are pure Scandinavian1452. In fact, all the Russian royal family of the House of Rurik in the early chronicles have pure Scandinavian names. The Russian Primary Chronicle records Rurik as the first mysterious ruler of Russia. He was succeeded by his son Oleg who rapidly expanded the kingdom southwards - it was he who forced a treaty from the Byzantine Empire in 907AD. From Rus we derive the name Rusyn, the name for the western Ukrainians. This term is still used for those Ukrainians who lived within the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
After they had completed their work in White Russia, the mass of these eastern Vikings later returned to Scandinavia1453, their royal house remaining in Russia and probably intermarrying with the White Russians.
When the Mongols sacked Moscow and swarmed into western Russia, they took back captive with them tens of thousands of White Russians. This accounts for their demise, which has been accentuated in the Twentieth Century; not only were tens of thousands slaughtered during the Revolution of 1917, not only did Stalin murder even more during the great purges of the 1930s, but it had been a Communist policy to Slavinise the neo-Nordic peoples of the Baltic region1454.
These fair White Russians, who are fairer than the Great Russians1455, have gained independence. However, they, together with the Baits, comprise a mere 10 millions or 6% of the total Soviet population1456. A tragic predicament for a once great people.
Prophetically, nothing much is said about Midian, being a small portion of the eastern hordes. Perhaps the hordes in the book of Judges where they are allies of the Amalekites (Gog), is a type the future eastern hordes1457. Through Habbakuk, God says that the Midianites (the Mitanni) will tremble at Him when He begins to intervene in world affairs1458.
1448. ibid : 21 See also Riasonovsky 1947 : 96-110
1449. Elliott 1993 : 178 (see the entire article)
1450. Langer 1968 : 258-59; Koestler 1976 : 77-78
1451. Thomsen 1876
1452. Porphyrogenitus ch 9
1453. Lundman 1962 : 4
1454. Bilinsky 1964 : 79-80
1456. Huxley 1974 : 123
1457. Robertson 1981 : 562
1458. Jud 7 : 12
Midian's brother was Medan. Who could be descended from him today?
Historically, the Medanites dwelt alongside the Mitanni and they formed a kingdom in the tenth and ninth centuries BC. It is for this reason that historians call the Mitanni the "early Medes". The empire of the Medanites or Medes is often referred to in textbooks as the Amadai-Mada-Medes empire1459 (Madai, Midian and Medan were closely associated with each other). The Amadai were descendants of Madai who were subject to the Medes, the ruling class of the Empire. The tribes of the Median empire were: the Busae, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budii and Magi. Some were descended from Medan, others from Madai.
What was the physical type of the Medes? All historians mention that the earliest tribes of the Medians "belonged to the Aryan stock"1460 and as such were an Indo-European people1461 and that they formed a ruling class over the Madai 1462 . This Mede ruling class called themselves Arioi or Arii 1463, meaning Aryan.
The Medes were more numerous and powerful than the Persians who seem to have been a Median tribe who broke away1464. The Persians were first in the central-west areas of Persia then later in the south-west1465. From what can be gathered by historians, these Aryan Persians originated in a far away land called Airyanem-Vaejo and came into the Iranian plateau from southern Russia1466. They were basically pastoral and possessed watch-dogs, sheep, oxen and horses. They travelled in wagons which had axles and wheels. In general, researchers trace the Indo-Aryans to the Austro-Hungarian plains or to southwest Russia1467. I agree that that is where many of them migrated to, but their homeland prior to that would have been in the Middle East. Professor Hannay throws further light on the original Persians:
"the present inhabitants of Persia... succeeded to territories which were abandoned ... and to a name imprinted thereon by the ... White Race which then disappeared. These incomers, who now go by the name of Farsiyan ... are doubtless the descendants of the Non-Persian subject-populations of antiquity, are not racially identical with the Persians who vanished" 1468.
Professor Sayce, writing in his famous Races of the Old Testament, agrees that the original Persians belonged to the fair-skinned, Nordic division of the White Race:
"The physical type of the country-men of Darius and Xerxes, like that of their modem descendants, was Aryan in all of its traits. Travellers still speak of the fair-complexioned, blue-eyed populations met with in the Persian highlands ... The Persians were at the outset a Median tribe"1469.
1459. Field 1970: 152
1460. Lawrence quoted in ibid : 39
1461. Waddell 1929 : 61, 79; Waddell 1924 : 14
1462. Gayre 1973 : 20, 49
1463. Hannay 1916 : 200
1464. Field 1970: 139
1465. Cotterell 1980 : 147
1467. Yamauchi 1990 : 33
1468. Hannay 1916:315
1469. Sayce 1925: 231-32
They called themselves Airya (Aryan). Darius the Great on his tomb calls himself "an Arya of Arya(n) descent". Xerxes called himslf "harri", meaning "noble" or Aryan. Today Persia is known as Iran or Aryan, but these people are not the original Persians or Medes as we have seen. Professor Sayce affirms that the original Persians were a tribe who were originally with the Medes and who left them and had established themselves next to the Elamites1470. He further states that
"The Medes proper were an Aryan people, who claimed relationship to the Aryans of Northern India and the Aryan populations of Europe, and one of the tribes belonging to them was that of the Persians... But in classical times the older inhabitants of the regions into which the Medes migrated were classed along with them under the general title of 'Medes' "1471.
According to Herodotus, the Persian tribes were : the Pasargadae (Persian Goths?), Maraphii, Maspii (descendants of Mash?), Panthialaei, Derusiaei. Germani (certain Hittites), Dai, Mardi (a tribe of Elamites), Dropci and Sagartii1472. They called the land which they settled in southern Iran as Parsuash. The same territory is still called Farsistan to this day. Their chief towns were Persepolis and Parsagarda after which the Hebrews called the Persians "Parsa"1473 and the Euphrates River "Perath" or "Peres" - "River of the Persians". Of course the name originated from a geographical region in southern Iran which was called "Persis", the Greek form of the old Persian "Parsa". After the Assyrian Empire collapsed, the Persians annexed Elam. They became closely identified with the Elamites; the Persian kings even ruled from the Anshan district of Susa in Elam. It seems quite plausible that the true, original Persians, descend from Medan and/or two sons of Midian, Ephah and Epher. These may be the Apharsites mentioned by Ezra1474 and whom Bullinger and others reckon as Persians1475.
The peoples in Persia today are mixed. The fairest Persians are those living around Persepolis who are slender, have chestnut hair and are fairer than the surrounding Persians and there are still a few blondes among them 1476. In north-west Iran many blondes persist 1477 and still have features akin to Europeans 1478. None have kept themselves separate and they have heavily intermarried with the Semites1479 and others.1480
1470. ibid: 232
1471. ibid: 73-74
1472. Herodotus Bk 1, sec 125
1473. Douglas 1972 : 970
1474. Ezra 4: 9
1475. Bullinger cl890 : 623
1476. Huxley 1974 : 127; Childe 1926 : 160
1477. Taylor 1937 : 186,214
1479. Huxley 1974 : 127
1480. However, the original inhabitants of the area were, of course, the self-same Medo-Persians referred to in the book of Daniel which conquered Babylon in October 539 BC while its king Nabonidus was away campaigning in Arabia at the time and it took some time to capture him (Culican 1965: 54. Belshazzar was second in line after Nabonidus and Daniel was the third ruler; see Daniel 5:1, 7,16, 30). The Bible predicts that the coming Babylon/US of Europe would begin to arise 2520 years after the subjugation of the original Babylon.
In this light, Time magazine had an amazing front cover in a mid-1990 edition (25 June 1990. Special isse: Germany. Toward Unity; in fact, 90% of this edition was devoted to German reunification. The cover depicted the two Germanies growing together out of a truncated tree stump - Daniel himself likened it to such (Dan 4:14-16, 23-26. See also 5:24-31; Luke 21:24; Rom 11:25b). Each of the Germanies represented the leading powers of Western and Eastern Europe (minus Russia) and it is a united Germany which is leading the two halves of Europe toward eventual unification in the prophesied National European Socialist Empire.
Most people have heard of the Brahmin caste of India. Who are they? In India the Persians were known as Parsees, from whom descend, in part, the Brahmins who were also the highest cast. Brahmin means "son of Abraham".
The Brahmins, although now substantially mixed, are fairer than the average Indian, tall, slim and some with red hair - even somewhat Nordic in appearance1481. They ruled India for centuries despite invading armies, religions and dynasties1482. They collected their laws and customs in the Code of Manu, setting the law into three branches: domestic and civil rights and duties; administration and justice; and religious purifications and penance. They kept the castes apart, forbidding intermarriage1483. They did not adhere strictly to this policy and no pure Brahmin may be found today.1484
Descended in part from Abraham through Medan, they, via their amazing work, spread the Code of Manu and became the civilizers of ancient India1485. A caste in India was known as the Khatri and we also find the Katirs of India who migrated to Kotur in Persia. There are also the Kataria, Kathori and Katrasgarh of India.
The caste system in India seems to have a racial origin according to some scholars and was originally defined by colour: Brahmins were said to be white, Kshatriyas red, Vaishyas yellow, and Shudras black. However, others point out that these colours refer more to qualities of each class rather than race. This may be the case now, but race classification by the Aryan invaders seems to have been the order of the day. In this regard, I have before me an article from the Arizona Republic which details recent research on this issue:
"The [Aryan] invaders apparently ... set up the rigid caste system that exists today. Their [mixed] descendants are still the elite within Hindu society.
"Thus today's genetic patterns, the researchers explained, vividly reflect a historic event, or events, that occurred 3,000 or 4,000 years ago. The gene patterns "are consistent with a historical scenario in which invading Caucasoids ... established the caste system and occupied the highest positions."
"The ancient story holds that invaders known as Indo-Europeans, or true Aryans, came from Eastern Europe or western Asia and conquered the Indian subcontinent who had arrived earlier from African and other parts of Asia ...
"But, he added [Jorde of the Unversity of Utah], when we look at the Y chromosome DNA, we see a very different pattern. The lower castes are most similar to Asians, and the [mixed] upper castes are more European than Asian."1486
1481. Hunter 1907 : 62; Kalyanaraman 1969 : 2 : 438; Beddoe 1912 : 27
1482. Hunter 1907 : 62
1483. ibid: 66
1484. See Deshpande 1993: 216-17
1486. Robert Cooke, "India's castes seen in genetics", Arizona Republic, 30 May 1999.
"A hierarchal system, Varna, (meaning color) was instituted by the ruling class of fairer-skinned northern nomads placing them at the top and darker skinned peoples at the bottom. Today this rigid socio-religious code is called the caste system. Cruel and harsh, this caste system controlled every aspect of daily life ... This color-orientated social order became an integral part of the newly formed Hinduism." ("Africoid Populations in Early Asia", cl995, page 5, internet article).
Others in the vicinity are the fairer-skinned Kalash peoples residing in north-west Pakistan. According to one theory they were part of the migration of the Indo-Aryans during pre-Vedic times which would date them to about 1,400 BC. Another theory claims that they are descendants of Alexander the Great's army, given that some of their features appear to be Syrian Greek and their language seems to be a later form of Sanskrit.
Where Are The Medes And Persians Today?
When the peoples of Madai migrated to the Ukraine, these unmixed Medanites migrated with them and dwelt in close proximity to Madai and Midian as they had in the Middle East in previous centuries. Pliny refers to these Medanites as the tribe of Medi which dwelt north-west of the Black Sea1487. Of Thrace he writes
"the Medi, who live on the right bank of the river Struna right up to the Bisaltae abovementioned, and the Digerri and the various sections of the Bessi on the left bank, as far as the river Mesto"1488.
Herodotus mentions that the Medes were in upper Asia or inner Asia, north of the Caucasian Mountains1489 and Strabo stated that the Medi were a people of Thrace bordering on the Illyrian Thunatae (ie western Ukrainian/Rumanian area)1490. He lists their tribes as the Busae or Buza (that is the natives), Parataceni, Struchates, Arizanti, Budii or Budini, Magi.1491
Broadly speaking, the Medi dwelt in western Russia near and in Rumania. Lempriere's Classical Dictionary also makes reference to them, but as the "Medobythini, a people of Thrace"1492. Today one branch of these Medo-Persian people is known as the Buzhians or Volhynians and they dwell in north-west Ukraine. Physical anthropologists tell us that like the White Russians, they are shorter than the Ukrainians and have a high percentage of blondes. Overall, their eyes are a light-brown in colour, but many have blue eyes. They are fair-skinned1493 and like their mixed remnants in Iran, their headform is brachycephalic1494 while their closest genetic relatives are the White Russians1495. It should also be noted that a river in the Baltic region was known as the Persante1496 which may be a direct derivation of Persian.
As they migrated into Russia out of the Middle East, their language gradually changed. D'iakonov notes
"The fate of the Iranian dialects is ... very vague ... in the first millenium B.C.E. the language of the Ukrainian Scythians was still understandable for the ancient Medians"1497.
Such a revelation. His statement is obviously self-explanatory. We have seen historical reference to the Medi and Medo tribes in the western Ukraine as being descended from the original Medes. One
1487. Pliny iv.i.3
1488. ibid: iv. xi. 40
1489. Herodotus 4.1,12
1490. Strabo 3 : 265
1491. Herodotus, Book 1, s. 103
1492. Lempriere 1788: 365
1493. Geipel 1969 : 230
1494. Coon 1948 : 570-1; Taylor 1937 : 214
1495. Paradise 1981 :10 : 610
1496. Birnbaum 1984 : 238
1497. D’iakonov 1986 : 148
of the tribes of the Medes was Budii as we have seen. Herodotus refers to the Budini (or Boudini) nation he visited near the Borysthenes1498. They dwelt among the Sauromatai. Soviet historian Vakar writes that the word Budini is a variation of Vudini, Veneti, Venedi or Vendi and that various authorities feel that they may well be the most ancient of Slavic tribes and remote ancestors of the Belorussians1499.
The Volhynians are often included with the Belorussians by historians. Let us also remember that the original name of the Volhynians was Buzhians1500. One of the tribes of the Medes were the Busae, as we saw previously. Surely, then, the blonde, neo-Nordic Volhynians descend from the Medo-Persians? Another tribe among the Medo-Persians was the Sagartii. In southern Russia anciently dwelt the Saghadu1501 or Sagetai1502. Various other people in that area were called Persae and Parthi by Roman writers1503. With them were the Dahi tribe, very likely descended from the Dai tribe of Persia.
Another tribe of ancient Persia was the Derusiaei - could this have been the forerunner of the name
Russians? A district of Medo-Persia was named Gedrosia 1504 and later we find the Gerus or Gerrhus
river in Georgia flowing into the Caspian Sea 1505. Another river with the same name was found in Scythia 1506. Also, a city of Gerusa once existed in Georgia1507.
Origin of the Rumanians
The eastern and central Rumanians are descended from the Daci1508 which are probably descended from the Daae, Dahae or Dai tribe, who, according to Lempriere, were "a people of Scythia, who dwelt on the borders of the Caspian sea in what is now Dahistan"1509. On the following page he refers to the "Dai, a nation of Persia"1510. The Rumanians touch upon the Volhynians to their north and to their east dwell the Ukrainians.
Professor Hannay believes that the name of the Rumanian Moldavians appears to be traceable to the Dacians, once known as Dakhan, Daghan, Dahi 1511 or Davi 1512 . However, for some reason, he believes them to be descended of the Kassi hill tribe of Anshan 1513. He writes that a tribe called the Daaians was referred to by Herodotus as being a Persian tribe 1514 and later known as the Dahae of Daghestan in Hyrcania 1515. In a footnote he states that the Daaians were originally one with the Kassi of Elam. Further on in his book he states that the Russian province of Daghestan marks their movement through the area1516.
1498. Herodotus iv.c.21 :108
1499. Vakar 1956: 38
1500. Cross 1953 : 38
1501. Hannay 1916:310
1502. ibid: 311
1503. ibid: 422
1504. Grant 1971 : 21; Rapson 1914 : map between pages 28, 29
1505. Lempriere 1788 : 282
1508. Ripley 1899:423-4
1509. Lempriere 1788: 189
1510. ibid: 190
1511. Hannay 1916: 178
1512. ibid: 183
1513. ibid: 198
1514. Herodotus i.c.125
1515. Hannay 1916: 178
1516. ibid: 359
Pliny also makes reference to them1517. Personally, I feel that the Moldavians are descended from the Dai tribe of Medan, but the western Rumanians (Vlachs or Wallachians) are likely descended from the 240,000 Romans who settled there1518 and who gave Rumania (or Romania) her name and Latin/Romance tongue, an anomaly among the Slavic nations1519. Many of these Romans fled back westwards before the Goths1520 - but many Romans dwell in Rumania to this day, representing a minority group in that land.
Who Are The Letts?
From whom do the Latvians (Letts) and Lithuanians descend? Racially, they are related to the North Germans to their west and Byelorussians and Volhynians (Buzhians) in the south. Logically we must look at the names of the descendants of Abraham through Keturah to find their ancestor. Here we find a grandson of Abraham and son of Dedan with the name of Letush (Letushim is the plural)1521, father of the Letts. It is most likely that they dwelt either with Asshurim (the Hittites) or Midian (the Mitanni). Thus it should come as no surprise to us if the Lithuanians and Latvians eventually break completely from the orbit of Russia and confederate with the coming German-led United States of Europe.
In any event, they originally dwelt in that region and descended down from the area to the north of Lake Van, from the district of Kuro-Araxes1522 "ur" meaning light or white (skinned). This appellation was given to Asia Minor with both itself and the Hittite colonies in northern Syria named "Kur”1523. Syria was called Kuru or Kura. These Hittites who fled to north-west India were called "Kuru" or "Krivi" in the Vedas1524.
Historically the Kurus were the leading Aryan tribe in the war of partition of Gangetic India. They state in their tradition that they were driven forth from their homeland in Kuru1525, but few historians trace them back to Asia Minor and few realize that the great migration to Gangetic India is called Kuru-Panchala in the Vedas1526. Kur means, or came to mean, mountain land1527.
Those who remained in Asia Minor mixed with the other races becoming known as the Kurds in the land known as Kurdistan1528. About half of them still possess blue eyes1529 and there persists a few blondes and red-heads among both them and the Afghans1530. As one travels eastwards, their head shape changes and they become rounder (brachycephalic) like the Irano-Afghan peoples, as well as a deepening pigmentation of their skin1531. Because they bear certain obvious physical characteristics in common with the peoples of northern Europe, they are sometimes called proto-Nordic1532.
1517. Pliny 6: 17
1518., Ripley 1899:424
1520. Coon 1948 : 613; Geipel 1969 : 207
1521. Gen. 25: 3
1522. See Lang 1970: 78
1523. Waddell 1924 :12
1524. ibid: 13
1525. Waddell 1929 :41
1526. ibid: 42
1528. ibid: 12
1529. Huxley 1974:127; Sayce 1928 :237; Childe 1926 :160; Lundman 1977 : 55
1530. Beddoe 1912:14-15
1531. Baker 1974: 510
The Kurds have been oft mentioned in the news media due to their efforts to survive the onslaught of the governments in the region, particularly the Iraqis. It is estimated that at least 3,000 Kurdish villages were razed during the 1980s in an all out effort to deprive the guerillas of their support in the countryside - this has led to their traditional social structures and tribal loyalties being undermined. The attempts to force them to assimilate Arabic culture has been terribly cruel. Yet much of their attachment to their structures remains which is due, in part, to their amazing ancient lineage. They have probably, by all accounts, remained in the same general locaton, longer than any other race on earth. Persian epic poems record the Kurdish tribes of the Babans, Habadanis, Bokhtis, Mihranis and Mukris in the 5th century BC.
Taylor, writing in his work, Environment and Nation, claims that the Kurds have the same origin as the Medes1533. And von Luschan writes
"I might be allowed to suggest that the Kurds, Amorites of the Bible [like some writers he probably means the Amaraeans], the Mitanni ... and the Tamehu of the old Egyptian texts, are, if not identical, at least somehow related to one another. About 1500 BC or earlier, there seems to have begun a migration of northern men [Aryans] to Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, Egypt, and India"1534.
Researchers Hazhir Teimourian and Philip Howard state that they are the original Aryans and greatgrandfathers of all Indo-Europeans1535. I have before me an excellent article "The Poetry of Kurdistan", published in The World and I, August 19911536. Photographs contained in this article indicate that there are clearly several physical anthropological types among them, ranging from very swarthy peoples to some which can barely be distinguished from north-west Europeans. Today they number some 25 millions, stretching across several nations (Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria and Armenia). A few are even found in far away Turkmenia near the city of Ashkhabad, to the east of the Caspian Sea; as well as in Baluchistan in the extreme east of Iran near the border with Afghanistan. The same article mentions their close relationship to the original Medes and Persians and that they have mixed to a large degree with other nations round about. Given the facts presented, it is most likely that the Kurds represent the mixed remnants of some of these peoples which did not migrate out of the region1537.
From Northwest India To The Baltic
According to Indian tradition, Yima on the orders of the god Ahura Mazda placed a large colony of people in Lithuania who had followed him from northwest India1538. (Ahura Mazda was the supreme god in the Zorostrian religion. Historical sources indicate that his source is in Indo-Aryan religions where there are two basic sorts of gods: the ahuras and the daivas). Some of these were called Assura, descendants, no doubt, of the Asshurim. This colony must have migrated via central Asia where dwellings have been found which correspond entirely with the legendary settlement built by Yima. Pictographic and hieroglyphic inscriptions on cliffs on mountains in the Khwarizmian civilisation (Uzbekistsan today):
"Some of the symbols of these inscriptions are associated with the Early Indian writing on the seals found at Mahenjo Dato and with the Hittites and Early Elamite hieroglyphic writings".1539
1533. Taylor 1947 :137
1534. von Luschan 1971 : 129
1535. Teimourian 1991
1536. Blau 1991: 623-637
1537. Haddon 1912 ; Field 1970 : 68-69; Jochelson 1928 : 237
1538. Kalyanaraman 1969 : 1 : 147
1539. Coates 1951: 35
This civilisation was known to the Iranians as Airyan-Vejo, Kangha and Khwarizm and to the Chinese as Kang-Kiu. With them came the Kurus of northern India, the same Kurs or Kuras who had fled Asia Minor. Today the Lithuanians (Livs) and Latvians (Letts) are still known as the Kurs or Kurgans. They have named their land as Kurland. Courland or Curonia (Latvian "Kurzeme") after the Latvian tribe of Kuri (Cori or Kursi). The Grand Duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, was also named after them as is the southwestern coastal strip of Latvia which is still known as Kurland (and sometimes as Latgale or Lettgallen).
What evidence is there that they migrated from northwest India? Plenty of evidence does exist, but unfortunately, many historians overlook them and infer only to the remote possibility of their origins in Asia Minor or India.
In the first instance, we have the strange occurrence of two villages in Latvia, adjacent to each other, called Indra and Dagda, named after two leading deities1540. Indra itself preserves the name of the Indian storm god1541. Further, linguists know that
"Lithuanian, among European languages, has the best claim to represent the primitive [Aryan] speech. The Teutonic languages ... have lost many of the old inflexions which have been preserved in the Slavo-Lettic languages, and more especially Lithuanian"1542.
To this day Lettish and Lithuanian retain all the Sanskrit reflections. They have forty percent to sixty percent of words originating with the Sanskrit and the gods of both nations were Ayran deities from northwest India1543. As a result, linguists are very much aware that the Lithuanian tongue is so ancient that, in many repects, even the Vedic Sanskrit looks rather modem in comparison. Thus, the Lithuanian speech area is a major criterion to aid historians in tracing the origins of the Indo-Europeans 1544
Trubacev, an expert in Baltic languages, mentions that there are a great many similarities between Baltic and Anatolian languages and place names: Kawoc, a city in Caria and Kaunas in Lithuanian, and various other cities on the Black Sea coast and the name of a lake:
"Examples of Baltic correspondences in Asia Minor and in Thracia can be multiplied by referring to ... important parallels ... The quoted terms encompass not only Troas and Bithynia but also Caria"1545.
Several Hindu customs were apparent in Lithuania until the thirteenth or fourteenth century. For example the wife had to follow her deceased husband to death, according to Marija Gimbutas, author of The Baits. She also mentions that the incredible similarities between the Lithuanian tongue and Sanskrit are "curious"1546. It is apparent to many that their language is the closest to primitive Sanskrit than any other European tongue1547.
1540. Pilkey 1982: 42
1541. Pilkey 1984 :9
1542. Taylor 1947:231
1543. Kalyanaraman 1969: 1: 147
1544. Institute of Culture 1958 :1:142
1545. Trubacev 1985 : 215
1546. Gimbutas 1963 : 42-43
1547. Beddoe 1912:77
Further, Bilmanis who wrote A History of Latvia, mentions how very close to the Indian mythology and sun-worship the Latvian religion was1548. He concludes that the Latvians probably originated in far away India or Persia. Here is one historian who is brave enough to face this reality head-on (an excellent short summary of their history is found in Carleton Coon's Races of Europe, pp 360-363. Another work, From Da to Yes by Yale Richmond is devoted to understanding the characteristics of the peoples of Eastern Europe and their national personalities or traits).
Physical Anthropology of the Baits
The Baits are sometimes referred to as a hybrid cross between an Alpine and Nordic sub-race, with perhaps some Mongoloid infusion. It is now admitted that the Mongoloid infusion postulation is a myth and that they are most definitely a type which is described as Alpine Nordic1549. John Baker in his fascinating book, Race, asserts that they are not a mixture, but rather simply a different racial category1550.
Physically, the Latvians and Lithuanians are very closely related1551; together with the unrelated Estonians (Ests), they form the East Baltique or East Baltic group. They are also related to the White Russians (Midian) in the south and East Prussians (known also as the Old Prussians and West Baltics. That is the Asshurim). There are many dolicocephalic and brachycephalic variations among them and they often have a broad angular face and a stub-nose1552. And like many of the Hittites and Mitanni their hair is flaxen blonde (the average Nordic blonde is platinum or golden or a range between that)1553
Blonde hair and blue eyes predominate. The Latvians are 99% blondes and 88% blue eyes1554. The Latvians and Lithuanians differ little from each other: the Lithuanians on the whole are slightly shorter than the Letts, but are slightly broader. Their bodily hair is slightly less that the Letts as well. Johnston aptly describes the physical attributes of these descendants of Abraham:
"As a race the Lithuanians preserve some of the primitive Aryan characters - tall and shapely figures, oval face, long thin nose, blue eyes, thin lips, white skin. They are thus less akin to the Alpine Slavs than to the northern Teutons”.1555
Today there are only 1.7 million Latvians and 2.8 million Lithuanians. However, due to the programme of Russification under the Communist dictatorships, Latvians are only 54% of the population of their nation, Lithuanians have fared better with 80% and the Estonians 63%.1556
Concerning the Estonians, we know with certainty that they came from a region to the east of the Urals and are a Finno-Ugric peoples. They number a mere 1.1 millions today. They may well be descendants of Riphath as we saw in an earlier chapter.
One descendant of Dedan, Leum (plural is Leummim), we may now attempt to trace. Wherever they are, it may be reasonably assumed that they are somewhere in close proximity to their kin, the
1548. Bilmanis 1951 : 26
1549. Taylor 1947: 389
1550. Baker 1974 : 219. See Olsen 1981
1551. Beddoe 1912: 77
1552. Lundman 1977: 41
1553. Jamieson 1982 : 13
1554. Coon 1948: 363
1555. Johnston cl900 : 2 : 621
1556. Richmond 1995: 235
northern Germans, Letts and Byelorussians. Place names with names similar to Leummim may be found in parts of Finland and Estonia:
In Estonia we have: Laimetsa, Laimjala, Leemeti, Lemmaku, Lemmakonnu, Lemmatsi, Lemmetsa, Lemsi, Lumanda, Lumandu, Lumati, Lemmjogi.
In Finland the following names are found: Laamala, Lammasaho, Lammasjarvi, Lammela, Lammi, Lammink, Lamminkyla, Lamminkoski, Lamminm (how similar to Leummim), Lamminpera, Lmpaanjarvi, Lamperila, Lampiskyla, Lamppi, Lamu, Lamujoki, Lamula, Leminaho, Lemlahti, Lemland, Lempaa, Lempaala, Lempiala, Lempianiemi, Lemu, Lempyy, Liminpuro, Liminka, Lumimtsa, Lummukka, Lumparen,. Lumparland, Loumaaho, Loumanvarsi, Loumilahti.1557
This indicates that some Estonians and Finns descend from the Leummim.
Ishbak is difficult to trace, but should be located somewhere in that region perhaps identified with Asbach in Germany. Zimran may be the neo-Nordic element which anthropologists have noted are scattered throughout eastern Europe. A prophecy in Jeremiah appears to suggest such a possiblility.1558 Zimran would have first moved eastwards with the other Indo-European tribes for we find the town of Samiram in Persia and the Samnan province as well as the Shimran Mountain and district.
The final descendant of Keturah which we have yet to investigate is Shuah, which we shall find is also very difficult to trace. But let us attempt to do so. Bildad the Shuhite was from this tribe1559. We find that in ancient Assyria there was a district named Suhu on the right hand bank of the Euphrates1560. In addition, there was a district in Anatolia known as Isua during the neo-Assyrian period (c700 BC)1561 as well as the Shahabad district in Persia and the Shahrakhs and Shahankuh Mountains.
It is possible that they migrated into Europe with the Assyrians for Lempriere's Classical Dictionary mentions the "Suardones, a people of Germany"1562. These may be the Suarines identified by Tacitus as dwelling on the north-east coast of Germany. The name of Keturah may be remembered in the Kottori of Hungary, Cattaro of Austria and Kotorost River of Russia. Sprinkled tiny remnants of Abrahamic persons may still be found in Eastern Europe, outside of the Baltics and northern Poland and Germany.
1557. my gratitude to David Skelly for unearthing these place-names, adding to the research
1560. Buttrick 1962 : art "Shuah"
1561. Oded 1979, map opposite page 142
1562. Lempriere 1788 : 598
Blau, J (1991)
"The Poetry of Kurdistan", The World and I. August: 623-637.
Elliott, DM (1993)
"The Origin of Russia", The Testimony. May: 175-178.
Fernandez-Armesto, F (1994)
Guide to the Peoples of Europe. Times Books, London.
Richmond, Y (1995)
From Da to Yes. Understanding the East Europeans, Intercultural Press,
Inc, Yarmouth, Maine.
Gimbutas, M (1963)
The Baits. Frederick & Praeger Publishers, New York.
Kalyanaraman, A (1969)
Arayatarangini. The Saga of the Indo-Aryans (2 vols). Asia Publishing
Wiseman, DJ (1973)
Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford University Press.
Yamauchi, EM (1990)
Persia and the Bible - Baker Book House, Michigan
CHART 18. Modern Location of Abraham's Descendants
Jacob — Israelites
Esau — Turkics of Central Asia and western Turkey
—Original Arabs, scattered in Middle East (Semites).
— Scattered in East Europe
Slteba —Swabian Germans
Asshurrim — Central West Germans, East Germans, Prussians
Letushim —Latvians, Lithuanians
Leuinim —Some Estonians and certain Finns
— White Russians (Byelorussians)
— scattered in Europe
— Suarines of Northern Germany
—Naharvali of North-east Austria
— Heruli of Italy
—Jordanians, now extensively mixed with the Arabs