THE  GREEK  WORD  “SABBATH”


FROM  THE   “VINES  COMPLETE  EXPOSITORY  DICTIONARY  OF OLD  AND  NEW  TESTAMENT  WORDS”



SABBATH


1. sabbaton (Strong’s #4521) or sabbata: the latter, the plural form, was transliterated from the Aramaic word, which was mistaken for a plural; hence the singular, sabbaton, was formed from it. The root means "to cease, desist" (Heb„ shabath; cf. Arab., sabata, "to intercept, interrupt"); the doubled b has an intensive force, implying a complete cessation or a making to cease, probably the former. The idea is not that of relaxation or refreshment, but cessation from activity.


The observation of the seventh day of the week, enjoined upon Israel, was a sign between God and His earthly people, based upon the fact that after the six days of creative operations He rested, Exod. 31:16, 17, with 20:8-11. The OT regulations were developed and systematized to such an extent that they became a burden upon the people (who otherwise rejoiced in the rest provided) and a byword for absurd extravagance.


Two treatises of the Mishna (the Shabbath and Erubin) are entirely occupied with regulations for the observance; so with the discussions in the Gemara, on rabbinical opinions. The effect upon current opinion explains the antagonism roused by the Lord's cures wrought on the "Sabbath," e.g., Matt. 12:9-13; John 5:5-16, and explains the fact that on a "Sabbath" the sick were brought to be healed after sunset, e.g., Mark 1:32. 


According to rabbinical ideas, the disciples, by plucking ears of corn (Matt. 12:1; Mark 2:23), and rubbing them (Luke 6:1), broke the "sabbath" in two respects; for to pluck was to reap, and to rub was to thresh. The Lord's attitude towards the "sabbath" was by way of freeing it from these vexatious traditional accretions by which it was made an end in itself, instead of a means to an end (Mark 2:27).


In the Epistles the only direct mentions are in Col. 2:16, "a sabbath day," RV (which rightly has the singular, see 1st parag., above), where it is listed among things that were "a shadow of the things to come" (i.e., of the age introduced at Pentecost), and in Heb. 4:4-11, where the perpetual sabbatismos is appointed for believers (see rest); inferential references are in Rom. 14:5 and Gal. 4:9-11. For the first three centuries of the Christian era the first day of the week was never confounded with the "sabbath"; the confusion of the Jewish and Christian institutions was due to declension from apostolic teaching.


Notes: (1) In Matt. 12:1 and 11, where the plural is used, the KJV (as the RV) rightly has the singular, "the sabbath day"; in v. 5 the KJV has the plural (see above). Where the singular is used the RV omits the word "day," v. 2; 24:20; Mark 6:2; Luke 6:1 ("on a sabbath"); 14:3; John 9:14 ("it was the sabbath on the day when..."). 


As to the use or omission of the article the omission does not always require the rendering "a sabbath"; it is absent, e.g., in Matt. 12:2. (2) In Acts 16:13, "on the sabbath day," is, lit., "on the day of the sabbath" (plural). (3) For Matt. 28:1, see late. (4) For "the first day of the week" see one, A, (5).


2. prosabbaton (Strong’s #4315) signifies "the day before the sabbath" (pro, "before," and No. 1), Mark 15:42; some MSS. have prin, "before," with sabbaton separately).

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DID  YOU  MAKE  NOTE  OF  VINE’S  FIRST  SENTENCE—— 1. sabbaton (Strong’s #4521) or sabbata: the latter, the plural form, was transliterated from the Aramaic word, which was mistaken for a plural; hence the singular, sabbaton, was formed from it. 


IT  WAS  A  MISTAKE  THAT  THE  PLURAL  CAME  INTO  BEING.  USING  THE  SINGULAR  IN  ALL  NEW  TESTAMENT  PASSAGES  MAKES  COMPLETE  SENSE,  AND  SHOULD  BE  READ  SO.


THE  WORD  WEEK  IN  THE  GREEK  NT  IS  ALSO  FROM  THE  SAME  WORD  SABBATON.  SEE  STRONG’S  CONCORDANCE  FOR  EVERY  VERSE  IN  THE  NT  USING  “WEEK”    #4521.


NOW  WE  TURN  TO  THE  ENGLISHMAN’S  GREEK  CONCORDANCE,  AND  WE  SEE  EVERY  PLACE  IN  THE  NT  WHERE  THIS  GREEK  WORD  IS  USED.


sabbaton,  and   sabbata.


Note.—Those which are the cases of a noun of the second declension, and in the singular, have the figure 2. Those which are of the third declension, and are neut. plur., are marked 3.


MATHEW


12: 1. Jesus went on the sabbath day 3 through

2. lawful to do upon the sabbath day. 2

5. on the sabbath days 3 the priests in the

temple profane the sabbath 2 

8. is Lord even of the sabbath day. 2

10. lawful to heal on the sabbath days? 3 

11. if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, 3 

12. is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. 3 

24: 20 neither on the sabbath day: 2

28: 1 In the end of the sabbath, 3 as it began to

dawn  toward  the first (day) of  the week, 3 


MARK 


1:21. on the sabbath day 3 he entered into 

2: 23. the corn fields on the sabbath day; 3 

24. why do they on the sabbath day 3 

27. The sabbath 2 was made for man, and not

man for the sabbath: 2

28. is Lord also of the sabbath. 2

3: 2. heal him on the sabbath day; 3 

4. to do good on the sabbath days, 3 

6: 2. And when the sabbath day 2 was come, 

16: 1. And when the sabbath 2 was past, 

2. in the morning the first (day) of the week, 3 

9. risen early the first (day) of the week, 2 


LUKE 


4: 16. the synagogue on the sabbath 3 day, 

31. taught them on the sabbath days. 3 

6: 1. on the second sabbath 2 after the first, 

2. lawful to do on the sabbath days ? 3 

5. Lord also of the sabbath. 2 

6. to pass also on another sabbath, 3 

7. whether he would heal on the sabbath day; 3 

9. lawful on the sabbath days 3 to do good, 

13: 10. in one of the synagogues on the sabbath. 3 

14. had healed on the sabbath day, 2 and not on the sabbath 2 day. 

15. doth not each one of you on the sabbath 2

16. be loosed from this bond on the sabbath 2 day?

14:1. to eat bread on the sabbath day, 2

3. Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath day? 2

5. pull him out on the sabbath 2 day?

18: 12. I fast twice in the week, 2

23: 54. and the sabbath 2 drew on.

56. and rested the sabbath day 2

24: 1. upon the first (day) of the week, 3


JOHN 5: 9. the same day was the sabbath. 2

10. It is the sabbath day:2

16. done these things on the sabbath day. 2

18. he not only had broken the sabbath, 2

7: 22. ye on the sabbath day 2 circumcise

23. If a man on the sabbath day 2

whole on the sabbath day? 2

9: 14. And it was the sabbath day 2 when

16. he keepeth not the sabbath day. 2

19:31. upon the cross on the sabbath day, 2 for

that sabbath 2 day was an high day. 

20: 1. The first (day) of the week 3 

19. the first (day) of the week, 3 


ACTS 1: 12.  a sabbath day's 2 journey, 

13: 14. into the synagogue on the sabbath 3 day, 

27. which are read every sabbath day, 2 

42. preached to them the next sabbath. 2 

44. And the next sabbath 2 day came 

15: 21. read in the synagogues every sabbath day. 2 

16: 13. And on the sabbath 3 (lit. the day of the

sabbath) we went out 

17: 2. three sabbath days 3 reasoned 

18: 4. in the synagogue every sabbath, 2 

20: 7. the first (day) of the week, 3 


1 COR. 16: 2. Upon the first (day) of the week 3 let


COL. 2: 16. new moon, or of the sabbath 3 (days):


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TAKE  ALL  #3  WHICH  IS  PLURAL,  AND  PUT  THEM  AS  SINGULAR,  SO  CORRECTING  THE  ERROR  OF  TRANSLATION  AS  DR.  VINE  EXPLAINED,  AND  IT  ALL  MAKES  VERY  LOGIC  SENSE.


SOME  OVER  ZEALOUS  7TH  DAY  SABBATH  OBSERVERS,  HAVE  IN  THEIR  ZEAL  MISUNDERSTOOD  HOW  IT  SHOULD  HAVE  BEEN—  SINGULAR  IN  EVERY  CASE.


THE  KJV  TRANSLATORS  CORRECTED  THE  PLURAL  TO  SINGULAR  IN  MANY  VERSES.  SO  READING  IT  AS  “SABBATH”  AND  “WEEK”  — SINGULAR  IS  THE  CORRECT  READING,  AND  MAKES  A  SMOOTHNESS  OUT  OF  WHAT  WOULD  BE  A  RATHER  CLUMZY  WAY  IF  TRANSLATED  IN  THE  PLURAL.


Keith Hunt