QUESTIONS  #5



Why Does the Universe Seem to Be Expanding?


At least eleven times, the Bible says that God "stretched out" or "stretches out" the heavens. For emphasis, important ideas are often repeated in the Bible. While we may have difficulty visualizing this stretching, we can be confident of its significance.

























The context of each of the verses deals with creation. Although past and present tenses (stretched and stretches) are expressed in these English translations, Hebrew verbs do not generally convey past, present, or future. Translators must rely on context and other clues to try to determine verb tense.

Even if we knew the intended Hebrew tense, is the stretching from God's perspective or man's? The creation was completed in six days (Exodus 20:11), suggesting that in God's time the heavens were stretched out during the creation week, perhaps on Day 4. However, in our time, some redshifted light from extreme distances—a consequence of this past stretching—is reaching us now.


NOPE!  BROWN  DOES  NOT  UNDERSTAND  GENESIS  CHAPTER  ONE  AT  ALL.  SEE  OTHER  STUDIES  ON  THIS  WEBSITE  THAT  CORRECTLY  EXPOUND  GENESIS  ONE  -  Keith Hunt


The Hebrew word for stretched is natah. It does not mean an explosion, a flinging out, or the type of stretching that encounters increasing resistance, as with a spring or rubber band. Natah is more like the effortless reaching out of one's hand.


WELL  THIS  IS  SEMANTICS,  IF  I  CLOSE  MY  HAND  THEN  OPEN  IT  OUT,  IT  MAY  NOT  OPEN  OUT  WITH  A  BANG,  BUT  IT  IS  STILL  STRETCHED  OUT  -  Keith Hunt


Expansion: Big Bang or Stretching?


The stretching explanation, proposed here, has similarities and differences with the big bang theory. Both the big bang and stretching explanations describe a very rapid expansion of the universe, beginning soon after time began, when not all laws of physics applied. As one big bang authority states:


In its standard form, the big bang theory maintains that the universe was born about 15 billion years ago from a cosmological singularitya state in which the temperature and density are infinitely high. Of course, one cannot really speak in physical terms about these quantities as being infinite. One usually assumes that the current laws of physics did not apply [during the big bang's rapid expansion]. ... One may wonder, What came before? If space-time did not exist then, how could everything appear from nothing? What arose first: the universe or the laws determining its evolution? Explaining this initial singularitywhere and when it all beganstill remains the most intractable problem of modern cosmology? [emphasis added]



I  HAVE  ALREADY  STATED  THE  UNIVERSE  DID  NOT  START


WITH  THE  "BIG  BANG"  THAT  IS  BEING  TAUGHT  BY  MOST


EVOLUTIONARY  SCIENTISTS.  THE  ONLY  THING  THE  BIG


BANG  PEOPLE  HAVE  CORRECT  IS  AT  ONE  POINT  IN  TIME


THERE  WAS  NO  PHYSICAL  ANYTHING,  THEN  THERE  WAS.


WE  HAVE  SEEN  THAT  THE  HEBREW  OF  GEN.1:1  FOR


"BEGINNING"  IS  PLURAL,  HENCE  "BEGINNINGS"  OR  AS


FENTON  TRANSLATED  IT  "BY  PERIODS  God  created  the


heavens  and  the  earth"  -  Keith Hunt


The stretching explanation, in contrast to the standard big bang theory, does not begin at a singularity, an infinitesimal point.3 Nor does energy expended in stretching out the heavens come from within the universe or during its first trillionth of a trillionth of a ten-billionth of a second (10"34 second) or less, as with the big bang theory. Energy flowed into the universe as the stretching progressed. According to the big bang theory, stars, galaxies, and black holes began forming after hundreds of millions of years. According to the stretching explanation, these bodies were formed (or began) near the beginning of time—during the creation week. Because matter and starlight occupy space, they were also stretched. You can decide which explanation the following surprising evidence supports.


BROWN  IS  BASICALLY  CORRECT,  BUT  HE  HOLDS  THE  POSITION  THAT  THE  UNIVERSE  WAS  CREATED  IN  THE  6  DAYS  OF  GENESIS  ONE.  I  DO  NOT;  STUDIES  ON  THIS  WEBSITE  SHOW  BROWN  IS  INCORRECT  -  Keith Hunt



THE  EVIDENCE


Accelerating Expansion. The redshift of distant starlight suggests an expansion. However, a big bang should produce only a decelerating expansion, not the accelerating expansion   observed. Stretching, completed during the creation week, could have produced the accelerated expansion that is shown by the light that has finally reached Earth from the edge of the visible universe.


THE  EXPANSION  WAS  STARTED  WAY  BEFORE  GENESIS  CHAPTER  ONE  -  Keith Hunt


Star Formation. Astronomers recognize that the densest concentrations of gas seen in the universe could not form stars by any known means, including gravitational collapse, unless that gas was thousands of times more compact than today.4 Apparently, stars were formed as, or before, the heavens were stretched out.


STARS  WERE  FORMED  IN  THE  MANNER  GOD  DECLARED,  SOME  VERY  YOUNG,  SOME  MIDDLE  AGE,  SOME  VERY  OLD  AND  READY  TO  BLOW  UP  AS  A  SUPER-NOVA.  ALL  DONE  BEFORE  GENESIS  CHAPTER  ONE,  OR  MORE  CORRECT  BEFORE  VERSE  2  -  Keith Hunt


Black Holes. A black hole is at the center of at least every nearby galaxy. (Black holes are so massive that nothing can escape their gravity—even light.) Astronomers admit that black holes must have existed very soon after the universe began,5 but the big bang theory says that all matter was spread out uniformly after 300,000 years, before stars formed. That uniformity would prevent gravity from forming galaxies and black holes even over the supposed age of the universe.6 However, stars and black holes could easily have formed or existed soon after the creation of matter and the universe, when the universe was much smaller and the heavens had not yet been stretched out. Had this stretching not occurred, all the matter in the universe would have collapsed into a black hole. Life would not exist.


IT  WAS  DONE  AS  GOD  CREATED  IT….. SHALL  WE  SAY  A  "MATURE"  UNIVERSE;  NOT  FORMING  OVER  BILLIONS  OF  YEARS  AS  THE  BIG  BANG  EVOLUTIONISTS  WOULD  HAVE  IT  -  Keith Hunt


Central Stars. About forty stars are orbiting within a few dozen light-hours of the black hole at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. Those stars could never have evolved that close to a black hole, which has the mass of 4,000,000 suns. The black hole's gravity would have prevented gas from collapsing to become a star.7 However, those stars could have formed in a much denser environment,8 before space was stretched out during the creation week.


NOT  A  "CREATION  WEEK"  BUT  AS  GOD  CREATED  IT  IN  PERIODS,  AND  AS  A  FULL  GROWN  MATURE  GALAXY;  AT  ONE  POINT  NOT  THERE,  AT  ANOTHER  POINT  IT  WAS  THERE;  BY  THE  WORD  OF  HIS  MOUTH  HE  SPOKE  AND  IT  WAS  DONE  -  Keith Hunt


Spiral Galaxies. If spiral galaxies formed billions of years ago, their arms should be wrapped more tightly around their centers than they are. Also, nearer galaxies should show much more "wrap" than more distant spiral galaxies. However, if space was recently stretched out, spiral galaxies could appear as they do.


NO,  GOD  COULD  CREATE  IT  AND  KEEP  IT  AS  IS  FOR  AS  LONG  AS  HE  WANTED.  PHYSICAL  LAWS  OF  "WRAPPING  MORE  TIGHTLY"  ETC.  DO  NOT  APPLY  TO  GOD.  HE  IS  NOT  BOUND  BY  WHAT  WE  SAY  PHYSICAL  LAWS  WOULD  DO  THIS  OR  THAT  IN  WHATEVER  TIME  PERIODS  WE  DECIDE.  IF  GOD  WANTED  THE  UNIVERSE  TO  BE  BILLIONS  OF  YEARS  OLD,  HE  COULD  DO  IT  AND  HAVE  WHATEVER,  AS  WE  SEE  IT  TODAY.  GOD  IS  NOT  BOUND  BY  OUR  HUMAN  IDEAS  OF  PHYSICS  OR  ANYTHING  WE  TRY  TO  POSTULATE  ON  -  Keith Hunt


Heavy Elements in Stars. According to the big bang theory, there are three generations of stars, each with increasing amounts of heavy elements. The first generation would have contained only hydrogen and helium. After hundreds of millions of years, second-generation stars would begin forming with heavier elements made inside first-generation stars that later exploded. Although some first-generation stars should still be visible, not one has ever been found. 


According to the stretching explanation, stars have always had some heavier chemical elements. Telescopes that can see the farthest back in time see stars, galaxies, and quasars containing these heavier chemical elements.


YES  GOD  CAN  CREATE  AS  HE  CHOOSES,  WITH  PROPERTIES  IN  STARS  AND  ETC.  OF  HEAVY,  LIGHT,  AND  SO  FORTH,  AS  HE  WILLS.  GOD  JUST  HAD  TO  SPEAK  IT  INTO  BEING  AND  IT  WAS  DONE  -  Keith Hunt


Stellar Velocities. Stars in the outer parts of spiral galaxies travel much faster than they should based on physical laws. However, if only thousands of years ago those stars were nearer the centers of their galaxies before the heavens were stretched out, they could have had the higher speeds we see. Those speeds would remain even after the heavens were stretched out. (So-called dark matter, which has not been directly measured or detected, would not need to be imagined to explain these velocities.)


ONCE  MORE  HUMAN  REASONING  AND  PHYSICAL  LAWS  AND  MAN  TRYING  TO  PUT  IT  TOGETHER,  IS  USELESS  THEORIES.  IT  IS  ALL  GUESS  WORK.  GOD  CAN  HAVE  WHATEVER  GOING  AS  FAST  AS  HE  LIKE  FOR  AS  LONG  AS  HE  LIKES…. YES  EVEN  BILLIONS  OF  YEARS,  IF  HE  SO  WISHES.  THE  MORE  SCIENTISTS  DISCOVER  THE  UNIVERSE  THE  MORE  THEY  SEE,  OUR  LAWS  ON  EARTH  DO  NOT  APPLY  EVERYWHERE  AT  ALL.  AGAIN  GOD  DOES  WHAT  HE  DECIDES  AS  HE  DECIDES  IT  -  Keith Hunt


Speeding Galaxies. A similar observation can be made about tight clusters of galaxies. Galaxies in clusters are traveling much faster than they should, based on their distances from their clusters' centers of mass.


AGAIN  BY  WHOSE  LAWS?  GOD  CAN  HAVE  DIFFERENT  LAWS  OF  "THE  UNIVERSE"  AS  HE  WANTS.  HE  IS  GOD  NOT  US;  HE  DOES  NOT  HAVE  TO  TAKE  MAN'S  LAWS  OR  THE  LAWS  ON  EARTH  AND  PUT  THEM  EVERYWHERE,  LIKES  HE'S  IN  A  STRAIGHT-JACKET.  HE  CAN  DO  WHAT  HE  WANTS  WHERE  HE  WANTS  AND  HOW  HE  WANTS  -  Keith Hunt


Distant Galaxies. Massive galaxies and galaxy clusters, are now found at such great distances that they must have formed soon after the universe began. The big bang theory cannot explain how such galaxy concentrations could have formed so quickly and so far away.9 The stretching explanation says that galaxies and galaxy clusters began before the heavens were stretched out, when all matter was relatively confined.


THE  OTHER  CLOSER  EXPLANATION  IS  IN  THAT  WORD  "BEGINNING"  -  BEING  PLURAL  -  BEGINNINGS,  OR  AS  FENTON  PUT  IT  "BY  PERIODS….."  GOD  COULD  SAY,  "MASSIVE  GALAXIES  AND  GALAXY  CLUSTERS  BE  FORMED  OVER  THERE;  NOW  OVER  HERE;  THEN  OVER  THERE."  BY  PERIODS  THE  UNIVERSE  WAS  MADE,  AT  THE  COMMAND  OF  GOD'S  VOICE….. BE  IT  CLOSE  TO  THE  EARTH [RELATIVELY  SPEAKING]   OR  BILLIONS  OF  LIGHT  YEARS  AWAY - Keith Hunt


Strings of Galaxies. It is widely recognized that gravity would not pull matter into long strings of hundreds or thousands of galaxies—even if the universe were unbelievably old. Instead, gravity, if acting over enormous time and distances, would form more spherical globs of matter. Yet, long, massive filaments of galaxies have been discovered.10


GOD  DOES  NOT  HAVE  TO  STICK  TO  SOME  LAW  OF  GRAVITY  THAT  WE  HAVE  ON  EARTH.  HE  CAN  CREATE  AS  HE  WISHES  IN  ANY  SHAPE  HE  WISHES,  AT  WHATEVER  TIME  HE  WISHES.  NONE  OF  THE  IDEAS  PRESENTED  SO  FAR  PROVE  A  YOUNG  UNIVERSE,  AS  BROWN  WOULD  TEACH  WAS  CREATED  IN  SIX  DAYS  ABOUT  6  THOUSAND  YEARS  AGO;  THE  POPULAR  PROTESTANT  FUNDAMENTAL  IDEA  -  Keith Hunt


These strings of galaxies can be understood if galaxies were formed when all matter in the universe was initially confined to a much smaller volume. (In that small volume, stars and galaxies formed either by the direct acts of a Creator or by the powerful gravitational forces resulting from so much extremely confined mass.) Then, the heavens were rapidly stretched out. Just as one might pull taffy into long strings, the stretched out heavens might contain long, massive strings of thousands of galaxies. A surprising number appear connected or aligned with other galaxies or quasars, as prominent astronomers have noted. 


AGAIN  THIS  IDEA  PUT  FORTH  BROWN  WOULD  SAY  WAS  DONE  IN  SIX  DAYS  AND  ABOUT  6  THOUSAND  YEARS  AGO;  NOT  AT  ALL  TRUE  -  Keith Hunt


Star Streams. Some stars within our Milky Way Galaxy are moving in paths and with velocities that show they were captured from neighboring dwarf galaxies. The stars in each stream also have common chemical characteristics. Most of these dwarf galaxies have been completely "consumed" by our galaxy.11 However, one of them, Sagittarius, is still visible, but its orbit and its core of tightly packed stars are too far away to be captured by the Milky Way's gravity.12 All this can be explained in two ways: (1) before the universe was stretched out, Sagittarius and the consumed dwarfs were formed but much closer to the initial Milky Way Galaxy, or (2) dark matter (if it exists at all) was distributed in unknown ways that helped form these dwarf galaxies and placed them in different orbits that allowed them to be captured and cannibalized by the Milky Way Galaxy. Obviously, hypothesis (1) is the simpler of the two.


THEN  AGAIN  IF  WE  GIVE  MORE  THAN  6  THOUSAND  YEARS  AGO  FOR  THE  CREATION  OF  THE  UNIVERSE;  ALL  KINDS  OF  THINGS  COULD  HAVE  HAPPENED,  AND  IN  WHATEVER  SPEED  GOD  DECIDED  TO  KEEP  THEM  GOING,  FOR  AS  LONG  AS  HE  WISHED.  TIME  AND  THE  LAWS  ON EARTH  THAT  HUMANS  LIVE  IN,  GOD  NEED  NOT  FOLLOW  ELSEWHERE.  HE  CAN  DO  WHAT  HE  WANTS,  WHEN  HE  WANTS,  AND  HOW  HE  WANTS  -  Keith Hunt


Dwarf Galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are sometimes imbedded in a smoothly rotating disk of hydrogen gas that is much larger than the galaxy itself. The mass (hidden or otherwise) of each dwarf galaxy and its surrounding gas is insufficient to pull the gas into its disk shape,13 but if this matter was once highly concentrated and then the space it occupied was recently stretched out, all observed characteristics would be explained. 


Figure 171: Dwarf Galaxy. A vast hydrogen disk (blue) surrounds the dwarf galaxy, UGC 5288 (bright white). This isolated galaxy, 16 million light-years from earth, contains about 100,000 stars and is 1/25 the diameter of our Milky Way Galaxy, which has at least 100,000,000,000 stars. The dwarf's mass is about 30 times too small to gravitationally hold onto the most distant hydrogen gas, so gravity could not have pulled the distant hydrogen gas into its disk. Because the gas is too evenly distributed and rotates so smoothly, it was not expelled from the galaxy or pulled out by a close encounter with another galaxy.


NOTICE  THE  "IF"  -  WITH  GOD  THERE  IS  NO  IF,  HE  DECIDES


TO  HAVE  IT  A  CERTAIN  WAY  [AND  OFTEN  IT  SEEMS  JUST  TO


CONFUSE  THE  HUMAN  MIND]  -  GOD  CAN  DO  WANT  HE


WANTS  HOW  HE  WANTS  -  Keith Hunt



Hydrogen gas would have assumed this shape if space was once more compact and later was stretched out. Before the stretching, gravitational forces would have been much more powerful, thereby producing this smooth rotational pattern. This would have occurred recently, because the gaseous disk has not dispersed into the vacuum of space. (The galaxy is seen in visible light; the hydrogen disk is seen by a fleet of 27 radio telescopes.)


PROVES  NOTHING,  ONLY  THAT  GOD  IS  NOT  SUBJECT  TO  OUR  LAWS  THAT  WE  HAVE  ON  EARTH,  OR  THINK  HOW  CERTAIN  LAWS  SHOULD  WORK  IN  OTHER  PARTS  OF  THE  UNIVERSE.  BY  OUR  OBSERVING  THE  UNIVERSE  TODAY,  WE  SHOULD  BY  NOW  HAVE  SEEN  HOW  VARIED  THINGS  ARE.  SHOULD  BE  NO  SURPRISE  WHEN  WE  LOOK  AT  HOW  VARIED  THINGS  ON  THIS  EARTH  ARE.  THE  ETERNAL  IS  A  GOD  OF  VARIETY,  THAT  DEFIES  THE  HUMAN  MIND,  AND  HOW  WE  THINK  LAWS  SHOULD  BE  THROUGHOUT  THE  UNIVERSE.  HOW  PUNY  IS  MAN  COMPARED  TO  GOD  -  Keith Hunt



Colliding Galaxies. Some galaxies contain two distinct rotating systems, as if a galaxy rotating one way collided with another rotating the opposite way. Based on the speeds of galaxies we see and their separation distances today, such mergers would take billions of years.


NOT  SO  IF  GOD  SAID  THE  WORD  -  IT  WOULD  BE  DONE  -  Keith Hunt


Does this mean that the universe must be billions of years old? No. Before the heavens were stretched out, galaxies would have been closer to each other, resulting in much greater speeds and frequent collisions. Today, galaxies are stretched so far apart that, according to astronomers' calculations, collisions should rarely happen. However, past galactic mergings are surprisingly common.14


AND  THAT  IS  IF  THAT  HUMAN  SPECULATION  IS  CORRECT,  BUT  IT  IS  HUMAN  THEORY  BASED  ON  HUMAN  IDEAS  OF  GALAXIES  CLOSER  TOGETHER  WITH  GREATER  SPEED.  GALACTIC  MERGINGS  ARE  BECAUSE  GOD  SAID  IT,  OR  THEY  WERE  PLACED  OR  BROUGHT  TOGETHER  FASTER  BY  OTHER  SPEED  LAWS  GOD  HAD  SET  IN  OTHER  PARTS  OF  THE  UNIVERSE.  WHAT  WAS  ONCE,  DOES  NOT  MEAN  IT  IS  TODAY  -  Keith Hunt



If some galaxies merged over billions of years, why haven't the different rotations within a merged galaxy homogenized by now? Obviously, the mergings did not happen billions of years ago.15


WHY  NOT?  VERY  SIMPLE:  GOD  SET  IT  NOT  TO  BE  SO.  BROWN'S  ARGUMENT  IS  WEAK  WHEN  WE  CONSIDER  THE  POWER  AND  WILL  OF  GOD,  AS  TO  WHEN  AND  HOW  HE  WANTS  TO  DO  THINGS  -  Keith Hunt



Helium-2 Nebulas. Clouds of glowing, blue gas, called helium-2 nebulas, have been set aglow by something hot enough to strip two electrons from each helium atom. No known star—young or old—is hot enough to do so,16 but compressed conditions before the heavens were stretched out would do this.


NO  GOD  COULD  DO  IT  AS  AND  WHEN  HE  WANTED.  GOD  CAN  DO  WHAT  HE  WILLS  WITHOUT  US  MAKING  UP  SOME  "COMPRESSED  CONDITIONS  BEFORE…."  WHAT  PEOPLE  WILL  TRY  AND  THINK  UP  TO  HOLD  A  FULL  UNIVERSE  CREATED  IN  6  DAYS  OF  GENESIS  ONE  -  Keith Hunt



Dark "Science!" The big bang theory must invoke unscientific concepts, such as "dark matter" and "dark energy," to try to explain the "stretched out heavens." What is dark matter and dark energy? Even believers in those ideas don't know.17 [Dark matter, dark energy, and many other scientific problems with the big bang theory are discussed, beginning on page 30.]


WELL  THERE  IS  BLACKNESS  OUT  THERE,  THE  BIBLE  SPEAKS  OF  IT [JUDE  13]  -  WHAT  IF  ANYTHING  THAT  BLACKNESS  CONTAINS,  WE  SHALL  NEED  TO  WAIT  I  SUSPECT  FOR  JESUS  TO  TELL  US  WHEN  HE  COMES  AGAIN  -  Keith Hunt


Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The CMB is often given as evidence for the big bang theory. Actually, that radiation, when studied closely, is a strong argument against the big bang and evidence for the sudden creation of matter within an immense universe. [For details, see pages 333-335.]


OKAY  NO  PROBLEM  AS  I  DO  NOT  HOLD  TO  A  BIG  BANG  BEGINNING  OF  THE  UNIVERSE,  AS  EVOLUTIONISTS  TEACH  -  Keith Hunt

Summary


With both the big bang and stretching explanations, it is difficult to imagine time beginning, the sudden presence of matter and energy in a small universe, a brief period when laws of physics did not operate, and space expanding. The big bang theory says that space expanded for a brief fraction of a second from a mathematical point—trillions of billions of times faster than the speed of light today. The stretching theory says that a much smaller universe than we have today was rapidly stretched out, along with the matter and light in that space. Although no scientific explanation can be given for either form of expansion, we can see which explanation fits the observable evidence.


AH  NOTE  NO  SCIENTIFIC  EXPLANATION  CAN  BE  GIVEN  FOR  EITHER  FORM  OF  EXPANSION…..SO  BROWN'S  ARGUMENTS  ALSO  HOLD  NO  WATER  AND  HE  ADMITS  IT.  NOW  A  UNIVERSE  BROUGHT  INTO  BEING  BY  "BEGINNINGS"  OR  BY  "PERIODS"  -  THIS  OVER  HERE,  THAT  OVER  THERE,  AND  YET  THIS  SOMEWHERE  ELSE,  HOW  AND  WHEN  GOD  DECIDED,  IN  ALL  MANNER  OF  FORMS  AND  SHAPES,  YOUNG  OR  OLD,  NEW,  OR  BEING  FORMED,  OLD,  AND  BLOWING  UP,  AND  ETC.  EVERYTHING  NOT  BEING  EQUAL,  BUT  DIFFERENT  AS  GOD  CHOSE.  JUST  LOOK  AT  OUR  LITTLE  SOLAR  SYSTEM  AND  SEE  THE  DIFFERENCES  IN  OUR  NINE  PLANETS,  ONE  OF  THEM  DOES  NOT  EVEN  HAVE  ANY  LAND  SURFACE  TO  LAND  ON  BUT  WE  STILL  CALL  IT  A   PLANET.  THINGS  ARE  SO  DIFFERENT  JUST  IN  OUR  TINY  PART  OF  OUR  MILKY  WAY  GALAXY  -  MIND  BENDING  -  Keith Hunt


We also can appreciate why at least eleven Bible passages, involving five different writers, mention the "stretched out heavens." Another verse, Psalm 19:1, takes on a new depth of meaning: "The heavens are telling of the glory of God, and their expanse is declaring the work of His hands."


YES  GOD  HAS  EXPANDED  THE  UNIVERSE;  IT  IS  BEING  STRETCH  OUT;  IT  IS  ON  GOING.  EXPANDING,  STRETCHING,  MOVING  OUT;  HOWEVER  YOU  WANT  TO  PUT  IT  IN  SEMANTIC  TERMS…… THE  HEAVENS  ARE  STRETCHED  OUT  IN  ALL  KINDS  OF  WAYS  AND  FORMS.  OUR  GOD  IS  SURELY  A  GOD  OF  VARIETY;  NOTHING  BORING  ABOUT  THE  ETERNAL  FATHER  OF  THE  UNIVERSE  -  Keith Hunt

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