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The Parthian Empire was Israelite

The many proofs

        
PARTHIA - AN ISRAELITE EMPIRE FORGOTTEN #2

From the book "The Lost Ten Tribes of Israel...Found!"

by Steven Collins


Continued from previous page:


     In chapter four an account was cited that a large portion of
the ten tribes who escaped Assyrian captivity by migrating
northward into the Caucasus were led by a "chief or prince whom
they appointed." 32 How did David's descendants come to rule in
that region? This indicates that they made a clean break with
whatever dynasty was ruling Israel in its last days, and that a
new leader was "appointed" by the escaping Israelites. The
subsequent evidence that their rulers included the name of
"Phares" argues that this group of the ten tribes picked a
"prince" of David's royal line as their new leader. They migrated
in approximately 724-721 B.C., and by 653 B.C. a leader of a
Scythian-Cimmerian-Median alliance against Assyria was led by a
person named "Phraortes." 33 The name "Phraortes" includes the
root word PH-R-S (Phraortes), indicating a likely link to the
Davidic royal line of Phares. Phraortes is often regarded as a
"Mede," but his name is similar to the names of later Parthian
kings ("Phraates" or "Phraataces.)" This indicates that Phraortes
was a Scythian bearing a "Parthian" royal name even though
"Parthia" would not exist for another 400 years! It is apparent
that Davidic rulers of the line of Phares were ruling in Scythic
Iberia a century before Jehoiachin was made a vassal king of the
Babylonians in approximately 563 B.C.
     While David's descendants were ruling, literally, all over
Asia among the scattered descendants of the ten tribes of Israel,
the reader should not assume that their reigns were all
enlightened or cooperative. David was given the blessing that his
seed would always be rulers over the ten tribes of Israel;
however, David's descendants were also under a curse. After David
committed adultery with Bathsheba and also arranged the death of
her husband, Uriah, Nathan the prophet was sent by God to deliver
a curse (2 Samuel 12:10) that "the sword shall never depart from
thine house." The "sword" symbolizes that death by violence and
murder would be common among David's descendants. This happened
in David's lifetime as Amnon, David's eldest son, was killed by
Absalom, David's favorite son; Absalom was then killed during a
rebellion against David, and another of David's sons (Adonijah)
was killed by King Solomon (David's son via Bathsheba). This
curse also clung to the ruling house of Parthia. As we shall see
in chapter eight, Parthia's Arsacids regularly fought among
themselves over the throne of Parthia, and the more brutal rulers
killed many of their own relatives in order to eliminate rivals
to the throne. Yet, no matter how brutal or vicious the Arsacids
were among themselves, the Parthians always insisted that their
rulers had to be blood members of the Arsacid family.
     
     Another prominent city of Parthia was named Asaak, 34 where
Arsaces was crowned king, which clearly represents a form of the
name "Isaac." The name of Isaac had also been attached to
geographical areas in Asia long before Parthia ever became
independent. Strabo records that Alexander the Great noted a
region named Asaacanus which was traversed in Alexander's
expedition to India. 35
     The Parthian province of Media Atropatene was located
southwest of the Caspian Sea. The noted historian, George
Rawlinson, records that (in Parthian times) "Its chief city was
Gaza." 36 This city was apparently named after the famous old
Palestinian city of the same name, arguing its inhabitants had
come from Palestine. Given the fact that 2 Kings 17:6 records
that the Assyrian conquerors of old Israel had transported
Israelite captives to the "cities of the Medes," it is not
surprising that we later find a city of the Medes bearing a
Palestinian name.
     In the Parthian province of Hyrcania (located on the
southeast shores of the Caspian Sea), we find that two of its
chief cites were named "Samariane" and "Carta." 37 These names
are clear evidence of the presence of Israelites from the former
ten-tribed kingdom of Israel. Israel's capital city was named
Samaria, and 2 Kings 17:6-7 records that its inhabitants, after a
three-year siege, were transplanted by the Assyrians into Asia
after the city fell. Centuries later, we find a Parthian city,
Samariane, bearing the name of the capital city of the old
Kingdom of Israel. It is logical that Israelite captives would
later move to a place of their choosing (after the Assyrian
Empire disintegrated), and name one of their new cities in honor
of their ancestral capital. The city named "Carta" bears the same
Semitic root word which is present in the name "Carthage" (as was
discussed earlier in this chapter).
     There is additional evidence to support the Israelite
origins of the Parthians. While initial Parthian coins were
inscribed in Greek, later Parthian coins bear Semitic
inscriptions. 38 The Parthian monarchs, whose faces are shown on
their coins, clearly exhibit facial features of the white race,
supporting a Semitic origin for the Parthian nation. 39 Whether
we look at their language, their names or their faces, all hard
evidence indicates a Semitic origin for the Parthians, debunking
speculation that the Parthians were a Mongoloid (Oriental) race
from the interior of Asia.
     During Jesus Christ's ministry, Matthew 10:6 states that he
sent his twelve apostles "to the lost sheep of the House of
Israel." Biblical references to the House of Israel identify the
ten tribes of Israel, not the Jews (who were called the House of
Judah). Since Jesus Christ commissioned his apostles to go to the
descendants of the ten tribes of Israel, it is clear that Jesus
knew that the Israelites could be found in specific homelands at
that time. Also, the apostles expressed no surprise at this
commission as not one of them said: "No one knows where the ten
tribes are!" or "They were all 'lost' long ago!"
     Josephus and Jesus Christ did not consider the ten tribes to
be "lost" at all, but rather living in known geographical
locations. It is significant that the Apostle Peter wrote the
book of I Peter from the city of Babylon (I Peter 5:13). Since
Babylon was a city of the Parthian Empire at that time, it
indicates that Peter had heeded Jesus Christ's instructions by
travelling to territory ruled by the ten tribes. Historical
accounts also assert that the Apostle Thomas travelled within
Parthia. Indeed, the early church historian Eusebius identified
Thomas as the apostle sent to the Parthians. 40 There are
historical records which link the Apostle Thomas to the Parthian
king Gondophares (mentioned earlier), who reigned in ancient
India. 41 The presence of the apostles of Jesus Christ in
Parthian territory shows their recognition that the Parthians
were Israelites.
     It is also significant that there were Parthian believers in
the God of Israel who made pilgrimages to Jerusalem for the
annual Holy Days of God. Acts 2:1-10 states that Parthians were
present at the Pentecost Day when the Holy Spirit was poured out
to the Apostles. The Medes, Elamites and "dwellers in
Mesopotamia" mentioned in Acts 2:9 had all come from Parthian
provinces. Since part of the ten tribes had been settled in Media
(2 Kings 17:6), it is likely that the "Medes" who made a
religious pilgrimage to Jerusalem were Israelites from the ten
tribes. Some of these pilgrims were certainly Jews living in
Parthia, but many were not Jews. Verse 10 indicates that these
pilgrims were "Jews and proselytes (non-Jews)." Since Israelites
from the ten tribes were non-Jews, the term "proselytes" could
apply to them as well as gentiles. The Holy Day which the
apostles and devout pilgrims were keeping (later called
Pentecost) was the Feast of Weeks (Leviticus 23:15-21).
     In the preceding chapter, it was shown that the old
Phoenician/Hebrew trait of wearing a pointed hat (or miter) was
continued in the Scythian tribes. Parthian coins show that the
wearing of a pointed hat or miter was also a custom of the
Parthian kings. 42

     One more item of evidence concerning the Israelite nature of
the Parthian Empire will be presented, and then chapter eight
will examine its fascinating, albeit obscure, history. The final
piece of evidence concerns the name "Parthia" itself. In chapter
three it was pointed out that the Hebrew word for "covenant,"
(B-R-T or B-R-TH) was commonly used wherever the empire of Israel
was dominant. This Hebrew word formed the basis for regions
colonized by Israel ("Briton" and "Brittany") or for migrating
groups of Israelites ("Brythonic Celts"). We have seen that the
Phoenician/Hebrew Empire and Carthage placed the Hebrew word
"B-R-T" on their coins. How does this all pertain to the
Parthians?
     In the ancient world, the letters "B" and "P" were
interchangeable (both are phonetic "labial" sounds). In his book,
"Phoenician Origin of Britons, Scots and Anglo-Saxons," L.A.
Waddell points out that the "Phoenicians" interchanged the B's
and P's in various forms of the word B-R-T. He lists many ancient
forms in which the root word B-R-T was expressed. Words such as
"Barat," "Prat," "Britannia," and "Piriturn" are just a few
samples of words based on the Hebrew word for "covenant." 43 The
"Ancient British Chronicles" record that the first king of Briton
was named Brutus, whose name was also formed by the B-R-T
consonants of the Hebrew word for "covenant." 44 Waddell notes
that the Phoenicians interchanged the B's and P's in the
Mediterranean world, and adds that the Phoenicians of Cilicia
called the city of Tarsus "Parthenia." 45 The Greeks also
interchanged P's and B's, as the Greek explorer Pytheas referred
to the British Isles by the term "Pretanic" (using a P) while
Aristotle refers to them by the word "Britannic" (using a B). 46
Since the Greeks interchanged P's and B's and they wrote of the
Parthians, the word "Parthia" could just as easily have been
written as "Barthia," or "Brithia." In these forms the Hebrew
word for covenant: "B-R-T" or "B-R-TH," is clearly evident. In
fact, if the reader will consult a biblical concordance, the
Hebrew word for covenant will likely be "Brrith" (with the
consonants B-R-TH). 47 Representing the "B" as a "P," the
consonants become P-R-TH, the exact consonants of the word
"Parthia!" The identity of the Parthians is no longer a mystery.
They were the "covenant" people of the ten tribes of Israel who
were then living in Asia; their very name declared to the world
that they were the "covenant" people. Indeed, an early king of
their Scythian kinsmen named Partatua (circa 626 B.C.) included
the P-R-T root word which foreshadowed the later name: "Parthia."
48
     The interchangeability of the P's and B's in the ancient
world has also been noted by a modern epigrapher, Dr. Barry Fell.
He gives the name "P-Celts" to a group of Celts who used "P" and
"B" interchange ably. These "P" Celts were the "Bryphonic" Celts,
and they gave birth to the Breton, Welsh and Cornish languages as
well as the ancient "Gaulish languages of central and eastern
Europe." 49 The "P-Celts" were Israelites who, retaining the
designation as the "covenant" people, migrated westward toward
the British Isles and Europe rather
......


ISRAELITES: THE "COVENANT" PEOPLE

The Bible records that the tribes of Israel, under Moses, made a
"covenant" with God. The Israelites retained the unique awareness
that they were the "covenant" people as an enduring part of their
culture. The Hebrew word for "covenant" ("B-R-T' or "B-R-TH") was
placed on people, places and Phoenician/Carthaginian coins. The
presence of the Hebrew word for "covenant" on ancient peoples or
places is a strong identifier for locating where the ten tribes
of Israel migrated after leaving Palestine. Listed below are
important examples.

HEBREW WORD FOR "COVENANT" Without Vowels:   B-R-T, B-R-TH With
Vowels:   BERITH, BARAT, BRYTH, BRIT, B'RITH, etc.

TRIBAL/PLACE NAMES ASSOCIATED WITH MIGRATING ISRAELITES: BRITON,
BRETON, BRITTANY, BRYTHONIC CELTS, etc.

Some ancient cultures interchanged the letters "P" and "B" (both
are labial consonants with similar sounds). The Brythonic Celts,
who settled in ancient Britain, were known as P-Celts because of
this trait. The ancient Greeks also manifested this trait, using
the term "Pretanic Islands" for "Brittanic Islands." Since the
term Parthia has also come to us from early Greek writers,
substituting a "B" for the initial "P" of this word results in 
BARTHIA or B'RTHIA, a clear proclamation by the Parthians that
they were descended from the "covenant" people of the ten tribes
of Israel.

Place Name               Greek Name
BRITANNIC ISLANDS   =    PRETANIC ISLANDS

BRITHIA or B'RITHIA =    PARTHIA
......


than northward and eastward into Asia as did the Israelites who
became the Iberians, the Sacae Scythians and the Parthians.
The arrival of the "P-Celts" in Briton represented another
infusion of Israelite people into a population which was already
largely a product of Israelite colonization. In fact, the
dominant Israelite presence in Britain is confirmed in the fact
that the British Isles have been known by variants of the Hebrew
word for "covenant" (B-R-T) ever since the reigns of Kings David
and Solomon.

     In conclusion, let us briefly review the overwhelming
evidence that the Parthians were Israelites of the ten tribes of
Israel who had migrated to Asia. 

     The Parthians were never recorded as being in Asia until
after the ten tribes of Israel relocated to Asia. The Bible
records that these tribes were placed in the "cities of the
Medes," and Parthia's homeland adjoined the territory of the
Medes. History records the Parthians were first under the
dominion of the Assyrians, and that was also the fate of those
Israelites taken captive by the Assyrians. We can see the names
of subtribes of Ephraim in the Parthian homelands, and history is
clear that the Parthians were the kinsmen of the Scythian
Saka/Sacae (showing that the Parthians were also known as
descendants of Isaac).
     The Parthians and Scythians are the people written about by
Josephus as the extremely numerous descendants of the ten tribes
of Israel. Josephus, who lived in the first century A.D., wrote
the following about the ten tribes of Israel:

"...the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an
immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers." 50

     At the time that Josephus wrote, the Euphrates River had
long been the recognized border between the Roman and Parthian
Empires. For Josephus to write (from his perspective within the
Roman Empire) that the ten tribes were "beyond the Euphrates
River" was another way of saying the ten tribes were "in
Parthia," even as many Americans would recognize the phrase
"beyond the Rio Grande" as a euphemism for "in Mexico."
The Parthian cities of Asaak, Dara and Samariane were given
Hebrew names. Many groups from the Parthian Empire were among the
worshippers of the God of Israel who were in Jerusalem for a Holy
Day of God (the first Pentecost). The Parthians had
Hebrew/Semitic words in their language, and placed Semitic
inscriptions on their coins. The Parthian Arsacid dynasty
included the name of Isaac and many individual kings had names
which included the term "Phares," fulfilling God's promise to
David that his descendants would continue to have rulers over the
House of Israel. The very name "Parthia" preserves the Hebrew
word "B-R-TH" (with the "B" shown as a "P"), proclaiming that
they were "the covenant people." The facts are clear. The
Parthian Empire was an empire of Israelites who, having thrown
off the dominion of their captors, were now ruling over their
previous masters.
     While Rome dominated the Mediterranean region and much of
Europe, the Parthian Empire dominated the territory from the
Euphrates and Indus Rivers and between the Persian Gulf to the
Russian steppes of the Scythian tribes. The Parthian Empire
stretched approximately 1900 miles from east to west and 1000
miles from north to south. 51
     Parthia and Rome interacted on equal terms, yet few in the
modern world have ever heard about Parthia. Rome and Parthia had
major wars (the result of Roman aggression), major summit
conferences and even a period of detente. Parthia was a monarchy
with the beginnings of a bicameral government and its own
"Independence Day." It offered "home rule" to many of its cities,
and ruled its subjects in a far more benevolent manner than did
Rome.
     The rarely discussed, but true story of this ancient,
Israelite empire will now be revealed in chapter eight.


ENDNOTES: CHAPTER SEVEN

1.   Rawlinson, The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, Preface, pp.   
     v--vi 
2.   Rawlinson, Parthia, p.27
3.   Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, p.15 
4.   Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, p.22 
5.   Ibid, p.19
6.   Ibid, p.20 
7.   Ibid, p.19 
8.   Ibid, p.26 
9.   Ibid, p.19 
10.  Ibid, see footnote 1, p.15
11.  Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 1, "Alphabet," pp.683-684 
12.  Rawlinson, The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, p.23 
13.  Charles-Picard, Daily Life in Carthage, p.27
14.  Church, Carthage, p.13
15.  Frye, The Heritage o f Persia, pp.58,213,220, and 238 
16.  Rawlinson, The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, p.159 
17.  Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible, Hebrew Lexicon, 
     word "Sur," p.48 
18.  Ibid, word "Ayin (=En)", third meaning, p.6
19.  Rawlinson, The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, p.44
20.  Frye, The Heritage of Persia, p.208; and Rawlinson, Parthia, 
     p.10
21.  Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, pp.42-44; and      
     Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 17, "Parthia," p.344
22.  Frye, The Heritage of Persia, p. 198-199 23. Rawlinson,      
     Henry, Bactria, p.12
24.  Ragozin, Media pp.15-21
25.  Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 24, Index Section, see
     "Eran," p.580 
26.  Ragozin, Media, p.20-22
27.  Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 17, "Pahlavi or Pehlevi," 
     p.30
28.  Frye, p.210; and Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 17,          
     "Parthia," p.345 
29.  Frye, p.201; and Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 17,  
     "Persia," p.577 
30.  Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, pp.231-233,263,    
     320-321 
31.  Strabo, Geography, 11, 3, 3
32.  Gawler, p.9
33.  Culican, The Medes and Persians, p.50
34.  Frye, p.211; and Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 17,          
     "Parthia," pp.344-345 
35.  Strabo, Geography, 15, 1, 27
36.  Rawlinson, Ancient History, p.474 
37.  Ibid, p.475
38.  Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, pp.297 and 318 
39.  Ibid, pp.63, 69, 91, 220, 228, 250, 269, 294, 296 and 320 
40.  Eusebius, The History of the Church, 111, 1
41.  Frye, p.201; and Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 17 "Persia," 
     p.577 
42.  Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, pp.68 and 91
43.  Waddell, pp.52-59 
44.  Ibid, pp.150-159 
45.  Ibid, p.54
46.  Ibid, pp.54 and 146
47.  Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible, Hebrew Lexicon, 
     word "Berith," p.8 
48.  Rice, The Scythians, p.45
49.  Fell, America B.C. pp.41-42
50.  Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, XI, V, 2 
51.  Rawlinson, Ancient History, p.472

..........


To be continued


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