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The Remnant of God #1

Israel and the elected part of Israel


                         Gary Amick

THE REMNANT - A STUDY by Gary Amick (editor of ACTS magazine -
the publication of the Church of God Publishing House - General
Council of the Church of God (7th Day), Meridian, Idaho - Phone
church news and info:  
August/September 2003


     The concept of remnant can be Biblically defined as that
continuous portion, be it large or small, of the community of
Israel, which has been supernaturally preserved and redeemed
through various divine judgments throughout the ages. This
community is made up of both ethnic Israel as well as the
Gentiles who are grafted in to Israel. Although one is
hard-pressed to even find the word "remnant" in the index of many
fine theologies, the theology of remnant is crucial to a proper
understanding of the relationship between Jewish and Gentile
believers. The concept of remnant is studded throughout the
Scripture, both Old and New Testaments, and has direct bearing on
the very faithfulness of God.
     For the sake of the articles in this issue of ACTS, the
terms Jew and Israel must be defined to eliminate as much
confusion as possible.   
     Jew: Jewish-ness is defined Biblically as being a member of
the nation of Israel, a physical descendent of Abraham, Isaac and
Jacob. If one is a physical descendent of these three patriarchs,
then he is irrevocably Jewish. One's particular religion has no
bearing on Jewishness; one can believe or not believe anything
and that would not change Jewish status. Biblically, Jewish-ness
is a matter of birth not faith, genealogy not theology, blood not
     Israel: Israel is on the other hand defined very
differently. Israel is defined as the nation of ethnic Jews,
descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, chosen as a particular
people by God. If one is a physical descendant of these three
patriarchs, then by Biblical definition he is irrevocably part of
the nation of Israel. 

(Israel was made up of 12 or 13 tribes as the book of Genesis
proves. Israel was divided into TWO kingdoms after Solomon's
death, Judah was made up of the tribes of Judah, Levi, and
Benjamin, the other 10 tribes were then known as the Kingdom of
Samaria, while the three tribes were known as the kingdom of
Judah, and later were known as Jews. All this is shown in the
books of Kings and Chronicles.
So, correctly speaking, to be a physical blood Isaelite, is to be
of the physical line of ANY of the 13 tribes of Israel. All Jews
are Israelites, but not all Israelites are Jews, just as all
Californians are United states Americans, but not all United
States Americans are Californians - Keith Hunt)

     However, the term Israel is also inclusive of those who are
not ethnic Jews, but are faithful Gentile believers who are
grafted into Israel. There is within Israel a parallel
theological concept of "remnant of Israel" which denotes the
belief in a faithful remnant that would survive whatever
catastrophic judgments were brought upon the community because of
its disobedience. Seemingly every zealous sect throughout the
history of Israel, often simultaneously and competitively, has
seen itself as the righteous remnant of Jewish believers, true
Israel. The Essenes considered themselves the true remnant, as
did their contemporaries, the Pharisees, as do the varying sects
within Orthodox Judaism today. 
     In the realm of the "Church", there are many groups that
consider themselves as the remnant at the exclusion of all other
groups. Webster's Dictionary defines remnant as "that which is
left after the separation, removal or destruction of a part." A
remnant is what remains of the original. The remnant of Israel is
what remains of the original and consists of believing Jews and
drafted in believing Gentiles.
     For nearly two millennia, many Christians have blamed the
Jewish people for killing Jesus and therefore say the Jews are
deserving of the wrath of God. This erroneous belief has
developed into a wrong, yet persistent teaching in the Church
that God has rejected His covenant people and broken His
covenants with them. An out growth of this was the development of
Replacement Theology. Perhaps you have heard of this term, but
more than likely you haven't. If you look it up in a dictionary
of Church history, you will not find it listed as a systematic
study. Rather, it is a doctrinal teaching that originated in the
early Church. It became the fertile soil from which Christian
anti-Semitism grew and has infected the Church for nearly 1,900
years. In this ACTS (magazine edition of Aug/Sept. 2003 - Keith
Hunt), we will take a look at Replacement Theology and the errors
of its teachings.


     The theology of remnant is strewn throughout both the Old
and New Testaments and is an essential yet often overlooked
aspect of God's program for Jew and Gentile alike in this present
age. It can be maintained that from the very beginning of God's
relationship with His creation, His activity is primarily devoted
to the salvation and sustenance of a remnant from various
faithless and disobedient segments of humanity who have undergone
various cataclysmic judgments and disasters. God has always
chosen to save and primarily work with His remnant.

THE THEME of Remnant in the
Old Testament

     The pattern of God's choice of a remnant from all of His
creation was based on its faithfulness and obedience to Him. This
is played out repeatedly throughout all of the Old Testament
     Noah: Noah's family was a faithful remnant supernaturally
preserved through a divine cataclysm on the basis of divine
grace. "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the
earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart
was only evil continually. But Noah found grace in the eyes of
the Lord." (Genesis 6:5,8).
     Abraham: From out of all the nations God graciously chose
Abraham with whom to make an unprecedented covenant. "Now the
Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from
thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that 1 will
shew thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will
bless thee, and make thy name great, and thou shalt be a
blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him
that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be
blessed." (Genesis 12:1-3).
     Moses: Moses prophesies to Israel that after the eventual
divine judgment of God, a remnant will be graciously preserved
and will return to the land. (Dent.30:1-10; Ex.32). Caleb and
Joshua were the only members of the Exodus generation to enter
the land of promise, following divine judgment. "But Joshua the
son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, which were of the men
that went to search the land, lived still." (Numbers 14:38).
     Elijah: Elijah was reminded that the Lord had graciously
preserved 7,000 Israelites who had not apostatized. "Yet 1 have
left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not
bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him." 
(1 Kings 19:18).

     In Exile: Upon the divine judgment of Assyrian conquest of
the northern tribes, and later the divine judgment of Babylonian
con quest of Judah, God graciously preserved a remnant. "Say unto
them, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I will take the stick of
Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel
his fellows, and will put them with him, even with the stick of
Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be one in mine
hand." (Ezekiel 37:19).

     A thorough analysis of the Old Testament reveals that there
has never been a time in the history of the world that God's
remnant did not exist. There is a cycle consistent throughout the
Old Testament of divine judgment and the resulting interweaving
of divine preservation of a remnant maintaining faith and
obedience to God. It is by this faithfulness that God chooses who
will be included within the preserved remnant.
     God's remnant generally has wider repercussions and will
ultimately benefit the remaining unbelieving people. As we shall
see in the future, God will use the remnant to take the gospel to
the whole world before the Messiah comes (See Revelation 10:11;
Revelation 11 and 14) and use the remnant to be priests and kings
during the 1000 year reign of Messiah on this earth to minister
to those who have not had a "first" opportunity to accept the
Messiah. (See Revelation 20:6).

THE THEME of Remnant in the
New Testament

     The great theme of remnant in the Hebrew Scripture finds
specific reference within the New Testament. There are three
different Greek words used in the New Testament, 'kataleimma,'
'loipoy' and 'leimma,' all of which are translated remnant.
     The concept of the remnant of Israel first surfaces
prominently within the teaching of John the Baptist where he
indicates that simply being the physical seed of Abraham, ethnic
Israel, is insufficient for personal salvation. Faith and
repentance are also necessary ingredients. This theme is further
developed by Paul. "For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly;
neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh: But
he is a Jew which is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of
the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is
not of men, but of God." (Romans 2:28,29). 

     WITHIN the nation of Israel is a SUBSET of Israel which is
the REMNANT of the seed of Abraham and not EVERY individual Jew
is considered by God to be the authentic. Authenticity has little
or nothing to do with ethnic blood line, but has to do with the
faithfulness of the heart (circumcised heart). At first glance,
it may appear that Paul is contrasting Jews who believe and Jews
who do not believe, but this is not the case, as Paul explains in
Ephesians 2:11-16. "Wherefore remember, that ye being in time
past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that
which is called the Circumcision in the flesh (Jews) made by
hands; That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens
from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants
of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: But
now, in Christ Jesus, ye, who sometimes were far off, are made
nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who hath made
both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition
between us; ... And that he might reconcile both unto God in one
body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby." In Romans
3:1, Paul asks the question, "What advantage then hath the Jew?
Or what profit is there of circumcision?" In verse 2, he answers
the question, "Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them
were committed the oracles of God." Paul expands this in Romans
9:4,5, "Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption. and
the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the
service of God, and the promises; Whose are the fathers, and of
whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, God
blessed forever, Amen." Paul ends his discussion with the
climactic event of the Jewish Messiah coming in the flesh, the
only hope for Jew and Gentile alike. God entrusted the remnant of
Israel with salvation of the whole world through the Jewish
     Yet there are Christians that say God has given up on
Israel, who even during their apostasy, God brought forth from
the descendants of Israel the Savior of both Jews and Gentiles.
Yet with all these ongoing privileges God had given Israel, only
a remnant responded. 
     Romans 11 provides the climax of Paul's explanatory argument
of proving the faithfulness of God to Israel via the preservation
of a remnant. Paul begins in verses 1 and 2 carefully referring
to ethnic Israel as God's people. "I say then hath God cast away
his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed
of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God hath not cast away his
people which he foreknew." Paul explains what he means by using
Elijah as an illustration. "Wot ye not what the scripture saith
of Elias? How he maketh intercession to God against Israel,
saying, Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down
thine altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life. But
what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself
seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of
Baal." Paul is making it clear that not all of Israel at present
time will be saved, but "Even so then at this present time also
there is a remnant according to the election of grace." (Romans
11:5). If there is even one faithful Israelite, then God can be
said to be faithful to His promises. God has always worked with a
remnant of Israel. Using the example of Elijah builds this case.
There is intensive continuity between consecutive remnant stages
throughout the history of Israel. There is always a faithful
remnant of Israel, large or small, majority or minority, to
sustain God's promises and covenants.


     In discussing the Church and Israel, the first thing to
realize is that the Bible rarely makes a parallel distinction
between ethnic Israel and the Church. Biblically, Israel is a
nation of people containing both saved and unsaved. When the
Bible speaks of Israel as the saved of Israel, it is referring to
the REMNANT of Israel. Based on this, we are forced to ask the
question, "Is there a distinction between the remnant of Israel
and the Church?" People want to replace national Israel with the
Church (replacement theology) or separate Israel and the Church
(separation theology). There are three reasons why they do this.

     First, people usually equate "Church" with Gentiles, even
though both Jews and Gentiles make up the Church (Ephesians 3:6).
     Second, people often equate "Israel" with Jews. That, too,
is against the Scriptures. Gentile believers become citizens of
Israel (Ephesians 2:12,19). 
     Third, people usually do not bother to make the necessary
distinction between ethnic Israel and the remnant of Israel, even
though the Bible clearly makes that distinction (Romans 9:6-8;
11:1-7). "Church" does not mean Gentiles only. "Israel" does not
always mean Jews only. There is a significant theological
difference between ethnic Israel and the remnant of Israel.


     The Church is the assembly of people, whether Jew or
Gentile, who have been called out of the world to the Body of
Christ (Ephesians 5:23; Colossians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 12:13).
Those in the Church come together by the Spirit and through the
Messiah. They are said to be "in Christ" (Romans 8:1; 2
Corinthians 5:17; Ephesians 1:13).
     The Church is made up of believing Jews who have been called
out of ethnic Israel, and believing Gentiles who have been called
out of all of the nations. Both called out people form one called
out people known as the Church. These called out ones are saved
by faith in the pattern of their father, Abraham (Romans 4:11).
Thus, while only some in the Church are physically Jewish, all in
the Church are the remnant of Israel. They are circumcised of the
heart (Romans 2:29), the offspring of Abraham (Romans 4:16) and
citizens of Israel (Ephesians 2:12,19).


     Israel can mean several things.    
     First, it often denotes the national ethnic Israel - the
nation whose citizens are physical descendants of Jacob. 
     Second, it can mean those physical descendants of Jacob who
have not responded to the call of God (Romans 9:31, 11:7). 
     Third, it can mean the remnant of Israel who has trusted in
the promises of God. Paul says, "It is not as though God's word
had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.
Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham's
children." (Romans 9:6,7). A person can be part of ethnic Israel,
and yet not be part of the REMNANT of Israel. There is an Israel
within Israel, a subset of the remnant of Israel among ethnic
Israel. When Gentiles become believers through faith in Jesus
Christ, they become part of this subset also, part of the remnant
of Israel. That believing Gentiles are placed within the remnant
of Israel is clearly shown by Paul's illustration of the olive


     Paul uses the olive tree to magnificently illustrate the
relationship of believing Jews, believing Gentiles and
unbelieving Israel. 
     The tree itself should be identified as the vessel by which
God's blessings and promises can be conveyed to the branches from
the root. The roots which provide the nourishment of blessings
and promises to Israel are prominently the Abrahamic Covenant.
     There are three types of branches, two of which are natural,
one of which is unnatural. The natural branches both represent
ethnic Israel, one branch of which is the believing remnant, the
other, the unbelieving majority. The unbelieving Jewish branches
are broken off. The believing Jewish branches remain. Unnatural
branches, representing believing Gentiles, are grafted into the
tree as wild shoots. The believing Jewish and Gentile branches
adhere to the tree by means of faith in Messiah and represent the
remnant of Israel. Herein is where most Christians begin to boast
against the Jewish branches that were cut off though their
unbelief and begin to look at themselves as a newly created olive
tree, separate from that of Israel. Paul says, "Boast not against
the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but
the root thee." (Romans 11:18). The Church has not replaced
Israel. The same root supports the wild shoots (Gentiles) as
supports the natural branches (Israel). The olive tree of Romans
11 is the most detailed functional illustration in Scripture of
the relationship of the Church to Israel and Gentile believers to
Jewish believers.
     Ephesians 3:6 explains that one of the mysteries of the
remnant is that believing Gentiles are co-heirs and
co-participants with believing Israel. "That the Gentiles should
be fellow-heirs, and of the same body, and partakers of His
promise in Christ by the Gospel." If we are part of the remnant,
there is no distinction between Jew and Gentiles. "There is
neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is
neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus."
(Galatians 3:28). The remnant has the Abrahamic Covenant's
blessings which are relationship with God, salvation through
Messiah and union with Him through the Spirit. Paul is sharing
that believing Gentiles have been raised to the spiritual status
of believing Israel and become part of the remnant of Israel with
all of their privileges. Together, believing Jews and believing
Gentiles are members of the remnant community which transcends
ethnic Israel. Finally, Paul sums it up in Galatians 6:15,16,
"For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything, nor
uncircumcision, but a new creature. And as many as walk according
to this rule, peace be on them, and mercy and upon the Israel of
God." In Christ Jesus we all become the Israel of God, the


     The olive tree represents the remnant of Israel, but does it
also represent the Church? The olive tree is a group of Jews and
Gentiles made holy by the Messiah. It also accurately describes
the Church (Ephesians 3:6). Yet the context of the olive tree
metaphor was not the Church as it refers to local assemblies
(ekklesia) but refers to the entire body of believers. The
context of the olive tree metaphor is the remnant of Israel
(Romans 11:5,7) - "their own olive tree" (11:24). If Paul had
confined his olive tree illustration to include Jewish people
only, the remnant of Israel might have been something separate
from the Church, or something in place within the church. Since
Gentile believers are grafted into the olive tree, it is clear
that the remnant of Israel is not confined to ethnic Jews only,
but rather, contains the same redeemed peoples who are members of
the Church.
     The Church is not new because it is simply the remnant of
Israel. Some people claim that Paul's olive tree is the Church,
others claim it is Israel. Seeing it as the remnant of Israel
solves the dilemma. The olive tree is the remnant of Israel and
it is the Church, because the Church is the remnant of Israel.
The fact that the Church is the remnant of Israel is evidenced by
the name of the eternal home of believers (the New Jerusalem), by
the gates of that home (names of the twelve tribes of Israel), by
the pillars of that home (the twelve Israelite apostles of
Jesus), and by the Person seated on the throne of the home
(Jesus, the Jewish Messiah).
     Gentile believers are grafted into the remnant Israel, whose
holy root is the Abrahamic covenant and promised Messiah. Gentile
believers have taken the place of Jews who have not believed, but
Gentiles as a whole have not replaced Jews as a whole. Only part
of Israel has been hardened (Romans 11:25). And God is able to
graft Jews back into the remnant of Israel when they believe
(Romans 11:23).
     The proper understanding of Israel and the Church is not
replacement theology or separation theology. The Church has not
replaced ethnic Israel, for God has a future program of prophecy
to fulfil for that nation. Neither has the Church replaced
remnant Israel. Paul considered himself part of the remnant of
Israel (Romans 11:1-5), part of Christ (Romans 9:3), and part of
the Church (Ephesians 5:29-30). This shows that the Church, the
Body of Christ and the remnant of Israel are synonymous.


     Dispensationalism, as with all theological systems, attempts
to categorize and systematize the revelation of God. Each
particular theological system's weakness is revealed by what
happens to that specific data which does not neatly fit into the
proposed constructs, grids and containers of that theology.
Theologians generally hate tensions, antinomies and above all,
squishy facts that do not seem to neatly fit into one categorical
box or another. 
     The remnant of Israel is a prime example of this unfortunate
pattern. This is one of many areas that classic dispensationalism
fails the theology test as a system. Classic dispensationalism
denies the very existence of a present remnant, proposing no true
Israel is in existence today in the so called "time of the
Gentiles." This thinking is totally contrary to Paul writings,
(Romans 11) and Peter's writings (1 Peter 2:1-10). It would seem
from their writings that these apostles certainly understood
themselves to be the remnant. It is not Scriptural to proclaim
that the remnant of Israel is not currently realizing a portion
of the covenant blessings along with their believing Gentile
brethren. Jesus told His disciples at His last supper that the
power of the Holy Spirit would be inaugurated upon His death. It
is absurd to postulate that Jesus meant to exclude those Jews
physically present with him from the power of the Holy Spirit. In
addition to this, at Pentecost, who were the ones who immediately
received the benefit of the Holy Spirit, the Gentiles or the
Jews? The answer is the Jews, for 3,000 were saved that very day!
"Then they that gladly received his word, were baptized: and the
same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls."
(Acts 2:41). Throughout the book of Acts, salvation was equally
available to both Jews and Gentiles. (See Acts 14:1;18:4;19:10;
20:21). The Jewish believers neither lost their ethnicity nor
nationality. Paul argues in Romans 11 that there was a remnant of
Israel and is now a contemporary remnant currently manifesting
itself as it always will. Without a remnant, there is no Israel
of God (Galatians 6:16) and the promises of God have been voided,
leaving God unfaithful indeed to His promises. By definition, the
Jewish believers bear the identity as the remnant of Israel and
thus the community within the body of Christ. 
     Classic dispensationalists create a false dichotomy. They
confuse believing Gentiles as exclusively the Church. In their
passion to keep Israel and the Church distinct, they have
obliterated God's remnant in this age we live in.
     It should seem that the fact of Israel being back in her
land after 2000 years of exile indicates that the Abrahamic
Covenant is currently operative..... (The captivity of the Jews
was to last 2,520 years from 604 B.C. to 1917 - adding a year
because there is no year 0 - in 1917/18 the British liberated
Palestine and Jerusalem under general Allanby, exactly 2,520
years, and from that time the Jews started to return to Jerusalem
and Palestine, and 40 years later became an nation - 40 is used
by God for "testing, trials, testing endurance" - Keith Hunt).

     No covenant promises of God are nullified by virtue of
Jewish faith in Messiah. In the contrary, the covenant promise
has been consummated by their faith in Messiah. The covenant is
eternal and not abrogated by the church. God has not set aside
Israel, even momentarily, but has kept for Himself a remnant of
faith. (Romans 11:5).
     The remnant of Israel is comprised of believing Gentiles and
believing Jews. One cannot disenfranchise the Jewish component or
the Gentile components because they are both of the Abrahamic
covenant, the Gentile by adoption and the Jew by inheritance. The
entire remnant of Israel, both Jewish and Gentiles will reign
with Christ and will enjoy the new heavens, the new earth, and
the New Jerusalem. The only distinction between Jew and Gentile
is that Gentiles are wild shoots, grafted in (adopted) not
knowing and experiencing the past promises and blessings of God's
     Dispensationalism theology rests on the distinction between
the Church and Israel. A good name for this type of theology is
separation theology. In separation theology, while God has a
future for Israel, there is a distinction between Israel and the
Church that is preserved throughout all time, without any overlap
of the two. The remnant is Biblically defined as believing Jew
and Gentile together. The majority of Christians today don't
think of the church as being made up of Jews and Gentiles, but
Gentiles alone. On the other hand, Christians today believe that
it is impossible to be the remnant of Israel and be a Gentile.
There is a clear failure to recognize that the remnant is always
part of Israel and is not separated from it, and that it is
possible to be part of the remnant and be either a Jew or a


     The remnant of Israel becomes more important and more
obvious in the last days just before the Messiah comes to redeem
His bride. There are specific characteristics of the remnant that
are different from the apostate churches of the world. These
characteristics are spelled out in two places in the book of
Revelation and are implied in other places.
     In Revelation 12: 17 the Bible says "And the Dragon was
wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of
her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the
testimony of Jesus Christ." We need to understand that most of
the book of Revelation is written in metaphors, analogies, types
and anti-types. Chapter 12 is no exception. Now John sees a sign
in heaven. In this scene, there are three major players: a woman,
her child, and a dragon. Associated with the woman is the remnant
of her seed. Chapter 12 is a highly condensed history of the
remnant within Israel, the woman.
     God begins the record all the way back in the time of Jacob.
In Genesis 37:9, Joseph dreams that the sun, moon, and stars all
bow to him. Revelation 12:1 borrows from that vision to help us
understand the true church has its roots in Abraham, Isaac, and
Jacob. It is first of all, an Israelitish church, having its real
roots in heaven where the sun, moon, and stars are with their
purity and Godly origin. The twelve stars represent the twelve
tribes of Israel. Chapter 12 unfolds a highly condensed history
of Israel. It takes us through the rebellion of Lucifer and Jesus
Christ being born of the woman. We find the Dragon attempting and
succeeding in killing the child, who is, of course, Jesus Christ.
the Messiah. Victorious over the grave, He is resurrected and
ascends to His throne in heaven. Jesus' death for the sins of all
mankind consummates the atonement through His blood as the
sacrificial goat. At this time the dragon (Satan) is reckoned
defeated and is thrown out of heaven with one third of the
angels. Knowing he has a short time, Satan persecutes the woman,
specifically the remnant seed of the woman. The remnant seed of
the woman is the remnant of Israel or better known as the church.

     This remnant of Israel can be identified by her doctrine.
The remnant keeps the commandments of God and has the testimony
of Jesus Christ. Also we find similar wording in Revelation
14:12, "Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that
keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus." The
remnant of Israel keeps all of the commandments of God, including
the seventh day Sabbath. Look around and see how many of today's
churches keep the seventh day Sabbath. This fact alone eliminates
many of the churches because they worship on Sunday rather than
on the seventh day Sabbath. Jews are for the most part faithful
to the seventh day Sabbath and the other nine commandments. Many
of the Sunday churches will even go so far as to say that the law
(ten commandment law) was done away with at the cross when Jesus
died. These churches are not and can not be part of the remnant
of Israel. 
     The remnant of Israel has another identifying
characteristic; it has the testimony or faith of Jesus Christ.
This characteristic is inclusive of most Christian Churches and
exclusive of the unbelieving Jews. These two identifying
characteristics alone eliminate most of the Jews and Christians.
     There is one other identifying characteristic that is not as



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