Old Testament Persons Confirmed by Archaeology


Person

Scripture

Dates

Reference


King Ahab

1 Kings 16:28-33; 21:13; 22:39

9th century BC

Mesha Stele Kurkh Monolith Palace in Samaria


King Ahasuerus

(Xerxes I)

Esther 1:1-2

5th century BC

Silver Bowl of Artaxerxes I Palace wall relief at Persepolis (Iran)

Elephantine Papyri Tomb at Persepolis


King Ahaz/Acfaaz

2 Kings 16:2; Matthew 1:9

8th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Ahikamkam

2 Kings 22:12

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Amariah

2 Chronicles 31:15

8th to 7th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulk)


King Artaxerxes I

(Longimanus)

Ezra 4:7; 7:1-21; Nehemiah 2:1; 5:14; - 13:6

5th century BC

Silver bowl inscription of Artaxerxes I Elephantine Papyri Tomb at Persepolis


Asaiah

2 Kings 22:12,14; 2 Chronicles 34:20

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Asttirbanipal

(Osnapper)

Ezra 4:10; 2 Chronicles 33:10-13

7th century BC

1,200 texts from the library of

Nineveh

Stele of Ashurbanipal

Nineveh palace reliefs


Azaliah

2 Kings 22:3

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Azzur

Jeremiah 28:1

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Ba'alis

Jeremiah 40:14

6th century BC

Stamp-Seal (bulla,)


Balaam

Numbers 22-24; Jude 11; Revelation 2:14

15th to l4th centuries BC

Balaam Inscription (1967)


Barueh       

(Jeremiah's scribe)

Jeremiah 32:12-16

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)

* This bulla was identified by the late bulk specialist Nahman Avigad as bearing the name of the prophet Jeremiah's scribe, Barueh, who penned the book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:1-32).


King Belshazzar

(son of Nabonidus)

Daniel 5; 7:1; 8:1

6th century BC

Nabonidus Chronicle Cylinder of Nabonidus


Ben Hada II

2 Kings 8:7-13; 13:1-3

9th century BC

Tell Dan Stele

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III


King Cyrus II

2 Chronicles 36:22-23; Ezra 1:1-8; Isaiah 44:28; 45:1

6th century BC

Tomb at Pasatgadae

Cyrus Cylinder

Cyrus Brick Inscriptions


King Darius I

(son of Hystaspes)

Ezra 4:5, 24 

6th to 5th centuries BC

Tomb at Persepolis Behistun Inscription Elephantine Papyri


King Darius

(the Persian)

Nehemiah 12:22

5th century BC

Silver Bowl of Artaxerxes I Behistun Inscription Palace wall relief at Persepolis (Iran)


King David

1 Samuel 16:13; 2 Samuel 5:3-7

10th century BC

Tell Dan Stele Mesha Stele


Eliakim

2 Kings 18:18-37; 19:2

6th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Elishama

Jeremiah 36:12-21

6th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Elnathan

Ezra 8:16

5th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Esarhaddon

2 Kings 19:37; Ezra 4:2; Isaiah 37:38

7th century BC

Royal Brick Inscription  

Esarhaddon Chronicle

Stone Prism of Esarhaddon 

Stone Lion's head with inscription                        

Wall relief of Esarhaddon and Queen Mother

Letters of Esarhaddon


King Evil-merodach

(Amel Marduk)

2 Kings 25:27; Jeremiah 52:31

6th century BC

Jehoiachin Ration Record


Gedaliah (son of Ahikam)

2 Kings 25:22-25; Jeremiah 39:14; 40:5-16; 41; 43:6

6th century BC .

Stamp seal. (Bulla)


Gedaliah (son of Pashhur)

Jeremiah 38:1

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Gemariah

Jeremiah 29:3; 36:10-12,25

6th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)

Lachish Letters


Name similar to Goliath

1 Samuel 17

11th to 9th centuries BC

Gath Inscription


Hananiah

Jeremiah 28:1

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla) 


Priestly family name of Immer

Jeremiah 20:1; 38:1

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)

* This bulla was discovered by archaeologist Gabriel Barkay as a result of sifting the Temple Mount dirt discarded from recent renovations of the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Immer is the name associated with the priestly family that had oversight of the Temple Mount during the time of Jeremiah. Pashhur, the son of Immer, is described in Jeremiah 20:1-18 as the individual who beat Jeremiah and placed him under arrest.


King Hazael

2 Kings 8:7-15; 12:17

9th century BC

Tell Dan Stele    

Black Obelisk of Shalruaneser III

Gath siege trench     

Ivory dekoration inscription at Khadatu  


King Hezekiah

2 Kings 16:20; 18:1-2

8th to 7th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla) 

Annals of Sennacherib

Taylor Prism 

The Azekah Inscription Jerusalem broad wall 

Water tunnel system


Hilkiah

(high priest).

2 Kings 22:4-14;  23:4,24

7th century, BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Pharaoh Hophra

(Apries)

Jeremiah 44:30

6th century BC

Herodotuss Histories 

Tablet reliefs from Abydos Palace at Memphis 

Babylonian Chronicles


King Hoshea

2 Kings 15:30; 17:1

8th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla) 

Assyrian records of Tlgiath-pileser III


Son of Immer

Jeremiah 20:1

7th to 6th centuries BC

Two stamp seals (bullae)


Jaazaniah

2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah 40:8

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Jehoahaz

(or Shallum)

2 Kings 23:30-34; 1 Chronicles 3:15; 2 Chronicles 36:lf

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Jehoiachin

(Coniah)

2 Kings 24:8-15; 2 Chronicles 36:8f; Jeremiah 22:24,28; 37:1

6th century BC

Jehoiadhin Ration Record 

Babylonian Chronicles 

Jar handles stamped with his name at Tell Beit Mirsim and at Beth-Shemesh


King Jehu

(or Joram)

1 Kings 19:16-17; 2 Kings 9:20; 10:31

9th century BC

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III


Jerahmeel

Jeremiah 36:26

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Jehucal

Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1

6th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Jeroboam II

(son of Jehoash)   

2 Kings 13:13; 1 Chronicles 5:17; Amos 1:1; 7:9-11

8th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Queen Jezebel

1 Kings 16:31;  21; 2 Kings 9

9th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla) Palace in Samaria


Joezer and Igdaliah

Jeremiah.35:4;  see l Chronicles 12:6

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Jotham 

(son of Uzziah)

2 Kings 15:32 

8th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Malchiah

Jeremiah 38:6

7th to 6th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Manasseh

(son of Hezeldah)

2 Kings 20:21; 21; 2 Chronicles 33:10-11

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)

Prism B of Esarhaddon


King Menahem

2 Kings 15:14-23

8th century BC

Assyrian records of Tiglathpileser III


King Merodach-baladan (Babylon)

2 Kings 20:12; Isaiah 39:1

8th century BC

Marble Boundary Stone

Annals of Sargon of Assyria

Sennacherib Prism


King Mesha (Moab)

2 Kings 3:4

9th century BC

Mesha Stele (a.k.a. Moabite Stone)


Meshullum 

2 Kings 22:3

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Nathan-melech

2 Kings 23:11

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Nebuchadnezzar (Babylon)

2 Kings 24:1-11; Daniel 1:1; 2; 3; 4:34-37; 5

7th to 6th centuries BC

Royal Brick Inscriptions 

Ishtar Gate

Babylonian Chronicles 

Behistun Inscription 

East India House Inscription


Pharaoh Necho

2 Chronicles 35:20-22; 36:4

7th to 6th century BC 

Statues of Necho 

Herodotus Histories 

Necho's name removed from monuments 

by his son Psam-metichus (Psamtik) II


Neriah

Jeremiah 36:32

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


KingOmri

1 Kings 16:16-30; 2 Kings-8;26; 2 Chronicles 22:2;  Micah 6:16

9thcentury , BC

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

Mesha Stele


Pedaiah

1 Chronicles 3:18f

6th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Pekab

2 Kings 15:27

8th century BC

Assyrian records of Tiglathpileser III


Tiglath-Pileser III

(Pul)

2 Kings 15:19,29; 1 Chronicles 5:6; 2 Chronicles 28:20

8th century BC

Palace wall relief Assyrian records of Tiglath-pileser


Sanballat

Nehemiah 2:10

5th century BC

Elephantine Papyri 

Stamp seal (bulla)


King Sargon II

Isaiah 20:1

8th century BC

Winged Bull of Sargon II 

Palace of Sargon (Khorsabad) 

Annals of Sargon 

Royal Brick Inscription


Sarsekim

Jeremiah 39:3

6th century BC

Cuneiform tablet at British Museum


King Sennacherib

(Assyria)

2 Kings 18:13; 19:16-36; 2 Chronicles 32; Isaiah 36:1; 37

8th to 7th centuries BC

Royal Brick Inscriptions 

Annals of Sennacherib 

Taylor Prism 

Saxgon's palace reliefs


Scriah

Jeremiah 51:59

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Shaphan

2 Kings 22:12

7th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Shebna

2 Kings 18:18-37; Isaiah 22:15-25

8th century BC

Royal Steward (tomb lintel) 

Inscription


Shelemiah

Jeremiah 37:3

7th to 6th centuries BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Shelomith

1 Chronicles 3:19

5th century BC

Stamp seal (bulla)


Pharaoh Shishak

(Shoshenq I)

1 Kings 11:40; 14:25; 2 Chronicles 12:2-9

10th century BC

Karnak Temple of Amun reliefs


Pharaoh Tirhakah

2 Kings 19:9; Isaiah 37:9

7th century BC

Statues and Sphinx of Tirhakah 

Esarhaddon documents


KingUzziah

(Azariah)

2 Kings 15:13-34; 2 Chronicles 26; 27; Isaiah 6:1

8th century BC

Uzziah Burial Plaque 

Stamp seal (bulla)


Yahweh

Numbers 6:24-26

9th to 6th centuries BC (dates of reference)

House of God Ostracon 

Ketef Hinnom Amulets (Silver Scrolls)

Mesha Stele



Joseph M. Holden, 2013. Taken from the book: THE POPULAR HANDBOOK of ARCHAEOLOGY and the BIBLE by Holden and Geisler -- TO BE CONTINUED


WITH  ALL  THIS  EVIDENCE  IT  WOULD  BE  MUCH  LIKE  MOVING  2  OR  3  THOUSANDS  YEARS  INTO  THE  FUTURE,  AND  GIVEN  AS  MUCH  EVIDENCE,  PROVING  WILLIAM  SHAKESPEARE   DID  INDEED  WRITE  ALL  THE  PLAYS  HE  DID  WRITE.


THERE  IS  ENOUGH  EVIDENCE  FROM  ARCHEOLOGY  TO  PROVE  THE  OLD  TESTAMENT  SCRIPTURES  ARE  CORRECT;  THERE  IS  A  GOD  IN  HEAVEN  WHO  INSPIRED  MEN  TO  WRITE  CORRECT  HISTORY.


PROVING  AND  KNOWING  GOD  DOES  EXIST  MEANS  THAT  THAT  GOD  WAS  ABLE  TO  CREATE  THE  UNIVERSE,  AND  INSPIRE  MEN  TO  WRITE  HIS  WORD  CORRECTLY.


Keith Hunt