In Search of... The Origin of Nations

by Craig White



Where could Cush be today? Why do many conservative religious scholars trace them to the coasts of Saudi Arabia and thence to East Africa? Are they there to this day, or have they migrated to distant places?


* that there are two branches of Cush

* which nations each son and grandson of Cush fathered

* and understand which peoples are represented by the ‘King of the South’ mentioned in Daniel 11

* and have learned about the cattle cults of these peoples and the relationship to Babylon

Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus wrote the following in the first century, of Ham's sons:

"Some, indeed of its names are utterly vanished away; others of them being changed, and another sound given them, are hardly to be discovered; yet a few there are which have kept their denominations entire: for of the four sons of Ham, time has not at all hurt the name of Cush, for the Ethiopians, over whom he reigned, are even at this day, both by themselves, and by all men in Asia, called Cushites"377

Josephus is here perhaps recognizing the two branches of Cush extant in his day: one branch in Ethiopia, the other in India - in the Biblical Hebrew there was no distinct name as such for India. Instead, both it and Ethiopia were known as Cush by the Hebrews. Aramaic translations of the Bible in fact translated Hodu or Hindiki for Cush. The famous Jewish commentator on the Talmud, Rashi, stated that Cush was India.378

George Stanley Faber writing in his The Origin of Pagan Idolatry (1816) notes the following regarding the early Indians:

"Their military nobility is acknowledged to be of the same family as the Sacas or Chasas, who maintain that their great common ancestor was Cusha or Cush ... but we read in a special manner of two lands of Cush, the Asiatic and the African. These were by the Greeks called the two Ethiopias ... but by the Hindoos, as by the sacred writers, they are denominated the land of Cush within and the land of Cush without.

"[their territory in early times extended] from the banks of the Indus to the shores of the Mediterranean sea ... from India to Armenia."379

He claims that the word Caucasus derived evidently from Cush via the Persian word Coh-Cas and that the name of Caucasus may be found in various regions including a mount Caucasus at the head of the Ganges (south of the Caspian Sea and north-east of the Euxine Sea.380)


377 Josephus: Antiquities: 1: 6: 2

378 See Yoma 34; Ketuboth 22; Megilla 17; Baba Batra 74:6; Kiddushin 22:b; and Torah Temimah on Esther too.

379 Faber 1816: vol 1: 1: 1: 2-110

380 ibid


Similarly, Sir William Jones wrote that the peoples of Ethiopia and Hindustan were from the same source.381 Strabo refers to the Ethiopians as two-fold: eastern and western "from the rising to the setting of the sun" while Eusebius tells us that the Ethiopians passed over the Red Sea and into Africa.382 Homer makes a similar statement to Strabo:

"the distant Ethiopians, the farthest outposts of mankind, half of whom live where the Sun goes down, and half where he rises".383

And finally, Bryant (1775) wrote that because of God's judgements "Chus, and his family ... fled every way from the place of vengeance, and passed the seas to obtain shelter ... One [branch of Cush], and the nearest to Judea, was in Arabia ... The original Ethiopia was, as I have said, the region of Babylonia and Chaldea ... It appears that the Cuthites, Ethiopians, and Erythreans were the same people ... The Erythrean Sea is by most writers supposed to be the same as the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea: but Herodotus calls the Persic Gulf Erythrean: and Agathemerus, Dionysius, and the author of the Periplus calls the whole Indie Ocean by this name".384

We shall visit the journey of some of the Cushites shortly who migrated along the coast of Arabia into Yemen. This is why the Al Amran tribe of Arabia calls the region of Zebid in Yemen by the name Kush385 and why the South Arabians today resemble so much the Northeast Africans and Somalis.386

The Two Branches of Cush

John Baker, author of the informative, easy-to-read work Race, informs us that the Cushites were the main racial population around the Persian Gulf and southern Mesopotamia (Babylonia) anciently.387 After God separated the nations at the Babel incident (Gen. 11:4-9) one branch of Cushites migrated southwards. This branch will be discussed fully later.

Herodotus tells us that there were two types of branches of Ethiopians: Indians with wavy or straight hair; and Africans with tightly curly hair. He called the former "Asiatic Ethiopians". However, according to Bernal "The tradition of two Ethiopias is much older than Herodotus. In the Odyssey the Ethiopians are described as dwelling 'sundered in twain, the farthermost of men, some


381 Jones, The Works: vol 1: 41

382 Pickering 1851: xl

383 Homer: Odyssey 1.22

384 Bryant 1775: 42, 180, 184, 191,194

385 Archer 1964: 212: "There was also an important city near Babylon named Kish, from which Nimrod may have come. Putting all of these evidences together, Unger (AOT, p. 83) suggests that the original home of the Hamitic Cushites was in Lower Mesopotamia, where Nimrod raised them to great power". Pickering 1851: xxxv "... the easterly mouth of the Euphrates, called by the Hebrews Cush, by the Greeks and Latins Susiana, and now, by the Persians, Chusistan, that is, the province of Chus". The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary (vol 1) 1953: 275 similarly relates that "The fact that Nimrod, a Hamite, founded the first city states of Mesopotamia suggests that the Sumerians were Hamitic." More on Nimrod may be found in the Jewish traditions recorded in The Book of Jasher, chapter 7.

386 Bernal 1991, vol 2: 253

387 Baker: 1974: 510

388 Herodotus: Polymnia (Bk 7): sec. 20

389 Herodotus: Thalia (Bk 3): Sec. 94. See Rawlinson: 1878: 193


where Hyperion sets and some where he rises'. Thus, there were Black men, Aithiopes ... from Western Libya (Africa) to Eastern Mesopotamia."390

It is interesting to note also that the Syriac version of II Chron 16:8 is "Indians" in place of "Ethiopians".391 Both the Syriac and Chaldee versions of Is 11:11 and Zeph 3:10 read "India" for "Cush".392 Where did these black "Asiatic Ethiopians" originate?

In Babylonia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a city called Kish, or Kishur393, perhaps named after Cush, son of Ham, was located. In addition, the easterly mouth of the Euphrates was called Cush by the Hebrews (Susiana by the Greeks and Latins).394 Cush had set himself up as a god, identifying himself with the sun (Gen. 10:1-32; 1 Chron. 1:1-54). In the Aryan Sanskrit the sun is called Kisora, implying that it burns one dark395. The Hebrew meaning of Cush is "dark". No wonder, then, that an ancient Indian god was named Kushi, or Kushuja, for Cush was deified by his descendants.

Where did some of these Cushites flee or migrate after the Babel cataclysm, before commencing the long, hard trek to India? The answer would be a direct route through Persia. Others migrated through Cappadocia onward to the Colchis (the Chaldeans called this land Kus396 after the inhabitants there. Further north lay the Colchis, a land bordering the Black Sea, just north of modern day Turkey. Dr. Herman Hoeh wrote the following statement of these movements:

"to the plains of India moved tens of thousands of Ethiopians, thousands of Egyptians and multitudes from the region of the Hindu-Kush mountains in Bactria."397

Many of these peoples mentioned that Egypt was their original home.398 In Gordon Childe's New Light on the Most Ancient East, he mentions that the Badarian tribe in central/southern Egypt which averages only about 5 to 5 1/4 feet in height, have a hint of African and/or South Indian traits. They kept cattle which were given elaborate ceremonial burial; fishing and hunting were important to them and they utilise the boomerang.399

In any event, perhaps some of those people mentioned above, somehow returned to Egypt for we are told in the book of So-this (a record in the time of Amenhotep III) that "the Ethiopians, removing from the River Indus, settled near Egypt"400. Also, similar industries of flake, flake-blade, scraper and borer have been found in India to that in East Africa which led one writer to ask the question "Does it all mean another migration?" While it does not necessarily mean that, it does assist us in tracing these peoples.

As the Cushites migrated to Cappadocia and then to India, they left behind them various place-names with which we may trace their movements. For example, a part of Persia is still called Chusistan or


390 Bemal 1991 (vol 1): 254

391 Lawson: c 1870: 374

392 Ibid

393 Grant: 1971: 2

394 Pickering 1851: xxxv

395 Kalyanaraman: 1969: 1: 112

396 Bullinger: c.1890: 531 (note on 1 Chron. 1:8)

397 Hoeh: 1969: 1: 335. Some of these must have been Africans, for remnants of them remain to this day in southern India (seeKuttner: 1967: 14).

398 Waddell: 1929: 270. 399

399 Childe: 1952: 175

400 Quoted in Hoeh: 1969: 1: 165.


Khuzistan, meaning "The Land of Cush".401 There were also the Kashiari mountains (modern Tur-‘ Abdin) in the Middle East.402

A few other tell-tale signs of the movement eastwards of the sons of Cush include a land called Kushian, in modern Pakistan.403 Just to the north of India also lay the land Kashgana. And in the south of India ran a river called Kishna.404 All of these names are variously derivatives of "Cush".

As they migrated toward and into India, some pockets were left behind such as the Brahui tribe in Iran which is clearly Dravidian. Many more are found in Baluchistan in Pakistan which are a part Veddoid strain (the darker pre-Dravidians who are related to the Dravidians but apparently generated from a different son of Cush).405 Hall notes:

"We have at the present day a Dravidian population in Baluchistan, the Brahuis; the Dravidian type has been noted in Southern Persia; and there can be little doubt that the non-Aryan peoples of ancient Persia ... were of the same race, forming a connecting link between Babylonia and India".406

Another notes that:

"Whether the straight-haired Ethiopians were these Brahuis, and whether there was one Dravidian race stretching from India to the Shattel-Arab, it is hard to say, but this seems the most likely theory and is supported by classic and medieval writers ... the Khuzis ... an abject, black to copper-coloured race, inhabiting what is now known as Arabistan [ie Elam, near Babylonia], albeit the term Khuzistan still lingers".407

The term Khuz no doubt derives originally from Cush. Bryant concurs with this belief in quoting Arian:

"The inhabitants upon the Indus are in their looks and appearance, not unlike the Ethiopians. Those upon the southern coast resemble them most... They who are more to the north, have a greater resemblance to the Egyptians"408 ... "for they were colonies chiefly of Cuthites, who settled at different times in India ... They extended from Gedrosia to the Indus, and from thence to the Ganges, under the name of Ethiopians, Erythreans, and Arabians".409

There is much evidence to suggest that amongst the earlierst inhabitants of Babylonia were Hamites.410 Concerning this situation, Professor Sayce claims that there are "light enamelled bricks of the Elamite period on which a black race of mankind is portrayed, it may mean that the primitive population of Chaldea was black skinned"411


401 Lawson: c. 1870: 374.

402 Wiseman: 1973: 137.

403 Grant: 1971: 56.

404 Trehane & Fulland: 1938: 2.

405 Huxley: 1974: 127.

406Hall 1913: 174

407 Field 1939: 119

408 Bryant 1775: 211 quoting Arian

409 Bryant 1775: 211

Dutt wrote similarly: "The anthropology of Harappan skeletons has show a substantial similarity with modem populations from a nearby area, as well as with an ancient series from Iran and one Egyptian population" (1984:210)

410 Orr 1906:41

411 Sayce 1887:185


The conqueror of the black peoples of southern Mesopotamia, Sargon, stated: "For forty-five years the kingdom I have ruled, and the black heads [euphemism for the black race] I have governed."412 On another occasion he declared: "Ishtar loved me ... years exercised dominion ... years I have commanded the black-headed people ... and ruled them."413.

There can be no doubt that the peoples inhabiting southern Mesopotamia (Shinar) were black Cushites who later migrated eastwards via the land of Elam and southwards to the shores of Arabia414 to eventually reach their ultimate habitation.

Where Did Seba Migrate To?

Seba appears to be that branch of the Cushites who fled north to Cappadocia and then east through Iran (the early Iranians worshipped a god Saba)415, Pakistan and India and are today known as the Tamils. In fact the name Tamil may be a corruption of Elam, given that the state that they wish to establish in Sri Lanka they would like to call Tamil Elam or Tamil Eelam (the Dravidians and pre-Dravidians were originally in Shinar and Elam).416 They settled in southern India and northern Ceylon, becoming known as Dravidians to anthropologists and historians. Their language groups are: Tamil, Telugu, Karnatika, Malayalam or Malabar, and Tulu and are known for their bitter wars for independence from Sri Lanka to form a state which would preserve their identity.

These Dravidians were originally known as Sibae.417 Josephus is not very helpful in this matter, only stating that "Sabas founded the Sabeans".418 Of more help is Rhys' Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography. On map 1 he shows the ancient Burmese towns of Saboa and Sabora: also the Sabaracus Sutus (Sea).419 Further west, in Persia, west of Gedrosia on the coast we have the town called Sabis.420 To the east of Gedrosia, along the Indus in Pakistan there was a region called Sibae, or Sobii.421 Indeed Lempriere's Classical Dictionary published in 1788 notes that at that time a powerful nation within India was known as Sabracae422 as well as a people known as Sibae in India and the city of Sebastia in Armenia.

Any modern atlas will reveal that the northern-most town in Indonesia is called Sabang. One cannot say whether it is named after Seba directly, but probably indirectly.423 Similarly, we have today the district of Sabah and Sabang in Malaysia. In nearby Indonesia lives an interesting tribe. Some time ago a tribe of "Indian Ichthyophagi" known as the Padaioi or Paday once lived on the sub-continent who were practising cannibals at that time. Over the course of time they migrated to Sumatra and are


412 quoted in Ragozin 1887:205-207

413 Williams 1908 (vol.2);360

414 Schedl writes: "W. Phillips who, in the most adventuresome circumstances, managed to uncover the capital cities of the long forgotten kingdoms of Kataba and Saba, buried in the desert sands of Yemen". In a footnote he adds: "The immigration of the Sabaeans from northern Arabia into Yemen is dated by Albright prior to 1200 B.C." (1972: 316-17)

415 Jones, The Works, vol 1: 125

416 Rajasingham 1999: "The agglutinative Elamite language, after analysis, was found phonetically and morphologically similar to that of the Tamil."

417 Smith: 1894: 145. "Sibae".

418 Josephus 1:6:2.

419 Rhys: 1907: map 1.

420 Ibid: map 15.

421 Ibid.

422 Lempriere 1788: 553

423 i.e. the word "sab" in Indonesia may mean something entirely different today than it did thousands of years ago. Taylor, (1937:104) mentions that Saba is Sheba.


known as the Batta. Of their eight tribes, one is known as the Batta-Sebalungu.424 Several books are known to the Batta, two of which are called the Siva-Marangaja and Siva-Jarang-Mundopa, the names of which seem to record something about their origin.425

The white Indo-Aryans who settled in north-west India, called the Dravidians, "Dasas", or "Dasyus" ("slaves"), who were their native enemies and of their Vedic gods. In the Rig Veda, a collection of Aryan poems, they are called "the dark ones", while they call themselves "rosy forms".426 Researcher O'Flaherty, assures us that these "dark ones" were the black aboriginal or native peoples of India.427 As the East African Cushites may be demarcated into two distinct peoples (Eastern Hamites and Nilo-Hamites), so can the Indian Cushites. Those in west and central India are known as Dravidians, while those in the deep south and northern Sri Lanka are darker and are known as Pre-Dravidians or Veddoids, directly genetically related to the Australoids (Australian Aboriginals).

The Kurumba Dravidians especially, are in various ways akin to the Ethiopians428 and are well known for an adoration of cattle like the East Africans. In fact, Karnow writes that the Veddoids are possibly of African antecedents.429

Today, India is heading toward a population of a billion persons. But even in the time of Herodotus they were a great people and were "more numerous than any other nation with which we are acquainted".430

The New Bible Dictionary notes the similarity of the names Seba and Sheba (both descendants of Cush), which indicates a close relationship between them.431 Strabo mentions a town called Sabai and a harbour called Saba on the Red Sea coast of southern Arabia.432 The only difference in the spelling of the two names in Hebrew is Seb a' (Seba), and Seba (Sheba).433 Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, under "Seba" says: "See also Sabaeans; Sheba". Certain scriptures indicate that some descendants of Seba lived with Raamah's son, Sheba. David writes in the book of Psalms indicating that these two related nations will repent of their national sins like all peoples need to and serve the Messiah:

"The kings of Sheba and Seba offer gifts" (Ps. 72:10)

The prophet Isaiah indicates a location in East Africa:

"I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee." (Isa. 43:3):

"Thus saith the Lord, the labour of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabaeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee!" (Isa. 45:14)


424 Leyden vol 10: 202-04

425 ibid: 205

426 See, for instance, hymn 3.31 "The Cows in the Cave", vv. 21-22.

427 O'Flaherty: 1981: 156.

428 Taylor: 1937: 210

429 Karnow: 1964:28.

430 Herodotus iii. 94

431 Douglas: 1907: 1157.

432 Strabo: 16.4.8-10. It should also be mentioned that the Targum renders the town of As Saby as Sinirai or Sinidai. And in the Talmud these people were anciently identified with Sakistan or Sagistan.

433 Ibid


Bible scholars variously label the Sabaeans as Sheba or Seba (Sabeans possibly refer to both Sheba and Seba).434

Lempriere's Classical Dictionary refers to a town of Saba in Arabia; Sabachus or Sabacon, a king of Ethiopia; Sabaei, a people of Arabia; Sabatha a town of Arabia now known as Sanaa or Sabota; and the town of Sabatra in Syria.435 These are all clues of where Saba was located originally.

The Island of Meroe near Ethiopia was known as Suba; we have the Suab tribe in Sudan; the Isubu Bantu tribe; WaSiba eastern Bantu; the Sebunga district and Sebakwe river in southern Africa. In addition we have the Sobat river in Ethiopia and Wabe Shebele stream.

Black Peoples in the Pacific

Recognised by anthropologists as being related to the Australian Aboriginals and Veddoids of southern India, are the Melanesians, Micronesians and New Guineans (Papuans).436 However, they have mutated into quite a different looking stock. Who is the ancestor of these black people? Again we must return to the Bible, foundation of anthropological knowledge.

It appears that a branch of Havilah, son of Cush, joined with some descendants of his brother Seba in migrating to Ethiopia.437 They were known as Avalitae, dwelling just south and west of Arabia Felix, in Ethiopia on the Sea of Adan south of Babel Mandeb.438 There they founded a town called Avalis (modern Zeila). It is these people after whom the district of Khawlan in Arabia Felix, may be named439.

There is also the Chavlotai on the Persian Gulf (Huvaila in the Bahrein), the town of Nagar Havili in India 110 kilometres north of Bombay and the town of Chwala on the Caspian Sea, indicating the migration of these people through that region.

We also hear of some of these people in the Caucasus;440 Eadia, in his A Biblical Cyclopedia (1848) relates the following:

"Havilah ... It is supposed by some to be the same with Colchis, ... A country .. where the Chavilah of later times is found".441

Another source states that "Some have supposed Havilah to be the same as the auriferous Colchis of the Ancients".442 Jerome in his catalogue of ecclesiastical writers wrote that in the first century St Andrew proclaimed the Gospel to the peoples of the Colchis whom he identifies as Ethiopians.443

All Josephus tells us is that Havilah gave rise to the Getuli.444 He is perhaps confusing them with the Goth who dwelt in the Caucasus area. From the Colchis they journeyed with other black peoples


434 Other verses on the Sabeans are: Job 1:15 (where he mentions them being in the Sinai); Ezek. 23:42; Joel 3:8

435 Lempriere 1788: 552

436 Baker: 1974: 48; Cole 1965: 8287. It is interesting to note that fossil remains of New Guineans are less than 3,000 years old (White 1982:82).

437 See Aharoni: 1979 map 15.

438 Rhys: 1967: map 1.

439 Distance: 1975: 117.

440 Christadelphian Expositor, c. 1970: 145.

441 Easie: 1848:315

442 The Bible Dictionary: 1887: 510.

443 Referred to in Baldwin 1869: 134

444 Josephus: Antiquities: 1: 6: 2.


into India. Spanish writer Colin in his Native Races and their Customs said that the descendants of Hevilath were in India.445 Pococke wrote that:

"The Cabool River ... the Indus ... Both rivers have gold in their sands ... [these] compasseth the whole land of Havilah".446

The Jewish Targum also mentions them as dwelling in India. From there they migrated to the southeast Asian mainland from where anthropologists pick up the story.447 They all trace the Melanesians back to south-east Asia; some even to India.

One adventurous anthropologist, Taylor, states that the Papuans are comparable with certain of the central and east Africans: both have woolly hair; their skin colour is chocolate to sooty; facial index is 67 for the former, 70 for the latter; cranial capacity is 1,412 for the former, 1,424 for the latter, and cephalic index is 70.4 and 71.2 respectively.448 However, their blood groups are quite different. Undoubtedly the black races of Africa and Asia are related through Ham. They certainly did not "evolve" separately thousands of miles apart.

One tribe located in Papua New Guinea is the Elema. This could well be a derivation of Elam, the area that so many Cushites occupied after the great Flood. One researcher has actually found a story among them akin to the Tower of Babel:

"It goes that at one time all the people in Papua New Guinea lived at a place called PawPaw, close to Muru in the Vailala area. Even the mountain Kamea (Kukukuku) lived there. Everybody was happy and lived in perfect peace. Mutual understanding was assured since they all shared a common language. Nobody ever died in these days and, since heaven was much lower then than it is now ... On looking into heaven ... people could see spirit beings who had white skins and wings. They were like angels. This is the reason why, in 1908 when Captain Moresby and Captain Cook sailed to Papua New Guinea in a small canoe, the people thought they were spiritual beings from heaven ...

The people at Pawpaw had embarked upon a project intended to bring them even closer to God in heaven. This was to be achieved by building a great, tall house to reach the sky. Now, that got God worried. He did not want all the people to join him and he realized that with heaven being so low their task would soon be completed unless he stopped them. God's solution was to give people working on different levels of the house separate languages."449 [emphasis mine]

Although the Micronesians (to the west and north of the Melanesians) are similar in features and hair, they have lighter skins. It is possible that the Micronesians are a mix of south-east Asians, Polynesians and Melanesians (with the latter predominating).450

Finally, Sir Walter Raleigh's History of the World published in 1614 includes a map of southern Asia and the Indian Ocean showing the passages of Havilah, Nimrod and Ophir into India in ancient times. He must have gained knowledge and insights which we still seek.


445 The Philippine Islands 1493-1898: c. 1900: 40: 38.

446 Pococke: 1856:72.

447 Karnow: 1964: 29 (map).

448 Taylor: 1937: 98.

449 Mcintosh 2000: 224-232

450 Admittedly, evidence cannot be described as "overwhelming"in this sub-section, but we shall continue to seek out further information as we have the resources. If the Micronesians do not descend from Havilah, then perhaps from Nimrod. If this is the case, then Havilah's descendants could be the Assamese and Bangladeshis as some suggest.

Pygmy Peoples in the South-East Asian Isles

Most people do not realize that a dwarf version of the Melanesians and Papuans exist today. These people are known as Negritoes (not to be confused with the African Pygmies of Negrillos). What incredible variety God has blessed mankind with!

Today there are representatives of these pygmies scattered throughout Asia in the Andaman Malay Peninsula, the Philippines, Papua New-Guines and Kerala in India. The Andamanese tribes of the Bay of Bengal have always gone naked and reportedly have the darkest skins of any people in the world - even with a bluish tinge451 and speak a unique language, making a living mainly by fishing. Their average height is only 137cm (4ft. 6 in.).452 Of particular interest is their physical similarity to the South African Bushmen. While both peoples share pepper-corn hair and steatopygia (a large fat deposit on the buttocks of the females), blood group studies show that it is unlikely that they are directly related or descended from the same group. Their relationship, from a Biblical perspective, is through Ham and not through Cush as the Bushmen have a different origin as have seen.

The Australian representatives of this group are the Barrineans, comprised of twelve tribes. They live in the rain forests of the Atherton area of northern Queensland453 while others may be found in Papua New Guinea. One tribe of nomadic pygmies live in the thick jungle of the Eastern Highlands along the Owen Stanley Range of mountains in the Marakawa district. They number merely 200 people and measure only about 120cm in height.454

From where did these Asiatic pygmies spring?

Ethno-archaeology reveals that a black fish eating population once inhabited the area of Babylonia, and north into Assyria.455 Professor Sayce describes these people as having a low, receding forehead; high cheek bones; Prognathous jaws; prominent nose; tightly curly hair and short stature. As we have already seen, the Cushites together with the Canaanites were the original Babylonians. And those pygmies were part of that earliest of human attempts to form an empire. To this day bushman-like midgets may be found in East Africa (the Dorobo) and south Ethiopia (the Doko).456 But it is unlikely that they are directly related to the Negritos. Some writers still persist in speculating that the Negritos derive from the Negrillos.457 Distantly related they are, but the Negrillos derive from different sons of Ham.

By all appearances, it would seem that the Negritos, if anciently in East Africa, were among the "Anthropophagi Ethiopes" mentioned by Ptolemy in his famous map in Geography as dwelling along the Somali coast.458

They were also known as "icthyophagi" (fish-eaters) or "troglodytes" (cave dwellers). Rhys placed them in Ethiopia and along the Red Sea."459 In this district lay Mount Aeas and a town called Aeonum.460 As we have already seen "Aethiopes" meant "black". Although it was applied generally


451 Cipriani: 1966: 13.

452 Cole 1965: 89

453 Tindale: 1974: 89

454 ”’Lost' tribe found in PNG", Telegraph Mirror, 21 October 1993

455 Sayce: 1928:199

456 Taylor: 1937: 124

457 Birdsell: 1967: 147.

458 Ptolomy: 

459 Rhys: 1907: maps 1,22.

460 Ibid: map 22.


to all dark races, and to the black peoples of inner Africa, it was most specifically applied to the peoples of Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia, and the various black nomad tribes living along the Red Sea.461 Perhaps such Greek places names as Aetolia, Aeolic cities (in Asia Minor), Aegean Sea and Aeolian Islands are derived from the contacts with dark peoples. But this is mere speculation.

Eventually these tribes migrated into the Sinai Peninsula either as troops under the Egyptian Pharaohs or as slaves. Others crossed the Red Sea and lived in caves in Arabia. Speaking of Abraham's children through Keturah, Josephus writes:

"they took possession of troglodytis, and the country of Arabia the Happy, as far as it reaches to the Red Sea".462

After the defeat of Egypt, the black peoples dwelling in Arabia and in Sinai were expelled to the Colchis, where other black peoples were already based. Job, dwelling at this time, may have made mention of them in his book.463

Interestingly, Greek legends appear to recall the black peoples of the Colchis. In one particular legend, Jason, in pursuit of the golden fleece, was assisted by Medea, daughter of King Aeetes of Colchis. King Aeetes home was the city of Aea.464

When these black tribes left the Colchis and some migrated eastwards, they settled for a time in the southern extremity of Iran.465 They were still known here as "icthyophagi".466 Anthropologists reveal that the Negritos once inhabited north-west India and central northern India prior to their migration to their current locations, to which Pliny attested to even in his time. To this day a trace of Negrito may still be seen in the Kadir area of Hindustan.


461 Warrington: 1961: 15.

462 Josephus: Antiquities'. 1: 15: 1.

463 See also vv. 11-15. These may have included the Sabeans of 1:15; 6:19.

"But now they that are younger than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have disdained to

set with the dogs of my flock.

"Yea, whereto might the strength of their hands profit me, in whom old age was perished?

"For want and famine they were solitary; fleeing into the wilderness in former time desolate and


"Who cut up mallows by the bushes, and juniper roots for their meat [i.e. hunters and gatherers].

"They were driven from among men, [they cried after them as after a thief);

"To dwell in the cliffs of the valleys, in caves of the earth, and in the rocks [i.e. troglodytes].

"Among the bushes they brayed; under the nettles they were gathered together.

"They were children of fools, yea, children of base men; they were viler than the earth [Heb:

"scourged out of the land"].

"And now am I their song, yea, I am their byword.

"They abhor me, they flee far from me, and spare not to spit in my face".(Job 30:1-10)

464 See Avery: 1972:90.

465 Thomson: 1961: 11.

466 Warrington: 1961: 289.

467 Boughey: 1971: 182; Howells: 1965: 298-299. Taylor (1937:212) writes: "All round the borders of the Indian Ocean there seem to be relics of a negroid or negrito stratums. Husing (1916) suggests a race of negritoes as the most ancient population of the coasts between India and the Persian Gulf. He thinks that elements of a Dravidian population are found in the interior of Persia. Dieulafay found negrito or negro people near Susa in south-west Persia. While no negroes survive in Syria, there are many skulls ... being found in the caves hereabouts, which may well indicate the presence of an early negroid zone ... the Brakaph Arabs of Yemen ... [seem to have] some of this negrito blood, which is shown by their lower stature and curly hair."

468 Pliny refers to the pygmy tribes of India near the Ganges "in the most outlying mountain region" (vii.l 1.26)


They were slowly pushed out of India and forced to migrate to southern China.469 Suggs, in his The Island Civilizations if Polynesia mentions that a black population living in ancient times in southern China, was recorded at an early date by Chinese historians. Remnants remained there until the times of the T'an dynasty.470

Some Negritos were in Burma before the arrival of the Burmese. They are described as being extremely savage and unsociable. The Burmese called them savages perhaps because of a tendency towards cannibalism. They preferred to live in deep forests refusing intercourse with other peoples.471 The pygmies of the Malaysian Archipelago still practice ritual cannibalism472 and it is known that the Negritos were cannibal savages in southern China in antiquity.473 One tribe of Negritos is still called the Aefci who still live in forests, caves and mountains. The Veddoids, a distantly related but taller black people living in southern India, are a cave-dwelling people too.

The Aeta of the Philippines (which are a Papuan-speaking people), are related to certain short tribes in Papua New Guinea. They, the Mincopi, Semang and Tapiro Negritos have peppercorn hair. On average their cephalic index is higher than the Veddoids, Australoids and Sakai, who also have wavier hair and are taller.475 These tribes are classified as part of the Australoid sub-race. Those in the Philippines look much like shrunken Australoids, according to Professor Coon.476

One writer speculates that the blacks of south-east Asia, or at least some of them, were brought there by an Egyptian Pharoah (Sesostris III c 1878-1841 BC).477 Sesostris spent many years of his reign in subjugating Ethiopia and southern Egypt along the Red Sea coast. It is possible that Sesostris transported many of the conquered Ethiopians to distant lands. Sesostris set sail in ships with his armies from the area of the Persian Gulf. His fleet moved down the west coast of India and then up the east coast to Burma. Because the water was very shallow in the Bay of Bengal, he returned to Egypt. The writer then speculates that the conquered peoples of Ethiopia were sent ashore in Burma and south-east Asia. He feels that because the blacks of that region do not travel by ship that someone else must have brought them. It is true that if the Aeta, Semang and Jaranas even built canoes they have completely lost the art of doing so.478 However, this is all speculation and further work needs to be done proving such an hypothesis. More on the Brahui, Veddoids, pygmies and Australoids in the following chapter.

Cush in East Africa

The Cushites, almost all historians will attest, once occupied the Arabian peninsula in the east and the south.479 These Cushites were in turn overwhelmed by a tremendous invasion of 'Semitic' or Arabic tribes from northern Arabia and most of them consequently fled across the sea to Ethiopia.480


469 Bishop: 1925: 550, Karnow: 1964: 29 (map).

470 Suggs: 1968: 32, 66. Haddon wrote similarly: "The first inhabitants [of southern China] were probably a black woolly-haired race, of which the pygmy representatives (Negritos) are the Andamanese, the Semang of the Malay Peninsula, the Aeta of the Philippines, and the pygmies of New Guinea" (1912: 33).

471 Kalyanaraman: 1969: 2: 25.

472 Ibid: 164.

473 Ibid: 446-447. 

474 Gaisford:p.213. 

475 Taylor: 1937: 91. 


477 Schulz: 1969: 50.

478 Cipriani: 1966: 78, 92-93.

479 Miles: 1966: 1.

480Ibid: 2


Archaeologists have discovered that the culture, texts, many words, gods, civil titles and place-names in northern Ethiopia are traced back very easily to Yemen in southern Arabia481 as waves of people moved into Ethiopia from Arabia. One group left behind in the Hamitic push into Ethiopia are the Tihama Arabs of the southern Red Sea littoral who are a dark people, and definitely Cushitic in their biology rather than Arabs per se.482 Another group is the Akhdam, amongst the most impoverished people on earth and the Subyan. Many of the peoples of Yemen speak a dialect known as Subaihis or Subbaihah.483

I have before me a work published in 1869 titled Pre-Historic Nations which states the following:

"Arabia was the original Ethiopia, or Land of Cush. The countries on the Upper Nile were called Ethiopia because they were at first colonies or dependent provinces of ancient Arabia."484

Historians note that the coastlands of Arabia is where the Cushites orginally settled after migrating out of Shinar (southern Mesopotamia). Josephus himself wrote about "those Arabians that lived near to Ethiopia".485 Later, the Cushites migrated into East Africa, with some still left behind along the coastland of Arabia. Some anthropologists are still uncertain about the origins of these people whom they label as "Hamites".486 But the Bible is very plain about their origins. It is a pity that anthropologists reject the Word of God. They could make things so easy for, not only themselves, but persons such as ourselves, willing to learn about the origins of the nations. For instance, scripture tells us that:

"the Lord stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, that were near the Ethiopians." (2 Chron. 21:16)

God says the Semitic Arabs were "near" the Cushitic Ethiopians. This proximity has led some anthropologists to incorrectly classify East Africans as Semites. Such is clearly not the case.487

Later many Cushites spread northwards from Ethiopia into the region south of Egypt known as Nubia (i.e. northern Sudan). This region then became known as Kash. The Egyptians called it "Kosh" or "Kos"490 and the Assyrians "Kushu". The Greeks named it "Aethiopia", from which "Ethiopia" is derived. In fact, the Egyptian rulers of Ethiopia were called "King's Son of Cush".491

"Aethiopia" is derived from two Greek words "aeta" or "aitho" which means scorched, burnt or black, and "opia" or "ops" which means face. A simple deduction would conclude that "Aethiopia" means people with black faces.492 Later the land of Khem, Kham or Ham became known as "Ae-gyptios"or Egypt. Again the word "Ae" means dark, or burnt.


481Wiseman: 1973: 304.

482 Bean: 1932: 73.

483 Serjeant 1966: 4.

484 Baldwin 1869: 58

485 Antiquities 9:5:3

486 Bowie: 1958: 235.

487 There has been some mixture, however.

488 Douglas: 1972: 284.

489 Gayre: 1973: 27.

490 Driver 1930: 200

491 Hoffmeier 1994: 273

492 see Ullendorff 1968: 5 who comes to a similar conclusion.


Many of these Ethiopians were imported to Palestine as slaves.493 It is perhaps from these slaves and others which moved into Palestine from East Africa, which took the sorghum to India (otherwise it was by trade). Dogget is of the opinion that the sorghum, originally grown by "Kushites", reached India 1500 BC.494

The East Africans are divided into two main groups by anthropologists:

Eastern Hamites - comprising certain black Egyptians, the Beja, Berberrines or Nubians, Galla, Somali, Danakil, Ethiopians.

Nilo-Hamites - found in north Kenya, East Uganda, parts of northern Tanzania, Southern Ethiopia.

Let us now briefly trace the whereabouts of three sons of Cush not already referred to, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabtechah. These are difficult to trace. Once again, we have to turn to Josephus for help:

"Sabathes  [Sabtah]  founded the  Sibathens; they are now called by the Greeks, Astaborians."495

One thing which Josephus shows is that they kept their name A - stab - orians. There was a river called Asta - sobas in Ethiopia, according to Rawlinson.496

Sabtah may have founded Shabna (also spelt Sabota), the ancient capital of Hadramaut.497 There was also the province of Saba province of southern Arabia498 and they were undoubtedly related to the Sabaeans of the Yemen. Ptolemy's map, already referred to previously, mentions a place in Sudan, along the southern parts of the White Nile as "Sube"499, a likely derivation from Saba as does Strabo.500 He places "Ethiopia"in northern Sudan where the Cushites lived for a time. It is this region in northern Sudan which was known as Kush to the Egyptians of old.

Nearby lies the land of the Somalis. To this day, the two main nations comprising Somalia are the Somali and Sab. The Sab also dwell in Northern Ethiopia. From extensive media reports over the past decade or two, we have come to know of the enormous plight of the peoples of the Horn of Africa. The poverty, squalor, ignorance, violence, crime, wars, famine, droughts and so forth, have virtually rendered the region inhospitable.

The Somalis are an interesting people. That famous Arabist and explorer, Richard Burton, trekked across their harsh land in the 1850s and labelled the Somali Islamic nomads a "fierce and turbulent race of republicans". They are not as other men. An Ugandan sergeant with the British forces fighting the Mad Mullah (Muhammed Abdille Hasan) told an officer: "Somalis ... they no good: each man his own sultan". They would take no orders from anyone and were extremely

493 Graves: 1964: 122.

494 Josephus: Antiquities 1: 6: 2.

495 Rawlinson: 1878:205.

496 Douglas: 1972: 1112;   

497 Driver 1930: 202. Pliny, the Greek geographer, also mentions Sabota, corresponding to Shabwat, capital of Hadramaut.

498 Baldwin 1869:106

499 Ptolemy iv.7.7

500 Strabo xvi.iv. 8, 10

501 In Geography, map.


individualised with an immense sense of independence. As a result, they have an acute uncentralised political 'system' - a kind of anarchy which is organised.

When one studies their social organisation and arrangements, the first thing that strikes one is that their political allegiances are based primarily on genealogy and family blood lines. How many of us can recall our ancestors' names back three or four generations? The Somali children would put us to shame, for they are taught their ancestors's names up to 20 generations. In some cases, even more. Instead of asking a stranger where they are from like most of us do, they ask who they are from. When these strangers meet they recite their ancestors until they strike a mutual ancestor. The closer their relatives, the more likely they will unite. Although they are not Arabs, they do have some Arabic blood and indeed, their genealogies trace their family origins back to Arabia.502 They claim that their founding ancestors were the Sab from whom spring the Digil and Rahanwiin tribes; and Samaale who fathered the Irir, Hawiye, Aji, Isaaq and Daarood tribes.503

Today they are divided into about six families of clans which are further sub-divided into many segments. When there were blood feuds, they settled the issue with strict compensation. Today, however, due to the high level of nomadism, they use their automatic weapons to settle scores. Such is the lot of the majority of these poor people - born into and locked into a web of violence, ignorance and poverty, seemingly cursed.

Perhaps the tribes which left for Asia took the name "Asta" from "Astaborians" with them as a town called Asta existed in the Indian archipelago of old. There was also a tribe of people by the name of Astacorni in India according to Strabo504, and a district of Borneo is still known as Sabah. These are all linguistically akin to Sabtah or his brother Sabtecha.

Cush's fourth son, Raamah, had in turn two sons: Sheba and Dedan. Inscriptions of a "Raamah" have been found in the Yemen.505 The New Bible Dictionary states that Sheba was known as Saba in south Arabia.506 Anciently, south Arabia was known as Sabah,507 a derivative of the Kingdom of Sheba. The tribe known as the Oromo in Ethiopia probably represent many of his descendants.

Remnants of this kingdom are scattered throughout East Africa: these Nilo-Hamitic peoples are to be found in South Ethiopia, east Uganda, northern Tanzania, Kenya, and the Watutsi (Tutsi) minorities of Rwanda and Burundi. The reader may recall the atrocities of 1994 when the majority Hutu tribe rose up and massacred hundreds of thousands - close to a million - of Tutsi in Rwanda. When Europeans discovered Rwanda last century, they found a country which was ruled by tall Tutsi cattle lords. The darker skinned and stockier Hutu farmers tended the land, growing the food and thereby kept the Tutsi fed and clothed. The Tutsi are a very tall nation, with men often growing to 7 foot.

In 1959 the Hutu broke the back of the Tutsi in Rwanda, but not in Burundi. They see themselves as the indigenous population which had been conquered and oppressed by a Nilo-Hamitic race. The Tutsi overlords were exiled in Uganda and attempting a comeback; but the Hutu regarded the Tutsi elements in Rwanda as a fifth column which had to be destroyed. This resulted in one of the most spontaneous and frightening massacres of men and women, young and old, in human history.


502 Gibbs 1965: 322

503 ibid: 324

504 Strabo: Geography: S.15.

505 Douglas: 1972: 1072.

506 Ibid: 867; Cayre: 1973: 26

507 Kalyanaraman: 1969: 2: 226.


A Bantu language of the region is known as Sabaki and is spoken by the Swahili, in Zanzibar, Pemba Island, the Comoro Islands and further north along the coast of Kenya.508 In addition to this proof of Sheba's migration into East Africa, one of the rivers was the Webi Shebelle.509

The Falashas (meaning "exile") were also descendants of Sheba. They are known as "Black Jews", given that they were at one time the subjects of the Queen of Sheba. Tradition states that she was instructed in the Hebrew faith by Solomon. (1 Kings 10:1-10; 2 Chron. 9:1-9; Acts 8:27) When she returned, she introduced it into her land. The Falashas still keep the seventh-day Sabbath, clean and unclean meats, practice ritual cleanness and they closely follow the five books of Moses. They even claim descent from David.510 Obviously they are not descended from David, but they have certainly kept many Israelitish customs for thousands of years isolated from Judaism.

When White explorers first discovered them early this century living in the mountains north-west of what is now Ethiopia, they found out that they claimed to be descended from Menelik, the reputed son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. The land of Sheba in the Bible was a "far country" (Jer 6:20) and had gold and precious stones (I Kings 10:1; Is 60:18; Jer 6:20; Ezek 27:22; Ps 72:15).

What of Sheba's brother, Dedan? Are they a Cushitic black people extant somewhere in Africa today?

Revealing Excavations in the Sudan

A Hamitic or Cushitic tribe called Dan, numbering merely 100,000 dwell today on the border of the Ivory Coast and Liberia alongside the Negroids, cut off from their ethnic brethren.511 Their traditions tell of how they were driven out of the Nubian Sudanic region to West Africa by Muslim invaders. In fact, a chief god known to the Nubians was Dedun, a ram-headed god.512 They derived earlier via Arabia where we find, in the south, the ruins of Daidan. The name also occurs in Sabaean and Minnaean inscriptions.513

The name "Sudan" may be derived from the Arabic word for black. Or the Arabic word for black is probably derived from these black people in southern Sudan.514 Sudan has become the 'hot' place to be for anthropologists. For years there have been exciting discoveries of pyramids and a civilization which impacted upon Egypt. At least 15 teams of archaeologists are sifting through the sands of the Sudan in temperatures as high as 38 C - they intend to stay there continuing their exciting discoveries, despite the temperatures and difficulties which abound. The secrets of this civilization which began probably about 2,000 BC (although there is evidence of the area bearing populations prior to that), known as Nubia, are revealing more and more the Cushitic influence upon Egypt, rather than necessarily Egypt only influencing Nubia. From the evidence it is clear that they influenced one another, but that there was much more of a Cushitic influence upon Egypt than previously realised. Nub means "gold" in Egyptian, which has resulted in the name Nubia.


508 Spear 1985: 361

509 ibid: 362

510 Brooks, "The New Exodus", The Australian, 25 October 1984

511 The Targum has the the Mazices of northern Africa as his descendants

512 Pilkey 1981:66

513 Driver 1930: 204

514 The "Sud" prefix means "swamps". "Dan" means "black". The Australian Aboriginals, also descended from Cush and thus associated with Dedan, have tribes called Mandan Sanji (Tindale: 1974: 162), Dangbon, Danggali, Dangu (Ibid: 161).


These people not only traded with Egypt and at times were their vassals, but they had their own homegrown culture and nation which was the most cosmopolitan in Africa, as far as we are aware. For a brief period, from about 1460 BC to 1200 BC, the land was subject to Egyptian conquest during which time temple construction was prominent. Before that time, and later for several centuries, the Egyptians dominated Nubia and the noble who was placed in charge of it was known as the "King's son", "Governor of the Lands of the South" or "King's son of Kush".515

It was only between 1913 to 1916 that the site of Kerma was excavated by Reisner and it became known that this city was the producer of luxury objects, fine pottery and the possible centre of a Kushitic empire.516 Extensive excavations by Charles Bonnet of the University of Geneva for more than a decade from the early 1970s until about 1982 revealed more about these people. His findings climaxed in the discovery of a marvellous palace 61 metres long which contained a throne room which by itself was 14 metres long. Rooms in the temple reveal objects of gold and rock crystal pendants. It was revealed that when the king died, his slaves and other family members were sacrificed and buried with him.

About 740 BC, the Nubians conquered Egypt for almost a century, establishing the 25th dynasty during which time they are pictured as black pharoahs in tombs. They (representing the King of the South) were ousted by the Assyrians (the King of the North for their day) about 656 BC and during the succeeding centuries ruled from Meroe, near the town of Saba, over their subjects.517 This period is known as the Kingdom of Kush which was free from Egyptian influence. In the second century BC powerful queens ruled the nation and, apparently, supplied Hannibal with the Elephants which were used against the Romans. By the 6th century most of the Kushite Nubians had converted to Christianity and maintained their religion for centuries. It was not until about 1400 AD that they turned to Islam and have remained so since. Mighty Assyrian emperor Esarhaddon described Egypt/Sudan as "Muzri, Patursu and Kush" which fits exactly the Biblical origin of these lands and peoples.

Of further interest is that it is now thought by some scholars, that kingship actually developed in Nubia and the concept was transferred to Egypt, rather than the other way around. Their major cities included Kerma, Meroe, Saba (also spelt Soba), the latter probably derived from Seba, a son of Cush. It is now recognised that Kerma and the surrounding civilization fits the place and the date of the Cushite peoples mentioned in scripture. Once again scripture is found to be so accurate that there can be little doubt that it is indeed an inspired document.

Large pyramids, temples and other structures have been found and further excavations, it is believed, will reveal more exciting finds such as treasures, cult goddesses, kingly sceptres, remains of priests and such like. Their pottery, jewelry, statues, ritual glasses, stele and such like reveal an important culture and people which has only recently been fully recognised. In fact, the region contains more pyramids than Egypt. All historians and archaeologists admit that this area was known in the Bible as Kush, to the Romans as Nubia and to the Egyptians as Aethiopia.


515 Hall 1924; 270

516 Reisner 1923

517 Rohl: 1995: 22: "The brutal Assyrian assault crushes all resistance. The Kushites flee south, never to be seen again in the Black Land".


These descendants of Sheba and Dedan are called "Nilo-Hamites" by anthropologists. Other tribes include the Masai, Nandai518 (comprising the Suk or Pokot, Keyo or Elgeyo, Kipsigis or Lumbwa, Nandi (Kipsigis), Barabaig and Dorobo), and the Teso (comprising the Teso, Kuman, Karamojong, Turkana and Toposa). One tribe, the Dinka, dwell in southern Sudan south of the White Nile, numbering about half a million. It is their custom to take the leader of a cattle herd (which is called a majok which may derive from "maj" or mage = "wise one" and ok = ox) and train their horns to appear in a circle or into one like a unicorn or even the antlers of a stag. This does not hurt the animal as they have a deep affection for their majoks.519

The Nandi are basically a cattle herding people520 and, much like the Indian Dravidian Kurumba, have an adoration for cattle which reflects their pagan worship when they once resided in Shinar and later southern Arabia. To them milk is so sacred that they take precautions to prevent the mixing of meat with milk in the stomach according to Seligman in his Races of Africa.521 And to the Suk522 tribe, cattle are very important that in their language if an adjective stands by itself, the noun it qualifies is always understood to be a cow.

Amongst many of these East African tribes:

"Cattle were used in place of money, especially in purchase of wives ... [many] will not kill their cattle, neither do they taste meat unless an animal dies ... [they practice] cattle-worship”523

The Sabaeans, comprising Sheba, are said to be "men of stature" in Isaiah (Isa. 45:14). Herodotus wrote how the Ethiopians of his day were said to be the tallest people in the world.524 All anthropologists write how the Cushitic tribes of East Africa, especially the Wahim or Bahima of Uganda, Watussi of Rwanda and Burindi, and the Masai of Tanzania525, are very tall, amongst the tallest peoples in the world.

There is a dark tribe in the Balim Valley of Irian Jaya in Indonesia called Dani, but again, probably, rather than being the tribe of Dedan, this name was brought to Asia by the Cushitic tribes which left Africa (or there was a mutation from Dan).

Similarly Pococke in his India in Greece, says:

"Cush ... originated the races we may term Lavites and 'Cushites', or 'Cushwas' of India ... Rama and Crishna are both painted blue (nila), holding the lotus emblematic of the Nile".526

The god, Siva, he writes, can mean blackness and darkness.527 Undoubtedly the Indian gods Siva and Rama perpetuate the names of Sheba and Raamah. In Egypt, too, we had the god Ra, and the Pharaoh named Ramses.


518 The Australian Aboriginals have tribes called Nana, Nanda, Nangatadjara, Nangatara, Nanggikoronga, Nanggumin and Nango!

519 Bayley 1912: 136-37

520 Cavendish, page 156

521 Seligman 1930: 105

522 another tribe called the Suku dwell in the southwestern Congo. They are very centralised with a monarchy. They number just 80,000 but are Negroid, not Nilo-Cushite. They are, however, shorter in stature than other tribes in the region, measuring a mean of 5 feet 2 inches (Kopytoff 1965: 444)

523 Baker 1974: 360

524 Herodotus: 3.20, 114.

525 Baker: 1866: 226; Seligman: 1930: 104; Huxley: 1974: 152.

526 Pococke: 1856: 183.


Finally, let us attempt to trace Sabtechah. 

There is a tribe in India called the Todas, and another in the northern Borneo called the Tegos. The Todas "differ remarkably" in physical appearance to the average southern Indian according to a definitive work on the The Todas528 - they are not only lighter in skin colour (a rich brown complexion), but also do not have as broad a nose. They are so famous for their cattle cult that anthropologist Carleton Coon compares their cattle culture with that of the East Africans.

Today there is a black tribe in southwestern Libya and northeastern Niger called the Tedas, or Toubou which seems to derive from Sabtah.530 They resemble the Gallas and the Somali.531 And the language is classified as "Central Saharan" division of the"Sudanic" language family.532 Another group which may derive from Sabtah (and have intermarried to a degree with the Berbers) are the Tuareg. They are known as the "People of the Veil" (the Kel Tagulemust) or "Black Berbers", ranging in colour from a dark-brown almost Semitic looking people to a black-looking people. So, it seems that Sabtecah's descendants mutated into two sub-races - one East African and the other Indian.

We have now covered all the sons of Cush except Nimrod.533 The following chapter will discuss him fully.


Adams, W Y (1977) - Nubia. Princeton, Allen Lane.

Baldwin, J D (1869) - Pre-Historic Nations. Harper & Brothers, New York.

Cavalli-Sforza,LL (1995) - The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Pritchard, J (ed) (1974) - Solomon andSheba. Phaidon, London.

Shutler, ME (1970) - "Origins of the Melanesians" in Cultures of the Pacific. Harding, TG &

Wallace, Shutler, R BJ (eds). The Free Press, New York.

Ullendorff, E (1968) - Ethiopia and the Bible. Oxford University Press, London. ……

527 Ibid: 184.

528 Rivers 1906: 18

529 Coon 1939: 403

530 The Targum states that the Sabrata tribe of northern Africa probably derive from him.

531 Coon: 1956: 122.

532 Briggs 1967: 168. Interestingly, there is a tribe in India called the Todas, and another in the northern Borneo called the Tegos

533 Prophecies on Cush: Psa. 68:31; 72:10; 87:4; Isa. 11:11. See also Is. 20:3-5; 43:3; 45:14; Ezek. 29:10; 30:4-5, 9; 38:5; Jer. 46:9; Dan 11:43; Amos 9:7; Hab. 3:7; Nah. 3:9; Zeph. 2:12