THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  NATIONS


by  History  Research  Projects



FOREWORD



Many years have been spent researching the origin of the world's tribes, peoples and races - the family of nations - based on the mysterious Table of Nations found in Genesis chapter ten. Piecing together and tediously assembling the many parts of the puzzle, the strands of information and the bits of data required for an exercise such as this has not been easy for this writer/researcher.


Using a data-gathering and deductive reasoning formula, I have pored through hundreds of books, journals and articles to assemble a work which is moderate in size but huge in scope. Basing the book on the requirement for biology, genetics and physical anthropology as the chief criteria to ascertain which nations may be identified with the peoples mentioned throughout the Bible, I found that modern racial taxonomy and classification was very close to the Biblical model found in Genesis 10.


Genesis 10 has often been overlooked by modern scholars. Many Bible scholars from previous centuries, have had a fascination with it, but gradually with the advent of humanism and the anti-literal interpretation of scripture, interest in this chapter as the basis for the origin of nations has receded to become almost a taboo subject.


In the 18th century Sir William Jones and J Bryant wrote on the subject. But the interest in this chapter of God's Word peaking late 19th century with academics such as Rawlinson famous for his Origin of Nations (1878) and Sayce in such books as Races of the Old Testament (1891; 1925). Both showed in intense interest in this key topic. Famous Seventh-day Adventist scholar, Alonzo T Jones also authored two works on the subject: The Peopling of the Earth (1887) and The Empires of the Bible (vol1) (1904). He was obviously inspired by contemporary writers; in turn, others in the twentieth century were inspired by his writings.


Authors such as Dr Herman L Hoeh, Arthur C Custance, Dr D J Wiseman, Dr John Pilkey, Bill Cooper, J Simon and, of course, Ross Marshall of Project Genesis Ten, have continued the research and study of this fascinating science. Dr Hoeh in particular has demonstrated that history, ancient tradition and authenticised lists of kings assist in tracing various peoples around the world.


Much of the corpus of Genesis 10 research in literature which has been extant for a considerable period of time generally, in my estimation, remained inadequate while large chunks of information had never been written up or explored in much detail.


My focus is primarily historical and anthropological, attempting to find all scraps of evidence, digest them, and then produce a synthesis of all the major finds (while omitting many other minor proofs so as not to overwhelm the reader or clutter up the book).


Since my spiritual awakening in late 1972, I have developed a powerful curiosity about the national origins of all peoples. It became apparent to me that, while some have included the identity of Israel in their theology and literature, almost nothing was said or published about the other peoples and races. It was a pity that this area of identity was not included in overall teachings about God's plan for humanity. In Search of... the Origin of Nations aims to correct this imbalance.


INTRODUCTION


A Challenging Subject


This is a challenging work which has been produced, yet a compelling subject which will be enjoyed by thousands of readers. It is esoteric because it is a work in a subject area much neglected or maligned. Neglected due to the declining significance of this subject matter in theological circles and the lack of interest given it by those who know of its importance out of fear of the consequences.


Yet there are thousands, perhaps millions of people who are eagerly interested in their roots and family trees. This book endeavours to form a foundation or framework, for anyone to study their family tree. What use are our family trees without knowledge of our national roots? The former merely take us back two or three centuries at best. But this work will take you back to the most ancient of times; indeed, to the very cradle of civilisation.


This book is highly focused and concentrated: my desire is to present material which is not full of waffle and the proverbial 'hot air'. Nor is there a need to repeat the detailed histories of the nations here, except, where necessary, to provide a broad outline in line with the historical record. The focus is to focus on their origins, original location, migrations and modern day locations.


The writing style is one of succinctly drawing together all available evidence and then producing a mosaic without resorting to unnecessary and time-wasting excessive material. I stick to the facts withouf attempting to create a huge work. After all, who would want to plough through, say, two or three volumes of waffle to find the evidence for such matters when it may easily be found within a few hundred pages. Not so this writer!1


Padriac McGuinness, writing in The Australian early 1991, relates how in the 1960s, Karl Popper, a famous lecturer and philosopher of science at the London School of Economics, used to harangue students. He stated that American books give the impression that seriousness is related to weight and number of words.


"No author considers himself reputable unless he has weighed in with a book of mind-numbing length. No journalist wants to write 1000 words if he can get away with writing 10,000. But quality and content need not be related to sheer volume. As a result, the American publishing industry is beginning to wake up to this. Short books, books that are little more than polemical pamphlets, are being discovered".


With this in mind, this book could easily have become three large volumes. Yet, it would not be conducive to conveying such important data if I were to do so. Rather, to reach out to the average person with a succinct work is what is required and what has been produced.


Further, these works concentrate on the Biblical origins of races and peoples. Whilst it is rewriting world history in relation to the national origins of peoples, it is not rewriting all world history per se'

……….

1 We may peer through the mists of time and piece together the pieces of the puzzle, garnering the various historical, anthropological and Biblical details to come to some incredible conclusions as to national origins. Perhaps I should have titled the original work The Inspired Origin of the Nations (similar to the titles of some of Glengarry Rupert's books) or something else. A hundred different titles would suffice. But the final one which was chosen is simple and encapsulates all of what I am looking for: In Search of... the Origin of Nations.

……….


History, as covered in thousands of works, in an overall sense must be left to the experts in the field whom we should trust to do their best in interpretation and writing.


Thus it is outside the realm of this work to rewrite history. It is being rewritten all the time as more facts come to light. Historians took many years of research to construct history by digging out the salient information and to find time to type up the material in a logical and honest way.


National Right to Self-Determination and Right to Life


All nations and peoples have a right to life, to develop their culture and language and to continue their history and ethnicity without globalization - in the context of peaceful coexistence within the family of nations. If current trends continue, the diversity of mankind is likely to disappear within 150 or so years. Bio-diversity of species, whether they be flora, fauna or human, is paramount to creative expression. Those that interfere with God's creation declare war on the Creator Himself.


How many more reports will there be of various American Indian tribes, Maoris, Aboriginals and others decrying the weakening of their blood-lines and ethnic identity? What of the tribes and ethnic groups such as the Negritos of Asia (pygmies), the Estonians and some of the various other peoples around the world who are on the edge of extinction? Will they disappear from view?


God Almighty created all of the tribes, nations, peoples and races and He will see to it that all survive into the Millennium. The different nations collectively magnify God's creative capacity and bring glory to Him. Who are we to destroy mankind's wonderful diversity? God deplores any measures which leads to the destruction of ethnic diversity.


One might only view the racism extant in the former Yugoslavia, the terrifying feud between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda and the downtreading of South American Indians as just a few examples. Nations wish to wipe out other nations. At the other extreme, globalisation will lead to the end of ethnic diversity as the 'global village' leads to the ultimate melting-pot.


Racism begets racism. We have Whites hating Blacks; Blacks hating Whites; Indians fighting Pakistanis; the battles between Croatians and Serbians and so on. Unless the Messiah intervenes, the bio-diversity of mankind will disappear.


So what of our roots?


Get To Know Your Roots


I recall how one lady once exclaimed "I wish I knew what my ethnic roots really were! I am able to trace my family tree back several generations and my parents are immigrants to this country. I know which ethnic group I descend from. But who are we really? Where did we actually originate?" Such was the substance of comments made in my presence some years ago and which has stuck with me ever since.


Knowledge of our roots is most inadequate without the knowledge of where our ethnic groups ultimately originate. Thousands would concur. For many, a study of one's family tree is a favourite hobby. We know our parents and immediate family backgrounds. We know our ethnic identities. But how many of us are able to trace our roots back to the earliest genesis of the human family? For instance, if we are, for example, Polish, what is the point of knowing one's ethnic identity and family history back several generations and perhaps some of the history of our nation which may include the migrations of tribes into one's lands, if we do not know where they ultimately originated?


Genesis Ten Science


This is where the incredible Table of Nations is essential. Believe it or not, this systematic, well organised chart presents to us, in these fast-moving times, the ethnic identities of all nations! Yes! YOUR ethnic roots clear back to the genesis of the great variety of mankind may be traced if we use Genesis chapter ten as a basis. For it is the purpose of this work to reveal to you who your forefather was Biblically-speaking, and how his descendants migrated to their modem locations. The study of the modem identities of the nations of Genesis Ten is a science. One may also term it Biblical human biology and physical anthropology. But it is much more than that. It actually uses literally hundreds of references to back up the argument that the nations of the modem world may all be traced back to the 70 names referred to in the mysterious Table of Nations chart.


Many years have been spent in painstaking research, reading, writing, corresponding and weaving together this exciting story of national origins. To forge a composite mosaic of this nature, I needed, at the conclusion of my investigations, to pull together the many complex threads and strands of Biblical, historical and anthropological fact and detail.


So many peoples have stories and legends regarding their origins, which cannot be simply dismissed. Their oft made claim to originate from a progenitor who is known well in their traditions. Is it not wonderful that the names of persons who lived over 4,000 years ago and who are listed in Genesis Ten, carried on in place or tribal names to recent date? Sometimes the peoples deified their ancestors. Commenting on Newton's book The Philosophical Origins of Gentile Theology (1678), Richard Westfall wrote the following:


"Origins started with the argument that all peoples worshiped the same twelve gods under different names. The gods were divinized ancestors - in fact Noah, his sons, and his grandchildren - though as this religion passed from people to people, each used it to its own ends by identifying the gods with its kings and heroes".2


Eternal Vigilance


We must be eternally vigilant - a second purpose of my work is to keep alive the flickering flame of Genesis Ten truth. This magnificent truth is on the verge of dying out. Such an enigma! In an age of growing ethnic consciousness in grassroots defiance of one world globalism, and with increasing studies into one's family tree and of the awareness of book stores and publishers for works on this type of subject, we find almost nothing in print on the topic.


Where are the Sayces and Rawlinsons today? Who will continue Genesis Ten science? Hopefully each and every one of us. We need to by passionately and zealously keep alive the flame of this wonderful truth by a collaborative effort of all interested parties, regardless of affiliations.


But how does one gain the knowledge to keep such truths alive? None of us has perfect knowledge and understanding (Hos 4:16; Is 5:13; 27:11). God, the Creator and Sustainer of all the nations of this globe, thunders mightily that we had better go to Him in all humility to seek knowledge, understanding and wisdom:


"If thou criest after knowledge and liftest up thy voice for understanding; If thou seekest her as silver and searchest for her as for hid treasures; Then thou shalt understand the fear

……….

2 Westfall 1993 The Life of Isaac Newton

……….


of the Lord, And find the knowledge of God" (Prov 2:3-5. See also Dan 12:10; Ps 111:10; Prov 9:10).


Such should be our mainstay, and has been the mainstay for many over the years. It is a mainstay which is essential for spiritual growth and which helps one to hold fast to spiritual treasures (IThess 5:21; IIThess 2:15; Heb 3:6; 10:23). A reason for this book is my fervent hope that those reading it would be encouraged to dig deeper into the matter and attempt their own studies into their family trees or even into Genesis Ten itself. Surely it is the innermost desire of most persons to know their origins. As American Poet Carl Sandburg once wrote:


"When a nation goes down [or] a society perishes, one condition may always be found. They forgot where they came from."


In addition, the unique Table of Nations of Genesis chapter Ten is the very key to unlocking the prophecies dealing with the End Time. How we you understand the prophecies dealing with Gog and Magog, Assyria, the Chaldeans, Cush, Elam and many others unless we know where they are located today? And if we do not know where the original post-flood nations are today (which, after all, became the modern nations of the this century), then we reject Christ's admonition to study prophecy and watch world events daily. Let us obey God and enjoy a richer, more meaningful life in the knowledge of who we are, where we are going and what the ultimate destiny of our ethnic groups will be (Deut 30:19). Surely, nothing can be more interesting and fulfilling than that?!


God's Word states


"The lips of the wise disperse knowledge, but the heart of the foolish doeth not so" (Prov 15:7. See Matt 13:52).


If we want to gain knowledge, we must learn to give what we have, to others first: 


"The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge" (Prov 15:14). 


"The heart of the righteous studieth to answer" (Prov 15:28).


God help us to follow those perfect principles. In addition, Scripture adds: 


"That the soul be without knowledge, it is not good" (Prov 19:2)


"Apply thine heart unto instruction, and thine ears to the words of knowledge" (Prov 23:12).


Will we apply ourselves to those precious principles? If we do, we will be able to absorb the knowledge which God wants us to absorb.


A New Approach


May God also help in our great endeavour and give us clear understanding in all areas. For it is the first time ever, to my knowledge, that an entire book has been published on the subject in this way. To be sure, articles, chapters and sections of books and Bible Dictionaries have appeared; or booklets dealing with minor aspects of Genesis Ten or which have delved into certain of the 70 figures, names or localities mentioned therein. But nothing really extensive has appeared. In addition to the usual method of name similarities or name changes, traditions or linguistics, I refer to various physical comparisons and cultural similarities. Thus ethnology, with its interest in the history of peoples, is employed.


Yet even the above is not enough in detailing an all inclusive 'data-gathered' synthesis of each tribe of Genesis 10. This work needed to bring out the issue of zootaxonomy, human biology and physical anthropology sufficient to identify and trace the descendants of Bible Nations. Physical anthropology is the study of comparative anatomy, morphological, genetic and physiological variability in recent human populations. The techniques of science are therefore heavily depended upon in this particular science.


Then we have zootaxonomy. Taxonomy is concerned with essential and specific categories within the multitude of human forms. Zootaxonomy employs the concept of race or microspecies. Anthropometry is extensively used in determining race, and, in particular, craniosystematics is employed.


Finally, the reader must appreciate the extreme difficulty in tracing the origins of nations. But at least we are able to trace the footsteps of the descendants of the grandsons and great grandsons of Noah to the far reaches of the globe by detailed study. More information is coming in all the time, and much more could be written. The book is not the final word on the subject, and hopefully others will publish like material.


May God bless and keep the tremendous physical identities of all the races, ethnic groups and peoples of mankind.



CHAPTER ONE: THE INCREDIBLE BIO-DIVERSITY OF MANKIND


Just what do you mean "race"? What defines a race? What criteria are used? And how many races are there? This chapter's purpose is to give a basic understanding of its concepts. It will not cover human genetics, anatomy, DNA, heredity and so forth to any great degree. The reader will find many fascinating books on these subjects in their local or public library.


Instead, I will give the reader basic information to understanding racial differences as a basis for the rest of this book.


UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL:


* understand exactly what 'race' is

* appreciate God's creative capacity and glorify Him for His wonderful ways

* know about other races and appreciate human bio-diversity

* learn more about physical anthropology/human biology and would have

   created 'pigeon holes' to slot away important definitions and terminology

   such as brachycephalicy, blood groups, genes etc which crop up

   periodically later in the book. Thus knowing something about them is necessary

* have learnt about the basic taxonomy of mankind

* have created a framework to see how anthropology's taxonomy and

   classification of the races and sub-races fits neatly into the structure of the

  Table of Nations and Noah's son's and grandson's racial, sub-racial and

  national classifications


Whilst the Bible does not use the actual word race, the concept is certainly contained within its covers. The concept of families grown large into nations (and therefore into races) is how the Bible presents the case. Let us turn to the Webster New Collegiate Dictionary article "race" which presents a rather good definition of race, as a starting point:


"The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed to belong to the same stock ... Ethnology. A division of mankind possessing constant traits, transmissible by descent, sufficient to characterize it as a distinct human type"3


Note that these various racial traits are transmissible as the racial blood flows down the centuries from generation to generation.


The enlightened British Prime Minister of the 19th Century, Benjamin Disraeli, had great insight and understanding of certain matters. On one occasion he wrote in his famous novel Endymion:


"No one must lightly dismiss the question of race. It is the key to world history, and it is precisely for this reason that written history so often lacks clarity - it is written by people who do not understand the race question and what belongs to it. Language and religion do not make a race, only blood does that."4 (emphasis mine)

……….


3 Webster: 690

4 Endymion, 1880: 249-250

……….


Such words of wisdom are rare today amongst our "leaders". Almost everyone of them, it seems, wishes to deny that different races inhabit planet earth. But the reality is plain. Different races do occupy the earth, resulting in a refreshing variety of mankind spread across the globe. A common expression we hear today is "blood will tell" or "it runs in the blood". By this figurative expression, it means that our ancestral traits seem to reappear periodically. It means that we are not totally unique individuals, but that we are part of our forbears 'memory', personality or character. It may be that persistent behaviour patterns of our forbears, leading clear back to the fathers listed in Genesis 10, have imprinted national and individual characteristics upon us.


As such, we are a product of both heredity and environment and it is now scientifically proven that both have "reciprocal and supplementary influences on development".5


On the other hand, 


"some people use the term 'race' quite loosely and would have us believe there are innumerable races, but in the basic classification of the Bible, as well as that of science, there are only three 6.


Famous physical anthropologist, Dr. Ales Hrdlicka wrote that there were only three major races or stems of mankind. They are the White (Caucasoid), the Yellow-brown (Mongoloid) and Black-brown (Afroid or Negroid).7 Chambers' Encyclopedia in defining "Race" also limits mankind to three primary stocks. Race it says, is:


"A group of individuals possessing certain physical characteristics in common and regarded as being of one blood and sprung from the same original stock: specif. - A variety or division of mankind, the members of which possess certain distinctive, permanent physical characteristics in common, marking them off from others..."8


The Encyclopedia Americana concurs:


"Most physical anthropologists accept modem man as one genus and one species ... The majority viewpoint recognizes three major 'divisions' or 'stocks' which taxonomically occupy the level of sub-races. These groups are Caucasoid or 'white', Mongoloid or 'yellow', and Negroid or 'black'."9


Other experts such as Sir Henry Johnston in his Living Races of Mankind and Meyers in The Eastern Nations and Greece11 also agree that there are three major divisions in the human family. Indeed the ancient Egyptians clearly recognised racial types as can be seen in a drawing at a royal tomb near Thebes: African, Asiatic (Semitic), Nubian and Berber.12 Bowles, writing in The People of Asia affirms the consciousness of ancient peoples to race diversity. This is not something brought about by the British Empire or the West as some now claim, it has always been with us and why not?

………


5 Glasser 1977: 51 

6 Traina: 1938:3

7 Quoted in Cowdry (ed): 1930 : 166

8 Chamber's Encyc : 1886 : Vol. 3 : 1174

9 Encyclopedia Americana: 1960 : 2 :30 d

10 Johnston: c 1900:1:1

11. Meyers: 1964: 14

12. Wendt 1958:plate no. 8

………


"In Sumeria and early Egypt these took the form of painting and sculpture. Skin colour, lip contours, hair form and body proportions distinguished social classes as well as races. In the later Mesopotamian civilizations of Akkadia, Babylonia and neighbouring Persia, human representations stressed head shape, hair form, beard type and mid-facial diagnostics, especially the nose and eyes".13


And, I might add, there is nothing wrong with noticing differences and appreciating diversity.


Races and Taxonomy


Today, however, many anthropologists are identifying six or more races. Some classify the Aboriginals, Bushman, Ainu and American Indians as additional races to the three already mentioned and, as such, they fail to get the point - that physical appearance is the most reliable way of identifying a race14. The world famous Professor Coon (now deceased) stated that "until the emergence of modern genetics physical appearance was the chief vehicle of racial description".15


Some experts mistakenly classify the Polynesians with the Black peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Some claim the American Indian is an entirely separate race (not sub-race) from the Mongoloids.16 While others place the Ethiopians and Somalis (Cushites or Hamites in Anthropological terminology) under the heading of the White race! And still others consider the Khoisanoid group as a separate race.


Gone are the days when the experts divided mankind into three branches; gone are the days when the terms "Hamitic", "Japhetic" and "Semitic" were used to describe the three races of mankind. The term "Hamitic" is hardly ever used today (and if it is the term is restricted to the Ethiopians and Somalis). Similarly the term "Semitic" is used to refer only to the Middle Eastern peoples.


If Anthropologists would simply accept the Bible as the revealed knowledge to man by an All Knowing God, most problems would evaporate as the race problems, taxonomies and classifications are cleared up, if they based their studies on God's word.


No longer would there be such problems as pondering over the Ainu: whether he be Australoid17,18, Mongoloid or Caucasoid19. Other common problems pertain to the Pygmies: Are they to be classified with the Hottentots and Bushman or Congoids? Thus, not only do the experts confuse sub-races with races; but they often times do not know within which sub-racial group to place various sub-races20. Such confusion need not be if only we had "the Spirit... of a sound mind" (II Tim 1:7). If only we used common sense sometimes and did not allow minute details to clutter up our minds and confuse the real issues at stake. If only they accepted God's view that there are three races of mankind and sixteen major sub-races, most of the problems they struggle with and bicker about would clarify themselves.

……….


13 Bowles 1977: 9-10

14 Robertson: 1981: chapters 1-4. The late Professor Coon described it as "a work of vast scope and scholarship".

15 Coon: 1948 : 10. Dobzhansky 1968: 166 wrote: "To deny the existence of racial differences within the human species is futile ... I find it amusing that those who questioned the validity of racial classifications have themselves use the word 'race', or the term 'so-called race', many times. Indeed, how else could they speak about human variation at all!".

16 That they are Mongoloid there can be no doubt (see Langer: 1968 : 15) 

17 Langer: ibid

18 Broek & Weber : 1968 : 80

19 Baker: 1974:625 

20 Klass:1971:ch2

……….


Let us now turn our attention to the method of classification of mankind.    Following is the classification taxonomy used by human biologists:


Class:

Mammalia


Order:

Primates Sub-order:

Anthropoidea


Genus: Hominidae


Species: Homo


Sub-species:

Sapiens


Race:

Mongoloid, Afroid, or Caucasoid 


Sub-race

Nations

Tribes


The Caucasoids, like the others, may be further subdivided. In Europe, for example, we have three sub-races. (Nordid or Nordic (formerly known as Aryan, but nowadays termed Indo-Ayran, Indo-European and Indo-Iranian); Alpine; Mediterranean). These in turn may be subdivided further. Take the Nordids for example; one may divide them further into Scandinavian, Baltic, North-West Continental European, Atlantic (British) and Celtic. Further subdivisions into nations, sub-nations, tribes, clans, etc. are possible.

Let it be mentioned here that one should not confuse a nation (such as Germany for example) with a sub-race. Races cross artificial national boundaries, encroaching into the territories of others or mixing with others. While race is composed of blood/genetics/physiognomy, nationality and ethnicity is made up of the following elements.21


1. The physical occupation of a country by people, within geographical boundaries.

2. A mode of life dependent upon the climate.

3. Traditions commonly shared.

4. Social institutions.

5. A common religion.

6. Perhaps many common occupations and trades.

7. A common language.


However, as already noted, Disraeli warns us that "language and religion do not make a race, only blood does that". Modern nations, as they are today, tend to absorb smaller groups or dilute the major group or theoretically merge two groups together. An example of the former would be the defiinct Soviet Union which over the decades has attempted to slaughter minorities or forcibly absorb them; of the second would be the United States with various sub-racial and racial groups sometimes marrying into the (once) dominant European stock.


Before the Noachian deluge God ensured that there would be diversity amongst mankind:


"When the Most High divided to the Nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of Adam, He set the bounds of the peoples." (Deuteronomy 32:8)

……….

21 Huxley : 1939 : 25. See also Josey's The Philosophy of Nationalism (1923)

……….


Again we are told that God:


"hath made of one [man] all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitations" (Acts 17:26)


What the anthropologists do not realize is that many factors are involved in changing the appearance of an individual, not just intermarriage. Following are a few points to consider in this regard:


1. The descendants of Noah's three sons mutated into different sub-races, and as a result would still reflect a proportion of the other strains, given that the genes of Noah have been cast far and wide.

2. Even within the same family, blood and appearance may differ quite markedly.

3. God, through circumstance, caused nations of like attributes to settle next to each other. Thus, if intermarriage did occur, this made little appreciable difference to the stock as the foreign elements would be absorbed without diluting the original stock.

4. There are of course mixed peoples today. But over the course of centuries, the minority element is bred out, being overwhelmed by the majority element and the race reverts back to its original type.22 This is referred to as 'secretion' by biologists.

5. All of the original nations are still extant - that is whole or complete (ie pure in that sense). That is they are like the original. Just because they carry genes from other descendants of Noah does not mean that they are incomplete, non-original or pure.


The remark under point 1 dealing with mutations is an interesting one and it would appear that many of the descendants of Ham and Japheth had eastern and western strains, due to sudden mutations, causing them to divide and form into different ethnic groups. We shall discover this in later chapters. A mutation is a sudden and permanent change in the genetic structure of those genes or chromosomes which are transferable to offspring.


Let us leave the question of racial and national types for the moment and turn to the physical characteristics of the races of mankind.


Physical Characteristics of the Races


Let us briefly note, in point form, the characteristics of the three prime stocks of mankind: 


Mongoloid Races:


* straight to jet-black hair, graying later in life

* balding is rare

* scanty beard and little body hair

* small eyeballs

* brown iris colour

* skin ranges from a yellowing "white" to a dark brown

* scarcity of apocrine glands with little body odor as a result

* they feature long bodies but short limbs

* their hands and feet are small

……….


22 Stoddard: 1920: 165, 251.The process whereby alien genes are eventually suppressed is known as "secretion" to anthropologists.

……….


* they often exhibit a rather flat nose and thick lips 

* the eyes are usually slanted due to the inner fold


Caucasoid Races:


* heavier bodily and more facial hair growth than the other two races

* graying and balding is common

* there is a small amount of curly hair, but normally the hair ranges from straight to wavy

  (in the south and east of Europe)

* hair color may be blond, red, auburn, brown or black

* eye color ranges from blue, green, gray, hazel or dark brown

* teeth are small

* eyes are straight


Black Races:


African Blacks and Cushites


* hair types include frizzy, pepper-corn or woolly hair

* facial hair is light

* skin colour ranges from black to brown, yellow-brown and red-brown

* they normally have long limbs and muscles, but short torso, long tendons and narrow hips

* their foreheads are large, the whites of their eyes are heavily pigmented, eyes are brown, noses are very * broad, lips are thick, teeth are large and the jaws heavily prognathous (protruding)

* size ranges from extremely tall to dwarves


Veddoids and Australoids


* this Asian variety of the black race also has woolly to straight hair (some no hair)

* full beards and hair grays early in life

* brown eyes

* big brow bridges

* flat noses

* large teeth

* slender body

* full-sized and dwarf-sized varieties are found within this group


We have seen briefly the different physical characteristics of the races, now let us explore some of these more deeply.


Skull Types and Shapes


Races differ in many ways as we have seen (the myth of "there is no such thing as a race" theory notwithstanding). Races even differ in such areas as skull shape and size.

In measuring the three skull types the length and breadth of the cranium are used to determine the cephalic (skull) index. Cephalic index (CI) is the breadth as a percentage of the length.


The measurements of a given individual would result in one of three classifications in the cephalic index:


dolico-cephalic (long and narrow length) - 75 and below

meso-cephalic (intermediate to the other two) - 76 to 80

brachy-cephalic (round and broad) - above 80


CI = breadth of head/length of head x 100


Dolico-cephalic is typical of Northern Europe, the Mediterranean regions as well as the Negroids. Central and Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, Iran, the Far East and the American Indians are largely brachy-cephalic.


Note that the term "Cephalic Index" applies to living persons with flesh covered heads. Dead remains of humans without flesh are measured according to the Cranial Index (CI).23

 

One should realize that even in a given sub-racial population group, a considerable range could occur when used by physical anthropologists in determining racial classifications.24


A further measurement is the Height-Length Index (HLI). This is the height of the skull divided by the length of the skull x 100. This would, again, give us one of three measurements.


1. chamaecephalic (low-skulled) - under 70

2. orthocephalic (medium-skulled) - 70 to 75

3. hypsicephalic (high- skulled) - 76 and over


HLI = height of skull/length of skull x 100


The first classification (chamae-cephalic) is typical of the peoples of North-West Europe, France, Italy. The second typical of the Portuguese, Southern Spanish, Baits, Finns, Northern Slavs. Hypsicephalicy is found largely in Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.


Another measurement is the height-breadth Index (HBI) but it is not important:


1. low-broad skull - 90 and under

2. medium skulled - 90 to 95

3. high skulled - 95 and over


The low-broad skulled type is found in Northern Spain, France, South Belgium, South-west Germany. Bulgaria, Eastern Greece and Southern Spain exhibit the high-skulled variety, while the rest of Europe is basically medium-skulled. I'm concentrating on European populations in these measurements because information on these are plentiful in comparison to other continents.


The final measurement that should be mentioned is the nasal index (NI). This is the width of the nose as a percentage of the length. A measurement would give one of three broad classification:


1. leptorrhine (narrow) - under 47

2. mesorrhine (medium)-48 to 51

3. platyrrhine (broad) - over 51

……….

Huxley : 1939 : 101

Stewart: 1973 : 85,169

……….


NI = width of bridge / length x 100


Narrow nosed people are found mainly in Europe. The medium nosed are scattered with many in North-West Russia; and the broad-nosed are found largely in the Mongoloid, Negroid and Australoid populations.


How is your head?


How is your head? You may wish to involve yourself in a simple exercise of measuring your head, your wife's, children's or friend's. Rush to the cupboard and pull out your tape measure. Make sure it measures in centimeters. What I propose you do is measure your head to determine your skull classification.


First measure your Cephalic Index (CI): Measure the skull from the forehead over to the back, then at its widest point across the temples and divide the second measurement by the first one. Now multiply by 100 and add 2. If the result is 75 or under write "D"; if it is 76-80 write "M"; over 80 write "B". Note that the measurements correspond exactly to what has already been discussed regarding the cephalic index.


Next measure your Height-Length Index (HLI): Measure the skull from the forehead around to the back, then at its widest point across the temples and divide the second measurement by the first. Multiply by 100 and add 2. If the result is less than 70, write "C"; 70-75, write "O"; or 70 and over, write "H".


Finally you must measure your nose. To calculate the Nasal Index (NI): divide the width of the bridge of the nose by its length and multiply by 100. If the result is under 47, write "L"; if it is 48-51 write "M"; and if it is over 51, write "P".


You should now have 3 letters. If they are D-H-C, your skull is Nordic; D-C-L is Mediterranean; D-H-P is Negroid; D-C-P is Australoid; B-H-L is Alpine; B-C-L is Ural; B-C-P is Mongofoid.


Had fun? But you only measured your skull and that is by no means all. There is also the cephalo-facial index which is calculated by dividing width of face by width of head or the anatomical face index. The latter is gained by dividing anatomical height of face by width of face. Physical Anthropologists use over 70 measurements, as already mentioned, in determining race. For example, to be Nordic you would have golden to brown hair (some even have black hair), blue, green, gray or hazel eyes; a fair, pinky-white to light-white skin; bodily hair and a reasonable stature. While hair is normally wavy, sometimes it is curly, and sometimes straight. Nordics, since their genesis, have always had ash blond (or platinum blond), golden, golden-brown, pale brown, reddish brown, red or auburn hair. Most of the darker-haired Nordics had golden or reddish hair as children.25


One should add here that if you are of the same sub-race as your wife and children, yet your head measurements are slightly different and this may push you into a different sub-racial group (or vice versa), consider that these differences are not always due to intermarriage, but simply due to genetic diversity.26

……….


25. Baker: 1974: 219: Hoskins: 1958: 5; Grant: 1923: 35

26. Howells: 1964: 48

……….


Some Other Physical Differences


The races of mankind, which God created and placed on the earth, differ in far more ways than most people realize. Let us take a brief look at some of these differences.


1. Hair type


* Euthycomic (cross-section shows it round - straight hair)

* Euplocomic (oval cross-section - wavy)

* Ericomic (wooly or curly - flat cross-section)

* Lophocomic (bushy hair - flat cross-section)


Hair colour is measured by the Hair Colour Index (HCI). Only the white race has the full range of colors. The situation is true also of eye colour.


2. Eye type


* Round in the White (Mesoseme)

* Oval in the Negro (Megaseme)

* Slit in the Mongoloid (Microseme)


3. Sitting-height index (mean is 50% or an index of 50):


* The Negrillo is 55
* Mongoloid 53-55

* White 51-53


4. Ear type


* Small in the Negro

* Medium in the White

* Large in the Mongoloid


5. Body types


* Leptosomatic - long

* Mesosomatic - medium

* Plattysomatic - short


6. Shape of jaws


* Orthognathic - straight jaws

* Mesognathic - slightly protruding jaws

* Prognathic - protruding jaws


These various body types may be found in all races.


7. Finger-print patterns


Even the finger print patterns of the races differ from each other "while Mongoloids and Caucasoids possess a combination of traits manifesting more or less opposite frequencies from each other, the Negroids occupy an extreme position different from both of these."27

……….

27Jamieson: 1982:27-29

……….


8. Skin colour


Anthropologists identify four basic skin colours:


* Leucodermus (white)

* Xanthodermus (yellowish)

* Erythrochroic (reddish-brown)

* Melandermus (black)


Anything in between is measured according to the Skin Colour Index (SCI). Caucasoids, for example, merge from a pinky-white to olive.28 Skin colour is the most obvious, and most important distinguishing characteristic of the races.29 It is the most noticeable. Even the Ancient Egyptians separated mankind on a colour basis.30 Only in recent years has there been a de-emphasis of skin colour as the most important basis for classifying races. While one sub-race of a race may have hair type and eye colour the same as a sub-race of another race, skin colour distinguishes them.


God Himself uses skin colour as an important criterion:


"Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots?" (Jeremiah 13:23)


God created various skin colours for variety and interest. He recognizes them and cares little about man-made theories. At least 36 different shades of skin have been described by the experts31 indicating that God loves variety, so why eliminate such creative grandeur?


9. Blood groups


Four major blood groups are recognized. The table below schematically represents them in terms of some nations:


Group 1

Characters (Antigens) 0

Genes 00

Distribution  - U.S. Indian; Eskimos


Group 2

Characters (Antigens) A         

Genes  AA, AO

Distribution - W. Europe; Basques, Lapps


Group 3

Characters (Antigens)  B       

Genes  BB, BO

Distribution - Asia


Group 4

Characters (Antigens)  AB       

Genes  AB

Distribution - Asia


There are other blood group systems such as MNS-U, Rh, Duffy, Diego and Kidd which are

emphasied in various races.  These blood groups are found in the following seven human

classifications (based on Snyder ):



Racial Group

European type       

Comment

A is high; B is low. Predominant in NW Europe, Italy,

……….


28. Huxley: 1939: 98

29. Bean 1935: 43 30Custance:1975:27

30. Singer: 1978: 82

32. Information on this may be found in Gam 1961: 46. Similar studies have been undertaken on how there are racial differences in responses to heat and cold (page 67).

33. Snyder 1971: 154-161



France,Yugoslavia, France, Austria

Intermediate type:  A is high; B is high. In western Russia, Romania, Turkey, Arabia


Hunan type:  A is high; B is low. Found in Hungary, Poland, Ukraine, certain southern Chinese


Indomanchurian:  B is high; A is low. In Korea, Manchus, northern Chinese, Ainus, Gypsies, Indians, certain southern Chinese


Africans & Malaysians:  B is high. Found in Africans, Malaya, Javanese, Annamese, Sumatrans


Pacific-American:  O is high. In American Indians and Filipinos


Australian type:  O is high; B is low


While the B group is absent among American Indians the M and A Rhesus gene link them to the Polynesians. The Australian and Aboriginals and South Indian Vedda have a high percentage of groups one and two (A and O), but not three.


What is blood anyway? God's Word says that the life of flesh is in the blood (Leviticus 17:11), an amazingly accurate statement for people so far removed from modern scientific discoveries. Red blood cells are formed in the bone marrow with a vital task to perform for all humans. They survive for about 3 months in our bloodstreams delivering oxygen to where it is required. The reason they are red is because of the pigment haemoglobin which picks up oxygen that we breathe into out lungs.


Every celHn our body which contains a nucleus has a surface which contain proteins that are altered and tell the immune system that the cell has been invaded by a foreign or dangerous organism. In fact, red blood cells have their own surface markers and ours are not all the same.


With the exception of red blood cells, every cell in our body has 23 pairs of chromosomes which are home to genetic blueprints which are responsible for the ability to generate thousands of various proteins. On the 9th chromosome we carry the inherited genetic information that determines whether proteins Al, A2, B or O are made. The presence of these determines our blood groups. If a foreign blood group enters our bodies by transfusion, they are quickly attacked and destroyed by our immune system. A very slight defect in the genetic programme which may produce type A or B results instead in the production of type O. Thus, if you have blood type A or B and you receive a blood transfusion from type O, the body will accept it and persons with type O are therefore known as universal donors. However, type A persons can become very ill if they receive a type B transfusion (out of biological interest, Australian Aborigines rarely may be found with type B).


Websites such as htto://www.umds.ac.uk/tissue/bludgrp.html afford much more information on this fascinating subject.


10. Odour


Odour differs according to race: it is quite acrid in the White race, strong in the Black race, but hardly noticeable in the Yellow-Brown race. The Negroids in particular have a great abundance of apocrine glands and a body odour which is the "extreme opposite" of the Mongoloids.34 Thus races are able to detect each other by smell.

……….


34 Longer: 1968: 16

……….


11. Other miscellaneous differences


The list of various differences between the races is almost endless. Other differences include biochemical: e.g. differences in protein molecules. Or differences in the bone structure, widths of body parts, teeth size, jaws, chin and arm lengths. Even pulse rates and body temperatures are different between the stocks of mankind which God has created.


I should mention here too that the races are also susceptible to different diseases35. The Negroids have an "alarming" susceptibility to TB and lactose intolerance; the Caucasoids to cancer, psychoses and skin diseases; and many Malays, funnily enough, to "running amok".


Before me is a wonderful little book titled Folk Medicine. I refer the reader to the chapter on "Your racial pattern and folk medicine". In this chapter, Jarvis, the author, warns us that one should follow a diet which is pertinent to one's racial strain. He claims that many of today's sicknesses, diseases and even lethargicness could disappear with the proper racial diet. A Nordic, for example, should eat rye bread, not wheat bread; use honey, not sugar; eat plenty offish, and less beef and lamb; and even take kelp tablet supplements.36


The reason for maintaining a racial diet? Simply because one's ancestors, over centuries, have acquired certain features and characteristics which have developed and become inbred over the centuries. Because one lives in the warmer "colonies" of South Africa, Australia and North America, does not mean we should simply neglect our racial diet. However, one cannot ignore that one's diet may have to be altered slightly given the new circumstances and climate of the "colonies."37


Cultural, Psychological and Linguistic Differences


One particular area where the races differ is in the area of music. In this field we find that the Negroids are more responsive than the Caucasoids or Mongoloids. The Negroids have more musical "scales" than the others.


On the other hand, the Caucasoids utilize a single eight-note musical scale and^under normal circumstances must be trained to adhere to it. Also, Caucasoids often experience "tone deafness" which prevents a large percentage of this group from detecting fluctuations in pitch. This involves up to a tone away from the given notes.38


Let us turn our attention now to linguistic abilities. The Caucasoids, especially Nordics, tend to be "indifferent" to learning foreign languages. But the Negroids, in contrast, appear to have been given a tremendous gift in linguistic abilities. It is not uncommon for South African Blacks, for example to know four languages or more and to speak each of them quite fluently - often these are languages from different language "families".


Language is a primary means of cultural transmission and as such is acknowledged by historians as a means to following races.39 Its importance is perhaps reflected in the words of the head of the Maori Language Commission, Timoti Karetu, that the Maori "language is absolutely important to cultural

……….


35. see Goldsby 1977: 100-105

36. Jarvis: 1960:31

37. We find national expression even in the way a nation plays soccer. Henry Kissinger, former United States Secretary of State, wrote an article on "How soccer reflects national attitudes". Indeed it does, and it would behove the reader to read the article which was published in The Australian 30 June 1986.

38. Boughey: 1971:211-213

39 Peterson 1982: 131: "Interbreeding and genetic admixture are generally obstructed by cultural barriers, and consequently language differences tend to act as genetic barriers. Comparisons between dermatoglyphic and linguistic data - particularly with respect to historical language families - are clearly suggested".

……….



integrity and [cultural] survival". Although it should be noted that this is helpful, peoples' languages change over the centuries and they may eventually adopt other languages. For example the French-speaking Normans adopted English, the Visigoths adopted Spanish, the Ostrogoths Italian and of course the Assyrians adopted Aramaic.


It is unfortunate, nay tragic, to witness the disappearance of so many languages today, under the pressure of globalisation and encouragement to mix peoples and cultures into oneness. According to this theory, the world will be happier, more peaceful and prosperous if were one rather than diverse. God's message to the globalists is found in Genesis chapter 11 where He chose to do the opposite to preserve human bio-diversity - He confused the languages and scattered the peoples.40


Yet God also despises racism and man's hatred of each other. Both globalisation and extreme forms of nationalism are anathema to Him and portrayed in the Bible as evil. Therefore, to witness the decline of languages is discouraging and hurtful to man. For instance, of the 6,703 languages:


* in Europe, the languages in danger of disappearing are the Celtic, Lappish, Gypsy and other languages     spoken by smaller groups scattered throughout the Russian Federation;


* in Asia, Ainu is threatened, although it seems to be making a comeback; several languages in Xinjiang and Yunan provinces; other languages in Malaysia and Nepal;


* due to pidgin tongues in Papua New Guinea, many languages are set to disappear. In Australia, few of the roughly 250 Aboriginal tongues have survived - only about 20 are considered viable;


* multi-lingualism is the norm rather than the exception in Africa and many Africans may
speak up to half a dozen languages in addition to their mother tongue. However, some

language groups such as Khoisan (spoken by the Bushmen and Hottentots) are almost dead;


* amongst the Eskimos and American Indians, many languages have died out or are threatened
utterly.


In the six habitable continents, Asia accounts for 32% of languages (2,165), Africa 30% (2,011), the Pacific region 19% (1,302), North & South America 15% (1,000) and Europe just 3% (225). Of the thousands of languages, first-language speaker estimates comprising the world's top ten languages are as follows:


1. Mandarin Chinese 726 million


2. English 427 million


3. Spanish 266 million


4.  Hindi 182 million


5. Arabic 181 million


6. Portuguese 165 million


7. Bengali 162 million


8. Russian   158 million


9. Japanses 124 million


10. German 121 million

……….


  

40 Farb 1969: 294: "All over the world today primitive cultures are disappearing and at an accelerating pace. The Tasmanians are already gone forever. The Yahgan of Tierra del Fuego, studied by Darwin, are virtually extinct, and every year sees fewer Arunta in Australia and Negritos in the Philippines, fewer Aleuts in Alaska and Ainu in Japan, fewer Bushmen in South Africa and Polynesian in Hawaii".


"The Yahgan, Alacaluf, and Ona of Tierra del Fuego, who endured the world's worst climate for countless generations and are known to have numbered in the thousands, have almost totally disappeared. The few individuals who can still be traced are highly acculturated; they have become almost wholly detached from their native customs and traditions." (Pinney 1968: viii).

……….



Mass telecommunications, tourism, immigration, legislation and such like, are providing people from Germany to Japan, Argentina to Armenia, with identical forms of communication, philosophies and entertainment which is leading to homogenisation, rather than preserving national characteristics. It will take a global crisis to force nations to eschew oneness and replace it not with extreme nationalism, but grouping themselves into civilisations and co-operate amongst like peoples. And then co-operation between civilisations will be possible.


In contrast to man's attempts to eliminate diversity, the Biblical model is for one international language (Zeph 3:9) in addition to national languages.


Race: More Than Skin Deep


We have seen how very different God has made the races of mankind41 You have undoubtedly heard of or experienced the behaviour of certain nations. You have probably heard of the romantic French; ponderous Russians; carefree Americans; industrious Germans. Or how the British are a people always compassionate, fair, organisers and serious. Other smaller groups ignored today such as the African Pygmy are noted for friendliness and generosity. The Ainu, on the other hand are very introverted, nervous, not strict with others, but very kind and have warm hearts.42


In addition, in various physiological functions, we see further differences. The Ainu, for instance, finds it easier to perform unilateral movements of muscles in the upper part of the face (e.g. winking - like the Caucasoids) than the Japanese masses at large43


The Caucasoids have a great differentiation of the muscles about the eyes and over the nose which adds greatly to the individuality of the expression in different persons.44


The facial expressions differ from race to race. For instance, in the Negroids we find, instead of a graded smile or laugh as in the case with the Caucasoids, there is a broad grin and boisterous laughter. However, the Mongoloids laughter is more like a controlled smiling.


Isn't it wonderful that the races of mankind are so incredibly different - this may be hereditary or environmental adaptation - even in the most subtle areas - yet so alike?45 But do we enjoy such diversity or detest it? Do we want to continue diversity amongst all peoples or to eliminate it through globalisation?


The Bible teaches that we must not only maintain such diversity, but respect each other. In essence we must not despise one another or be jealous of each other's talents and gifts. It is in respecting and accepting one another's ethnic differences and being happy for one another whilst simultaneously preserving diversity, that we can engender peace amongst mankind's peoples and tribes.

……….


41. See The Biology of the Race Problem: by Professor Wesley George

42. Watanalbe: 1975: 337

43, Ibid: 331

44. Bean: 1932:37

45. See Hall: 1960 Zoological Subspecies of Man (entire booklet).

……….


To accomplish the above, the following principles apply:


1. Do not despise ethnic differences, but appreciate the good in others and thank God for His
creative capacity. You are under no obligation to accept the bad in others or anything contrary to
God's will, but despising others for the sake of it is unacceptable to the Creator:


I Th 4:8 Therefore he who despises does not despise man, but God, who also

has given us His Holy Spirit. 

I Th 4:9 But regarding brotherly love, you do not need that I write to you, for

you yourselves are taught by God to love one another.


2. Comparing ourselves with others is not wise, including comparing one ethnic group to another
as it only leads to bad feelings and tensions:


2 Co 10:12 For we do not dare to rank or compare ourselves with some of the ones commending themselves. But they, measuring themselves among themselves, and comparing themselves to themselves, are not perceptive.


3. Envyings and jealousies are the result of feeling threatened or feeling inferior. Therefore do not
envy what others have, but be thankful for what you have and be happy for others if they have God-
given blessings:


Gal 5:26 Let us not become glory-seeking, provoking one another, envying

one another. 


Gal 6:3   For if anyone thinks himself to be something, being nothing, he

deceives himself.


Isa 40:15 Behold, the nations are like a drop in a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the scales; behold, He takes up the coastlands as a very little thing.


4. As with the Church, so with the nations - they all have different gifts and talents. Not all are good at administration, inventiveness or certain athletic skills and so on. They all have natural tendencies which result in excellence in certain domains (cp ICor 12). Whatever is given as a gift, much is required from God (Luke 12:48) - burying one's ethnic group's talents is not approved by the One Who gave them in the first place:


Jam 1:17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above and comes down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness nor shadow of turning.


Jam 4:1 From where do wars and fightings among you cornel Is it not from this, from your lusts which war in your members?


In other words, being grateful and appreciative for God producing diversity, respecting others and having pride in one's own ethnic origin are key to getting along with others without losing one's own identity.


In the following chapter we shall explore what the Bible says about the Mysterious Table of Nations.


Baker, J (1981) Cohane,JP(1973) Gaisford,J(ed)(1981) Hulse,FS(1971) Huxley, F (1974) Johnston, H (cl900)

Kuttner,RE(ed)(1967) Mather, K (1964) Martin, L(etal)(eds) (1961) Molnar, S (1978) Montagu, A (1960) Mourant, A E (1976) Kopec, A C Pearson, R (1974) Pedde, L J (1972) Wynne, E G Vannini, V (ed) (1979) Winick,C(1970)



SUGGESTED READING


Race, Foundation for Human Understanding. Athens, Georgia.

The Key. Turnstone Books, London.

Atlas of Mankind. Marshall Canendish Books, London.

The Human Species. An Introduction to Physical Anthropology.

Peoples of the World In Colour. Blandford Press, London.

The Living Races of Mankind. Hutchinson & Co, Paternoster Row,

London.

Race and Modern Science. Social Science Press, New York.

Human Diversity. Oliver & Boyd, London.

Lands and Peoples. Grolier Incorporated, New York.

Races, Types, & Ethnic Groups. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Human Heredity. The New American Library, New York.

The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups. Oxford University

Press, London.

Introduction to Anthropology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Genetics: A Basic Guide. Hutchinson Educational, London.

The Color Atlas of Human Anatomy. Harmony Books, New York.
Dictionary of Anthropology. Helix Books, New Jersey.


TO  BE  CONTINUED