In Search of... The Origin of Nations
THE RUSSIANS AND FINNO-UGRIC PEOPLES
In the book of Revelation, a great horde of peoples is recorded, collectively called the "Kings of the East". The Greek is "Anatoles heliou" literally translated as "rising sun" (Rev 16:12) composed of two hundred million troops (Rev 9:13-21) seen invading Europe and the Middle East. Who will compose these eastern and northern armies also referred to in Daniel 11:30,44)?
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* who the Russians, Ukrainians and other related peoples are
* that Tubal and Meschech were well-known peoples in the ancient world
* where Tubal and Meschech are and their part in the famous chapters of Ezekiel 38 39
* what Russian tradition relates concerning their origin
The prophet Isaiah also referred to them:
"The noise of a multitude of mountains, like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of Nations gathered together: the Lord of hosts mustereth the host of the battle ... Behold, I will stir up the Medes, against them [the Chaldeans]..." (Is 13:4,17)
"Go up, O Elam: besiege, O Media; all the sighing thereof, have I made to cease ... 'Babylon is fallen, is fallen'." (Is 21:2,9. Cp Rev 18:2).
Jeremiah also predicted the downfall of modern Babylon at the hands of these northern forces:
"For, lo, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great Nations from the North country ... Behold, a people shall come from the North, and a great nation, and many kings shall be raised up, from the coasts of the earth.
They shall hold the bow and the lance: they are cruel, and will not show mercy: their voice shall roar like the sea, and they shall ride upon horses" (Jer 50:9,41-42)
"... the Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for his device is against Babylon ...
...call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat [Georgia, Armenia between the Black and Caspian Seas in Russia], Minni [anciently the northern frontier of the Medes] and Aschkenaz [the descendants of Gomer in south-east Asia]..." (Jer 51:11,27).
It appears that initially Russia will be firm allies with German-led Europe (Ezek 21:13) which will supply Russia with the technology, expertise and finances she requires to modernise, whilst Russia will supply Europe with the raw materials which would be needed for their future awesome war machine. Ezekiel equates Babylon/Chaldea with Tyre; we note that the peoples of Tyre are in southern Italy and Sicily today which we witnessed in a previous chapter, but symbolically it applies to the coming tremendously prosperous National European Socialist Empire. God warns the soon-to-arise modern Babylon/ Chaldea/Tyre/Europe
"I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations" (Ezek 28:7).
Thus Russia and her Asiatic allies will have a terrible falling-out with Europe. After this great battle between Europe and Russia, Christ will return and restore peace to this troubled planet, slowly but surely extending His righteous rule across the entire globe.
So, where may we find Meschech, Tubal and Madai today? The only way we can understand the prophecies for our time is if we are able to locate these nations mentioned in God's Word.
The Modern Descendants of Madai
The peoples of Madai first dwelt in north-west Iran, alongside Medan, known as the Medes. Their capital was Hagmatana (Persian) or Agbatana in Greek. They were called Ma-da-ai, in the Assyrian inscriptions and became associated and linked up with the Medanites who invaded their territory from the west. Thus the names Madai and Medes were used interchangeably, but the Medanites formed the ruling class.
After the defeat on the Scythians in 584 BC, a colony of Medes was established along the Don River. They thus moved north of the Black Sea and into Scythia871 which is attested to by Jewish tradition which located them to the West of Magog.872
The Greeks called them the Sauro-Matae and they spoke the Scythian tongue873 which was much like that of the peoples of Persia874. They were also known as Surmatai or Syrmatai875. It would appear that many Elamites, who dwelt adjacent to the Madai in Iran, probably migrated with them into south-eastern Europe (see Is.21:2).
Many ancient writers refer to them. Strabo mentions the Matiani or Matieni876 as does Herodotus877 and Pliny878 . Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of the Sauro-matians dwelling near the Hister (modern Danube) 879. We also know that the Sea of Azov was anciently known as Maeotis Palus; on its shores dwelt the Maioti or Maiotiki880. The Sarmatian dagger and sword used by these people were exactly like that of the Medes881. Researcher, Sulimirski, maintains that "the Sarmatians were ... closely akin to the ancient Medes, Parthians and Persians882".
While Rostovtzeff wrote that
871. Latham cl850 :216
872. Kaplan 1981: 21
873. Yamauchi 1982 : 64
874. Sulimirski 1970:22
875. ibid: 22
876. Strabo 11.8.8
877. Herodotus Bk I, sec 203
878. Pliny Bk vi. xiii .48
879. Ammianus Marcellinus xxxi. 2.13
880. Hannay 1916:194
881. Sulimirski 1970 : 52
882. ibid: 22
"the Scythian kingdom - a formation almost completely Iranian, a northern counter-part of the kingdom of Darius and Xerxes ... the Sarmatians, whose Iranian nationality is not disputed"883.
Herodotus wrote that the Medes were beginning to settle in the Ukraine even in his time. He maintained that there was a people who "dress in the Median fashion" and who "claim to be colonists from Media" that "live north of Thrace ... beyond the Danube"884. Pliny noted that
"Next come the two mouths of the river Don, where the inhabitants are the Sarmatae, said to be descended from the Medes"885.
Professor Lundman wrote that the peoples of Russia, today, around the Black Sea and the Don are "perhaps ... vestiges of the descendants of the Irano-Scythian tribes who inhabited southern Russia in ancient times"886.
Who lives today along the Don, in southern Russia? The Ukrainians. They are also known as the Ruthenians and Little Russians887. They comprise the second largest racial group in Russia after the Great Russians consisting of some 50 millions.
The Ukrainians near southern Poland and the Slovaks are more brachycephalic than the others. Those in the north, the Volhynians, are shorter and are related to the White Russians or Byelorussians. The Ukrainians proper living to the south and east are taller, but their hair and eyes are darker. Their head forms are virtually identical to that of the Volhynians and blondes are not uncommon888, while their eyes are generally a light brown 889. Finally, Herodotus associates them
This demonstrates that with Meschech and Tubal: "the Matienians, the Moschi, Tibereni…890 Madai dwelt adjacent to Meschech and Tubal.
We should perhaps also realise that before the advent of Gorbachev and then Yeltsin as Russian President, the previous ruthless Communist bosses Chernenko, Brezhnev and Khrushchev were all Ukrainians and not Russian (Stalin was a Georgian and Lenin's father was probably a Tartar, although his mother was German).
Where Is Tubal?
In discussing Tubal, Gesenius noted that Tubal was founder of the Tiberani, "a nation of Asia Minor dwelling by the Euxine Sea to the West of the Moschi". He concluded that there should be no doubt that Tubal and Meschech comprise the modern Russian people891.
The people of Tubal were variously known as Tubla Tabal or Tabali by the Assyrians who refer to them giving tribute of "great horses" to Ashurbanipal; Tiberani or Tibarenoi by the Greeks; and
883. Rostovtzeff 1922:9
884. Herodotus Bk v, sec 9
885. Pliny Bkvi.v. 19
886. Lundman 1977: 49
887. It may be a coincidence that two tribes of the Hurrians were the Ruthennu and the Turukku. They had an Aryan ruling class known as the Maryannu. The city of Kiev may be a derivation of Khoriv, Hori or Hurri. A state of the Hurrians was Subartu from which the name Siberia may have originated.
888. Coon 1948:570
889. ibid: 571
890. Herodotus bk 1 : sec 94
891. Gesenius 1872 : 858
Thobelites by Josephus892. They were always identified with the Moschi in Asia Minor. The Septuagint version translates "Meschech and Moschi" as "Mosoch and Thobel". Where could they be located today?
After the Hittite Empire fell (c 1200 BC), the Tabali moved into that territory vacated by the Hittites, establishing twenty-one city-states893. A region of their territory became known as Subartu. The Tabali of Toboli migrated over the Caucasus like so many others before and after them. Once in southern Russia they became identified with the Muschovites and Sarmatians, 894, establishing themselves for a time along the River Volga.
Bohn, the editor of Marco Polo's Travels, has this to say :
"The Bolgar, Bulgar, or Bulghar, here spoken of is the name of a town and extensive district in Tartary, lying to the eastward of the Volga, and now inhabited by the Bashkirs, sometimes distinguished from the Bulgaria on the Danube, by the appellation of the Greater Bulgaria."895.
It appears therefore that "Volga" and "Bulga" are one and the same; they appear to be identical with the root form of the name Tubal. Huxley agrees that the name Volga evolved into Bulgaria896.
Tubal thus split into two like so many families: one branch migrated northwards, the other westwards. The group which moved into the Balkan Peninsula became known as the Bulgarians, mingling with the Sarmatians and adopting their particular Slavic language and customs.
There was a city called Bulghar on the River Volga, near the River Kiama in the land of the
Bulghars897 also known as Bulgaria.898 Interestingly, a leader of the Khazar armies which filled the void left by the Toboli after migrating out of southern Russia, was called Balkan899
On the Volga today, all that is left of the once great city of Bolgara which Marco Polo mentions in his first chapter, is a little village. It became the seat of Mongol rule in the thirteenth century for a time.
The mountain range of Hoemus was changed to the Balkans in south-eastern Europe after the Toboli settled there. The name recalls the Balkan hills and Balkan Bay alongside the Caspian Sea where Tubal once settled. Perhaps the name Toplitza in Bulgaria is a derivative of Tobol900.
The second syllable of the word "Bulgaria" is of central Asiatic origin being found in the name of Kash-ghar in the plateau of Pamir, where some of Tubal once lived. The Bulghars conquered the native Slavs in that land. To this day there are two types in Bulgaria: a tall, dark-haired type; and a shorter, fairer type, descendants of the other Slavs901.
892. Josephus Antiquities 1: 6:1
893. Douglas 1972 : 528
894. Chamberlain 1854, quoting Herodotus
895. Bohn 1854 : 4
896. Huxley 1939 : 177
897. Koestler l976:9
898. Encyclopedia Brittanica, vol 28 : 971
899. ibid: 60
901. Huxley 1939 : 122. See also Arnakis 1969 : 24-27
The other branch of the Toboli migrated northwards, perhaps giving their name to Lake Bataton Balta and the Baltic Sea. They are today settled north-east of Moscow around Tobolsk. There is also the tribe of Tubalai who live on the banks of the Tuba River and although they speak Turkic, they are perhaps Samoyed902. They may have acquired their name from Tubal.
A place-name alongside the Volga was known as Siberia903. Today, Siberia is in northern Russia where the Toboloskis migrated. The name originated in the Subartu district of ancient Tubal in Asia Minor.
Another mutated branch of Tubal may be the Basques who dwell on the border of Spain and France. "Basques" is the form of the Latin "Vasco" although in the Basque language they are called Euskera or Shkaraua. The actual land is called Euskal Herria. The French province of Gascogne or Guascogne is named after them. Also, the mountain range separating France and Germany is called the Vosges, anciently called the Wasgen of Forest of the Basques - this signifies their migration into the area after the Flood. Roger Collins in his excellent work The Basques states that Basque historian, Esteban de Garibay published four volumes of his Compendino Historial de las Chronicas (Antwerp AD 1571) in which he claimed to trace their origins:
"He took up the notion, already popular with other Spanish antiquarians, that the Iberian peninsula had been populated by the descendants of Tubal, one of the sons of Japhet the son of Noah. However, he gave this legend a distinctive twist in making the Basque regions ... the principal focus of Tubal's activity and he 'proved' this thesis by claiming affinity between various Basque place-names and those in the Bible that were associated with Armenia, where the ark had come to rest ..."904.
Collins then proceeds to give the similarities in place-names and so forth. Garibay may be correct, but further investigation is required. Jewish tradition also seems to affirm that the earliest inhabitants of Spain were descendants of Tuval or Tubal although some believed that Tubal also dwelt to the east of the Black Sea. Both views, as we have seen, are correct.905
The descendants of Meschech were well-known to the people of the Middle East centuries after the great and terrible flood of Noah.
The Assyrians knew them as the Mushku, the Greeks as the Moskhi and by others as Musku, Muskaaia, Moshi and Moska. Herodotus, a well-known ancient historian, calls them Moschi and Tibarenoi. And the ancient capital of Cappadocia was Mazaca.
While in Asia Minor they were inseparable from the Toboli906. They were the "natural" or hereditary enemies of the Assyrians and were largely the cause of the Assyrians losing power over other peoples from time to time907.
They migrated with Tubal up to the Black Sea and into the Russian plains908. Dr Gesenius wrote in the nineteenth century that Meschech became the Moschi, a very barbaric people. They dwelt, he
902. Brown cl880: 242
903. Milner 1941 : 34
904. Collins 1986 : 258
905. Kaplan 1981: 22
906. Douglas 1972: 811
907. Gay re 1973 : 54
said, in the Moschian Mountains909. The Moschian Mountains were the connecting chain between the Caucasus and Anti Taurus Mountains910. The Scofield Reference Bible says that the "reference to Meschech and Tubal (Moscow and Tobolosk) is a clear mark of identification"911. Strabo claimed that here was a district named "Moschice", a very barbaric people, while Lempriere stated in his dictionary that the Moschi were a people to the west of the Caspian Sea912.
"The territory first occupied by Meschech after their descent from the table-lands of Pamir was the plain at present peopled by the Turcomans, between the Oxus and the Caspian ... The whole district within five hundred miles of Moscow seems to be saturated with the name of Meschech".913
He then refers the reader to Steiler's German Hand Atlas to prove his point by referring to the following place-names: Moscow; the Moskva River; the Novo-Mosc-owsk on a tributary of the Dnieper; Mosch-Aisk near Borodino; Mosch-ok between Moscow and Nijini Novogorod; Mosch-arki stood on a tributary of the Volga River; Misch-etski stood between Moskow and the Tula; Mischiritschi on the border with the Ukraine; Mesch-a, a branch of the Dwina River; Mesch-Tschowsk near Tula; Mesch-Tschenskaia on the border with the Ukraine and Meschk-uze near Riga. It should also be noted that the Finns of Russia are divided into two tribes, Erses and Moskshes.914
Russian Claims of Ethnic Origins
The history of Russia is fascinating but records, of course, are scanty for the centuries after Noah's Flood. However, historians are able to trace Huns, Avars, Goths, Magyars, Indo-Europeans and others scampering over the land over the centuries. From about 770AD to about 830AD explorers from the eastern Baltic region, basically Germanic commercial-military bands, sought out new routes to the East. They penetrated the territories of the Finnic and Slavic tribes and found tremendous trade in wax, furs, timber, amber and honey. Eventually the Rus peoples and Scandinavians extended their raiding activities to other areas and established a dynasty, begun by a certain Rurik of Jutland, which lasted until 1598AD. The peoples became known as Varangians and they extended their control south and eastwards. They were clearly not Scandinavians or east Slavs, but a Germanic-type people, today represented by the Baits and Byelorussians whom we shall meet later in this book.
To their south-east was the great Khazar confederated state, comprised of a multi-national nomadic military including Turkics (Edomites) and Iranians. This state rose about mid-7th century AD until it was eclipsed by the Hungarians and Rus in the 10th century. The greatest of Varangian princes was Prince Svyatoslav who died 972AD. His campaigns and exploits marked the beginnings of a new political force in Europe. His son Vladimir established a code of laws and a dynastic system together with his inviting the Eastern Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople to establish an episcopal see in Rus 988AD.
Vladimir extended the kingdom centred at Kiev to include Neman, western Dvina, Upper Volga, Don, Dnestr and Dnepr. His 12 sons and many grandsons clashed with one another producing a
908. Sayce 1925 : 48
909. Gesenius 1872 : 534, 626, 955,1121
910. Custance 1975: 96
911. Scofield 1917 : 883
912. Lempriere 1788: 390
913. Milner 1886 :ch 9
914. Bloch 1913: 615
series of centralising and separatist struggles which flowed back and forth over the decades. The Turkic nomads in the 11th century produced a rival power centre which produced various periods of conflict and cooperation. After Kiev declined, Novogrod, an important city, declared independence and remained largely sovereign until it was conquered by Muscovy (Moscow). Novogrod found an accommodation with the invading Mongols and its prosperity remained until the commercial revolution in the 16th century. It expanded to the north and east to the Urals. To the south lay the westward expansion of the Mongols in the Ukraine.
Under Ivan III (known as The Great and who ruled 1462-1505AD) underwent a crusade to gather into the fold the eastern Slavic peoples (Meshech and Tubal) under Moscow's rule. To the West he was able to counter the Polish-Lithuanian state and expand the borders of his kingdom. From this period henceforth we have the history of Russia developing and the decline of the Baltic states in power and influence.
No doubt, the Great Russians occupying the thousands of square kilometres around Moscow descend from their ancient forefather, Meschech915. The city of Moscow is spelt Moskva by the Russians themselves and it stood in the midst of a Russian state once known as Muscovy. The whole of Russia, in fact, was known as Muskovi for a long time even until the time of Ivan the Terrible916.
The peoples of Moschi were renowned as being a race which should be feared anciently : "woe is me that I sojourn in Mesech" (Ps 120:5). The term quoted here is from the Bible, being used as we use the term "Vandal", "Hun" or'Thilistine" today, as being typical of a strong and fearsome people917.
It has long been generally understood by many Russian academics that much of their population is descended from a branch of the Scythians. A famous Russian poet, Alexander Blok, for example, noted this in one of his poems, The Scythians 918. Also, Russian historian Alekseyev, in his work, In Search of Our Ancestors, writes that the Russians are a branch of the Scythians919.
There we have it - as plain as daylight. The peoples of Madai, Tubal and Meschech may be found in western Russia. They are a very tough, hardened people, best to be left alone and not interfered or tangled with. The Great Russians (descendants of Meschech and Tubal) comprise 82% of the population of the Russian federation (119 million out of 146 million). They also comprise large minorities in other States of the former Soviet Union (11 million in the Ukraine, 6 million in Kazakhstan, 2.3 million in the Baltic states plus millions elsewhere).
However, scores of various groups fall within the borders of modern-day Russia, although dominated by Meschech. They include 16 autonomous republics, 5 autonomous regions, 10 national districts and 6 territories and 49 regions. They include such ethnic entities such as the Komi, Karelia, Chuvash, Bashkirias, Tuvas, Yakutias, Jews, Ossetias and so forth. The list is virtually endless. These people are destined to more-or-less stay together and attempt to forge an empire out of the rubble of the mess left behind by the oppressive Communists. It will be an enormously powerful empire, with huge manpower and natural resources with technological assistance from Germany. It seems that Russia will hearken back to the days of the Tsars and appoint someone as Czar who can be seen to be a symbol of unity, and who would once again ignite the imaginations of these tribes and peoples. He would have ancient roots and therefore a 'right' to champion their cause for a better lifestyle and religious liberty. As a royal he would be the mystical union between the present and the
915. see Halley 1965:91
916. Custance 1975: 91
918. Blok 1970:161
919. Alekseyev 1972: 297
past, the people and their God, embodying the soul of the nation and representing them on the international stage.
Finally, expect a far different looking Russia in the years ahead. Prophecy seems to indicate that the Baltic states will be joined with Europe and the Ukraine may remain independent or semi-independent. The Byelorussians, however, seem destined to be aligned with Meschech. While the Great Russians will initially be partners of Europe, they will eventually have a terrible falling out with them which will lead to the most horrible, hate-filled, inter-ethnic conflict in human history.
Riphath's Modern Descendants
Ancient information on Ripath, descendant of Gomer, is difficult to find. Josephus simply states that "Ripath foundeded the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians"920 which was a province in Asia Minor. From what can be determined, they were part of the Rusi peoples which migrated out of Asia Minor into southern Russia where they met up with the Borusi who came out of Asia921.
The ancient Greek poets spoke of the Ripaian Mountains and the people of that land were said to be the descendants of Riphath, the description of which, is clearly north-west Russia, near the Baltic: "northward by the Baltic and further east... by the Gulf of Finland"922. In addition, according to the Tar gum Yehonathan, Riphah was located in Parkvi east of the Caspian Sea.
There was once a district called "Rifou", east of the Black Sea. Also the Paphlagonians, sometimes spelt Raphlagonians (Riphataei) and the Rhibi lived east of the Black Sea923. Later they became known as the Reif or Rus upon contact with the Byelorussians. Eventually they migrated up through European Russia (the name Carpathian Mountains may derive from him) and settled in north-west Russia. They are known today as the Finno-Ugric peoples which may be divided into five chief branches:
* Baltic Finns (eastern Finns, Estonians, Karelians, Izhorians, Veps, Livonians, Votes)
* Saamis or Lapps
* Volga-Finns (Erza-Mordvinians, Moksha-Mordvinians and Mari or Cheremis)
* Finno-Permyaks (Komi or Zyryans who, although amongst these peoples, descend from Aram; and Udmurts or Votyaks. They dwell north of Moscow)
* Ugrians (Hungarians, Khant or Ostyaks and the Mansi or Voguls)
Of all of these peoples, only the Finns, Estonians and Hungarians have national independence.
Many of these people have been assimilated into Russian culture and with the end of Communism, hope to restore their clear identity. Because of their rightful common struggle against extinction, the various Finno-Ugric peoples have established cooperation with each other, attempting to forge policies and means to maintain their identity. The established a congress of Finno-Ugric peoples in 1992. Later a committee was founded for Finno-Ugric affairs with headquarters in Finland. We wish them well - as we do any people that strive to maintain and enhance their identity.
Some are in White Russia on the border with Finland or in eastern Finland (Tavastians), perhaps mixed with the Baits and Nordics and known as the Finnish Russians (Karelians). The Ural-Finno-
920. Josephus Antiquities 1:6:1
921. Kachur 1972:5,7
922. Rouse 1906:133
923. Custance 1975:88
Ugaric peoples west of the Urals derive from Riphath ultimately. The Riphaean or Rafu Mountains (modern Urals) were no doubt named after him. Indeed, these Finnic peoples call themselves the Suomalainen and Rossolainen, the latter which may derive from Riphath.
Today Finland may be divided into three major ethnic groups: the eastern Finns (Tavastians) descendants of Riphath, western Finns (related to the Swedes) and the Saamis or Lapps.
Closely related to them are the Hungarians which have a similar origin and language. The Hungarian language is of the same branch as the Ural-Altaic and is known to be the closest modern resemblance to Sumerian; historians are aware that among the Sumerians there was an Ural-Altaic element.924
The Hungarians are a Finno-Ugric people with Dinarid strains in the west925 plus a little Slavic infusion on the edges. It has been considered in the past that they were originally a Mongoloid people who became westernised through intermarriage. This theory is now rejected after genetic testing.
Although they are related to the Finns, their languages have been so cut off from each other for more than 1,000 years, they are incomprehensible to each other.
The Hungarians were one of the many nations comprising the Finno-Ugric peoples and were Turkic in certain aspects of lifestyle, but certainly not by race926. However, today there is still a tiny Turkic enclave in Hungary called the Pussta927, but the majority of Hungarians are not descended from them. It seems likely that the Pussta are descended from the Avars, a Turkic people who settled in Hungary at one stage possibly associated with the Golden Horde.928
Putting the Magyars in their proper time-setting amongst the various invaders from central Asia, we find the following:
First there were the Hunnish hordes led by Attila in the 5th century
Followed by the Avars in the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries
Next we have the Bulgars in the 7th century
Only then do we have the Magyars in the 9th century (ancestors of the Hungarians)
The Golden Hordes or Mongols did not invade until the 13th century
It is most interesting that the Hungarian language belongs to the Finno-Ugric family of languages929 as did the Sumerian tongue930, yet both the Hungarians and Sumerians were not Turkics (Turanids)931
924. Haddon 1912: 19; The construction of the Sumerian tongue was Turanid (Hall 1913: 174), but the facial type was not Mongoloid (Woolley, The Sumerians, page 7)
925. Lundman 1977 : 148
928. Liptak 1983 : 92;
See Ripley 1899 : 432
929. ibid: 162
930. Hall 1913 : 174; see Mackenzie cl900: 3-4; Hastings 1921 : vol 12 : 40; Linaker 1991 : 93-95
931. Woolley 1929 : 7
although there is some evidence that some Turkic and Mongoloid peoples dwelt ambng them. Writing of these Sumerians, Williams, an historian, states that attempts have been made to connect them with the Ugro-Finnish branch of the Ural-Altaic family932.
The "Sumerian origin" theory for the Hungarians goes something like this:
Sumerian was the oldest written language of mankind as far as we know, and used a cuneiform notation which is reminiscent of the writings of the proto-Hungarians. Linguists agree that Sumerian belonged to the basic Ural-Altaic language family, which includes Ugric, Magyar and Turkic.
Also of interest is that these neo-Sumerians were associated with the Elamites and had a similar culture to them933. Could the Hungarians be descended from particular peoples dwelling in the neo-Sumerian empire? In this light, nineteenth century Hungarian romantic historian Count Bertholdi, who became Foreign Minister of Austro-Hungary, traced strong parallels between the modern Hungarians and the Sumerians. Opinions are divided ranging from the Hungarians being directly related to early Sumerians, to the ancient tribe of Sabirs, migrating out of Mesopotamia in central Asia who influenced the tongue of the people that became known as Hungarian. Others say that they are mixed Mongoloid, Turkic, Slavic and others.
One Hungarian tradition is that they descend from Nimrod, but this is not possible due to their Caucasian race and Nimrod's Hamitic origins934. Rather, this seems to be a national recollection or tradition which became muddled over the centuries, of serving under Nimrod who may have the Lugalzaggessi of ancient southern Mesopotamia, the son of Ukush (Cush). He was conquered by the northern leader, Sargon of Akkad, possibly Assur himself. Tradition also traces the Hungarians to a Persian province of Evilath while others attempt to identify Evilath with the city of Eiulath or Edessa (Urfa)935. Either way, they definitely are traceable to the Middle East and are, in all likelihood, descendants of Riphath in similitude to the other Finno-Ugric peoples.
Sumerian agglutinating grammar demonstrates that it has many structural similarities to Hungarian which is similarly agglutinating and lacks genders, use of prefixes and suffixes and so on. What is an 'agglutinative' tongue?:
According to Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913):
"Agglutinative \Ag*glu"ti*na*tive\, a. [Cf. F. agglutinatif.]
Pertaining to agglutination; tending to unite, or having power to cause adhesion; adhesive.
(Philol.) Formed or characterized by agglutination, as a language or a compound.
In agglutinative languages the union of words may be compared to mechanical compounds, in inflective languages to chemical compounds. ~R. Morris.
Cf. man-kind, heir-loom, war-like, which are agglutinative compounds. The Finnish, Hungarian, Turkish, the Tamul, etc., are agglutinative languages. -R. Morris.
932. Williams 1908 : 1 : 342
933. Hall. 1913: 174
934. Endrey 1975 : 7-8. One Hungarian tradition actually claims that they migrated out of Ethiopia. This seems to be a corrupted historical account of their migration out of the original Ethiopia ('land of the Black Faces') in southern Mesopotamia.
935. ibid: 11
Agglutinative languages preserve the consciousness of their roots, [emphasis mine]
The Finnish, Hungarian, Turkish (alongside whom dwelt the Hungarians) and Tamils of southern India and Sri Lankan languages have similarites - because of their ancient proximity in Sumeria. I have before me a paper by Fred Hamori The Early History of the Hungarian Ethnic Designations. The following highlights are useful in our search for their origin:
"Starting with the oldest references and advancing to the newest are the following [tribal names] at different times and different languages:
Sabar-toi Asfali, Subar, Sbir, Savar, Sawardiya
Mas-ar, Masgar, Mazar, Madjara, Magor, Magar, Magyar, Makar
Onogur, Hunugur, Ugor, Ungar, Hungar, Uhor, Venger
... The ancient Sumerians referred to their northern neighbours who lived all the way to the southern Caucasus mountains as "Subar-Ki" meaning the "Subar Land" [their goddess was Shubure and the land Subartu] ... The earliest Akkadians ... called the nation of Subar-Ki in northern Mesopotamia by the name of Subar-Tu ... one of the kingdoms of the Subarian people was known as "Hurri, Gurri" [who spoke a language like Sumerian] ... Hungarian also has some words in common with both Sumerian, Hurrian and Elamite. Elamite is considered a sister tongue of Dravidian who are now constricted to southern India ... It is no accident that Hungarian also shares many words also with Dravidian and Turkic languages ...
"The Hurrian descendants also founded the kingdom of Urartu as well as the central Asian kingdom of Khwarezmia, next to the Arial Sea ... (Some Russian researchers claim that Khwarezmia and its area was the possible origin of the Finno-Ugrian and Altaic nations!). The people of Subartu (Hurrians and Subars) lived predominantly in northern Mesopotamia but in very ancient times also in southern Mesopotamia.
"The country of the Hurri ... was also called the kingdom of en-Merkara ... Another name of their ... land was Mada."936 (emphasis mine)
Hamori goes on to explain the demi-god and founder of the land of Khwarezmia was called Siev-us, probably a corruption of Sabir.
"Magya" or "Megye" in Hungarian means province as did Megala in early Parthian. This term later evolved into Magyar which means man of the province or country. Of further interest is that there are Egyptian references to the territory of the Mada or Mitanni as Magor. This indicates that the early Hungarians dwelt alongside the ancestors of the Ukrainians and Byelorussians.
In addition, asserts Hamori, Herodotus referred to the Sapir or Sabir and their neighbours as the Makr-on (Magar) and Matiene. To this day, there is still a mountain called Magar in the southern Caucasus and a mountain called Nimrud.
Further, he says that the modern Arab Encyclopedia claims that these people which were found in the Caucasus, were the ancestors of the Hungarians and Magyars, who were also the famous weapon smiths of the Persians. Others who mentioned these people in ancient times were.
936 Hamori: cl995: 2-3. See also Magyar Origins and Ancient Europe by Winters and Bator.
* Greek general and historian, Xenophon who referred to the Makars living in the Caucasus region about 44 BC, also known as the Makr-on and Machar.
* Pliny called them Machor-on and the Saspeir in the Caucasus
* Ptolemy mentions the Mazara and Siavara living near the Euphrates
* An Armenian Patriarch wrote of the Sievor-tik who lived in the province of Udi (Otene)
* Amongst the subject people of old Persia, are listed the Sapardia and Hunae, written on the walls of Persepolis
* Jordenedes (c550 BC) claimed that the Sabirs and Hunuguri were one people
* Marquart (c583 AD) referred to the Mager-an tribe near the source of the Tigris.
From the above there can be no doubt, the Magyar peoples of modem Hungary are descendants of Riphath and dwelt in the Middle East - Sumeria - alongside other sons of Japheth and the descendants of Cush.
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Coon,C (1948) Races of Europe. Macmillan, New York, USA.
Hamori, F (cl995) The Early History of the Hungarian Ethnic Designations.
Magocsi,P(1984) Our Peoples. Carpatho-Rusyns and their Descendants in North America.
Multicultural History Society of Ontario, Toronto.
Milner,W(1941) The Russian Chapters ofEzekiel. Destiny Publishers, Mass., USA. 2nd edition.
Yamauhci,E (1982) Foes from the Northern Frontier. Baker Book House, Michigan, USA.