QUESTION  #3


From  Walt  Brown


Have Scientific Tools Detected Adam and Eve within Us?

Virtually all cells of every living thing (plants, animals, and humans) contain tiny strands of coded information called DNA. DNA directs the cell, telling it what to produce and when. Therefore, much of your appearance and personality is determined by DNA you inherited from your parents.


In human cells, the nucleus contains 99.5% of the DNA. Half of it came from the individual's mother and half from the father. Because both halves are shuffled together, it is difficult to identify which parent contributed any tiny segment. In other words, half of this DNA changes with each generation. However, outside the nucleus of each cell are thousands of little energy-producing components called mitochondria, each containing a circular strand of DNA. This mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comes only from, the mother. Where did she get hers? From her mother— and so on. Normally, mtDNA does not change from generation to generation.


DNA is written with an alphabet of four letters: A, G, T, and C. One copy of a person's mtDNA is 16,559 letters long. Sometimes a mutation changes one of the letters in the mtDNA that a mother passes on to her child. These rare and somewhat random changes allow geneticists to identify families. For example, if your grandmother experienced an early mutation in her mtDNA, her children and any daughters' children would carry the same changed mtDNA. It would differ, in general, from that in the rest of the world's population.1


In 1987, a team at the University of California at Berkeley published a study comparing the mtDNA- of 147 people from five of the world's geographic locations.2 They concluded that all 147 had the' same female ancestor. She is now called "the mitochondrial Eve"


Where did mitochondrial Eve live? Initial research concluded it was probably Africa. Later, after much debate, it was realized that Asia and Europe were also possible origins for the mitochondrial Eve.3


From a biblical perspective, do we know where Eve lived? Because the flood was so destructive, no one knows where the Garden of Eden was.4 However, Noah's three daughters-in-law, who lived only a dozen or so generations after Eve, began raising their families near Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey—very near the common boundary of Asia, Africa, and Europe. (Each of us can claim one of Noah's daughters-in-law as our ever-so-great grandmother.) So, it is not surprising that Asia, Africa, and Europe are candidate homes for mitochondrial Eve.


FALSE  ASSUMPTION….. NOTE  BROWN  SAYS  "NEAR  MOUNT  ARARAT."  THE  BIBLE  SAYS  NO  SUCH  THING.  THE  BIBLE  SAYS  "THE  MOUNTAINS  OF  ARARAT."  AND  FURTHER  IT  IS  SHOWN  IN  THE  STUDY  "NOAH'S  FLOOD  WAS  NOT  WORLDWIDE" [ON THIS WEBSITE] AND  THERE  IS  A  DISPUTE  OVER  WHERE  THE  MOUNTAINS  OF  ARARAT  ARE  LOCATED  -  Keith Hunt


Likewise, when similar words, sounds, and grammar of the world's most widely spoken languages are traced back in time, they also seem to originate near Ararat.5 Another convergence near eastern Turkey is found when one traces agriculture back in time.6


VERY  DISPUTED  IDEAS;  THERE  WAS  ONE  LANGUAGE  AND  SPEECH  [GEN.11:1]  IN  THE  WORLD,  WHICH  BY  GENESIS   11  COULD  HAVE  COVERED  MUCH  LAND  IN  THE  SO-CALLED  MIDDLE-EAST;  GOD  CONFOUNDED  THE  LANGUAGE  AND  SCATTERED  THE  PEOPLE.  THE  ARGUMENTS  ABOVE  ARE  WEAK  TO  TRY  AND  PROVE  A  CERTAIN  POINT  YOU  HOLD  -  Keith Hunt


[Figure 167: Language Divergence. Languages are related, as are genes. One of thousands of examples is the word for "from, of." It exists in French (de), Italian (di), Spanish (de), Portuguese (de), and Romanian (de). So, these languages, now spoken generally in southwestern Europe, are twigs on a tree branch called the Romance languages (Romance referring to Rome). This branch joins a larger branch that includes all languages derived primarily from Latin. They merge with other large branches, such as the Germanic branch that includes English, into a family called the Indo-European languages. When these and other languages are traced, back in time, they appear to converge near Mount Ararat, a likely landing site of Noah's Ark. Linguists admit that they do not understand the origin of languages, only how languages spread.7]


NOTE  BROWN'S  WORDS  "THEY  APPEAR  to  converge  near  Mount  Ararat"  -  AGAIN  GRASPING  AT  STRAWS  TO  HOLD  A  SPECIFIC  IDEA  OF  ONE  MOUNTAIN  THEY  WANT  TO  CALL  ARARAT  IN  A  CERTAIN  LOCATION,  BECAUSE  THEY  BASE  IT  ALL  ON  A  PREMISE  THAT  HAS  NO  BIBLICAL  AUTHORITY  TO  UPHOLD  IT;  BUT  OLD  ESTABLISHED  IDEAS  AND  BELIEFS  ARE  HARD  TO  LET  GO  OF  -  Keith Hunt


When did mitochondrial Eve live? To answer this, one must know how frequently mutations occur in mtDNA. Initial estimates were based on the following faulty-reasoning: "Humans and chimpanzees had a common ancestor about 5 million years ago. Because the mtDNA in humans and chimpanzees differ in 1,000 places, one mutation occurs about every 10,000 years." Another incorrect approach began by assuming that Australia was first populated 40,000 years ago. The average number of 'mitochondrial mutations' among Australian aborigines divided by 40,000 years gave another extremely slow mutation rate for mtDNA. These estimated rates, based on evolution, led to the mistaken belief that mitochondrial Eve lived 100,000-200,000 years ago.8 This surprised evolutionists who believe that our common ancestor was an apelike creature that lived 3 and 1/2. million years ago.


AGAIN  FALSE  PRESUMPTIONS  BY  EVOLUTIONISTS  BASED  UPON  FALSE  IDEAS  OF  MUTATIONS….. LEADS  TO  ONE  FALSE  IDEA  BUILT  UPON  ANOTHER  FALSE  IDEA  -  Keith Hunt


A greater surprise, even disbelief, occurred in 1997, when it was announced that mutations in mtDNA occur 20 times faster than had been estimated. Without assuming that humans and chimpanzees had a common ancestor 5 million years ago or that Australia was populated 40,000 years ago, mutation rates can now be determined directly by comparing the mtDNA of many mother-child pairs. Using the new, more accurate rate, mitochondrial Eve lived only about 6,500 years ago?


NOPE!  ALL  THIS  BASED  UPON  NEW  IDEAS  OF  HOW  FAST  MUTATIONS  OCCUR.  HENCE  BROWN  LIKES  THE  NEW  IDEA,  AS  IT  PUTS  THE  TEACHING  THAT  ADAM  AND  EVE  WERE  CREATED  ABOUT  6,000  YEARS  AGO;  A  BELIEF  HELD  BY  FUNDAMENTAL  PROTESTANTS  FOR  THE  LAST  FEW  HUNDRED  YEARS.  THE  FALSENESS  OF  IT  ALL  LIES  IN  THE  FACT  MUTATIONS  MAY  NOT  HAVE  BEEN  A  CONSTANT,  A  LAW  UNBREAKABLE,  SINCE  CREATION.  GOD  CAN  HAVE  MUTATIONS  HAPPENING  AS  OFTEN  AND  AS  VARIED  IN  TIME,  AS  HE  WISHES.  NONE  OF  US  LIKE  BROWN,  WERE  THERE  IN  THE  BEGINNING,  OR  IN  THE  LAST  THOUSANDS  OF  YEARS [HOWEVER  MANY  THOUSANDS]  SINCE  ADAM  AND  EVE  -  Keith Hunt


Is there a "genetic Adam"? A man receives from his father a segment of DNA which lies on the Y chromosome; this makes him a male. Where did your father receive his segment? From his father. If we all descended from one man, all males should have the same Y chromosome segment—except for rare mutations.

A 1995 study of a worldwide sample of 38 men showed no changes in this segment of the Y chromosome that is always inherited from fathers. Had humans evolved and all men descended from one male who lived 500,000 years ago, each should carry about 19 mutations. Had he lived 150,000 years ago, 5.5 mutations would be expected.10 Because no changes were found, our common father probably lived only thousands of years ago. While Adam was father of all, our most recent common male ancestor was Noah.


AGAIN  FALSE  PRESUMPTION  THAT  MUTATIONS  WERE  "CONSTANT"  THROUGH  PAST  TIME;  WHICH  GIVES  BROWN  WHAT  HE  NEEDS  TO  PUT  ADAM  ABOUT  6,000  YEARS  AGO,  AS  ALL  FUNDAMENTAL  PROTESTANTS  STILL  WANT  TO  TEACH  -  Keith Hunt


For completeness, we must also consider another possibility. Even if we all descended from the same female, other women may have been living at the same time. Their chains of continuous female descendants may have ended; their mtDNA died out. This happens with family names. If Mary and John XYZ have no sons, their unusual last name dies out. Likewise, many other men may have lived at the same time as our "genetic Adam (or Noah)." They might have no male descendants living today. How likely is it that other men lived a few thousand years ago but left no continuous male descendants, and other women lived 6,000 years ago but left no continuous female descendants, and we end up today with a world population of almost 7 billion people? Extremely remote!11


VARIOUS  GRAPHS  OF  PAST  HISTORY  AND  RECENT  HISTORY  SHOW  HOW  QUICKLY  THE  WORLD  POPULATION  IS  MULTIPLYING  TODAY,  EVEN  IN  THE  LAST  100  YEARS.  AGAIN  BROWN  IS  GRASPING  AT  STRAWS  TO  STICK  TO  A  6,000  YEAR  AGO  CREATION  OF  EVERYTHING  IN  THE  UNIVERSE  -  Keith Hunt


Yes, new discoveries show that we carry traces of Adam and Eve in our cells. Furthermore, our common "parents" are probably removed from us by only 200-300 generations. All humans have a common and recent bond—a family bond. We are all cousins.


CERTAINLY  WE  ALL  COME  FROM  ADAM  AND  EVE;  200-300  GENERATIONS  IS  ONLY  GUESS  WORK  BY  BROWN.  SOME  GENEALOGIES  OF  THE  BIBLE,  ACTUALLY  LEAVE  OUT  GENERATIONS,  WHICH  SHOCKS  MANY  CHRISTIANS  TO  REALIZE  THE  WRITERS  OF  SOME  BOOKS  OF  THE  BIBLE  ACTUALLY  DID  THIS.


FOR  A  FEW  MORE  SHOCKS,  READ  THE  STUDY  "HOW  PAUL  USED  THE  OLD  TESTAMENT"  ON  THIS  WEBSITE;  BE  PREPARED  FOR  SOME  REVEALING  TRUTH,  THAT  SHOW  NOT  ALL  IS  NICELY  BLACK  AND  WHITE  OR  TIED  UP  NEATLY  WITH  A  PINK  RIBBON  IN  BIBLE  USE.


Keith Hunt