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Law of the Offerings #1c

Burnt-offering in typology


                        Andrew Jukes


2. ITS VARIETIES. that is, the different measures of apprehension
with which it may be seen.

There were, then, three grades in the Burnt-offering. It might be
"of the herd," or "of the flock," or "of fowls." These different
grades gave rise to several varieties in the offering, the import
of which we shall now consider.

(l.) The first difference is in the animal offered. We have in
the first grade, "a bullock;" in the second, "a lamb;" in the
third, "a turtle-dove." Each of these animals, from their
well-known character, presents us with a different thought
respecting the offering. 

The bullock, "strong to labour," - for "great increase is by the
strength of the ox," (Prov.14:4)  - suggests at once the thought
of SERVICE, of patient, untiring labour. In the lamb we have
another picture presented to us; here the thought is PASSIVE
SUBMISSION without a murmur for the lamb is the figure constantly
chosen to represent the submissive, uncomplaining character of
Christ's sufferings. "He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, and
as a sheep before her shearer is dumb, so He opened not his
mouth." (Isa.53:7). The turtle-dove is different from either of
these, and gives again another view of the offering of Jesus.    
In this class the thought of labour is lost sight of: the
unmurmuring submission, too, of the lamb is wanting: the thought
is rather simply one of MOURNING INNOCENCE; as it is written, "We
mourn like doves;" (Isa.59:11; 38:14) and again, "Be harmless as
doves" (Matt.10:16)

Here, then, are some of the measures of apprehension with which
the sacrifice of Jesus as BURNT-offering may be regarded; for a
saint may see either His devoted labour, His uncomplaining
submission, or His mourning innocence. All these are equally
true, all equally precious, all equally acceptable: yet all do
not equally bring out the distinct character of this perfect
offering. The thought of the Burnt-offering, as we have already
seen, is MAN FULFILLING HIS DUTY towards God. But man's duty to
God is not merely a life of innocence, or a life of submission;
it is also a life of labour. "The bullock" brings out this
thought distinctly: the other classes, "the lamb" and
"turtle-dove," omit it.

It may be asked, what do we learn by "the goat," (verse 10) which
was sometimes offered in one of the lower grades of the
Burnt-offering? If I mistake not, this emblem suggests a thought
of the Sin-offering, reminding us of Christ's offering as goat
(in Lev.16 day of Atonement sacrifice - Keith Hunt). This view of
the case may seem to be open to an objection; and I may be asked
how the thought of sin can be connected with the Burnt-offering?
I answer, these different grades in the offerings are but
different measures of apprehension; and there may be apprehension
enough to see Christ bringing His offering, without clearly
distinguishing the different aspects of that offering.
Accordingly, we find that in the lower grades of all the
offerings, the distinctive character of the particular offering
is constantly lost sight of, while a thought or view of some
other offering is partially substituted in its place. 
[This is seen especially in the last grade of the Meat-offering,
and in the last two grades of the Sin-offering. The last class of
the Meat-offering gives us a thought of "first-fruits;" (chap.2:
14.) The last grade but one of the Sin-offering is seen as "a
sweet savour" Burnt-offering; (chap.4:31;) while the last grade
of all is represented as almost a Meat-offering; (chap.5:11,12.)]

This is what we might naturally have expected as the result of a
smaller measure of apprehension. It is what we find universally
the case in those whose views of Christ are limited. So in the
type; where the measure of apprehension is small, there is a
confusion between two different aspects of Christ's offering.    
The building, to recur to a former illustration, is viewed from
so great a distance, that more than one side of it is seen,
though neither of the sides is seen very distinctly. Thus with
many the thought of Jesus as Burnt-offering is scarce
distinguished from the thought of the Sin-offering. These
different relations of His work are unseen, or at least they are
very much confused together.

Such are some of the varieties of the Burnt-offering,
corresponding to the different apprehensions which believers have
of Jesus: for His offering may be seen as the bullock, the lamb,
the goat, or the turtle-dove. Comparatively few, I believe, see
Jesus as presented in the first class, - the patient, unwearied
LABOURER for others. 
The lamb, the goat, the turtle-dove, are all more familiar
symbols. The fact is, we need to be ourselves in service, and to
know practically something of its toil and trial, before we can
at all rightly estimate the aspect of Christ's offering which is
presented in the emblem of the bullock. 
The Gospels, however, are full of this view of the
Burnt-offering: in fact, one whole is specially devoted to it. 

In Mark, Jesus is not brought before us as in the other Gospels,
either as Son of Abraham, Son of Adam, or Son of God; He stands
rather, as another has observed, the patient, untiring labourer
for others. In Mark, turn where we will, we see Jesus always 
"The girded servant;" always at the disposal of other, to spend
and be spent at their bidding. Thus when, after days of ceaseless
labour, He retires alone for prayer or rest with His disciples,
no sooner do the multitude disturb Him than He at once goes with
them, or rises to minister to their need (Mark 1:35-38; 6:30-45;
etc.). So entirely does He give Himself to His work, that "He had
no leisure so much as to eat;" (Mark 3:20; 6:31). But He had meat
to eat which the world saw not: "His meat was to do His Father's
will." (John 4:31-34). And oh, what touches of grace are there in
all His service! He not only cures the blind, but "He takes him
by the hand. (Mark 8:23). He not only raises the dead His mission
in that house ends not till, with careful foresight, "He commands
them to give her meat. (Mark 5:43). Blessed Lord, shew us more of
Thy footsteps, that, while we rejoice in Thy work, we may learn
to follow Thee.

(2.) A second distinction between the different grades of the
BURNT-offering is, that while in, the first grade the parts are
discriminated, in the last this peculiarity is omitted: the bird
was killed, but not divided. In the case of the bullock and the
lamb, it is noticed that the offering is "cut into its pieces."  
Here "the legs, the head, the fat, the inwards," are all
distinctly noticed and enumerated (VERSES 6,8.9). In the last
case, that of the turtle-dove, it is otherwise: "he shall not
divide it asunder" (verse 17). The legs, the head, the inwards,"
as we have already seen, represent the walk, the thoughts, the
feelings of Jesus. 
In the first grade these are all apprehended: they are all lost
sight of in the last. These grades represent, as I have said,
measures of apprehension. Where the measure of spiritual
apprehension is large, a saint will see the offering dissected:
his eyes will be turning constantly to see the walk, the mind,
the affections of Jesus. He will now observe, what once he
regarded not, bow Jesus walked, how He thought, what were His
feelings. On the other hand, where Jesus is but little
apprehended, all the details of His walk and feelings will be
unseen. Christ's character will not be dissected, nor the
different parts of His work appear.

It is further noticed in the type, that, in the first class of
the BURNT-offering, "the inwards and legs were washed in water"
(VERSE 9). Nothing like this is seen in the last grade: there
even the parts are not discriminated. What are we to learn by
this distinction? "The legs" and "the inwards" are the walk and
affections. "The water" represents the Spirit acting through the
Word; as it is written, "Christ loved the church, and gave
Himself for it: that He might sanctify and cleanse it by the
washing of water by THE Word" (Eph.5:26) and again, - "Sanctify
them through Thy truth; Thy word is truth." (John 17:17). Christ,
though without spot or blemish, yet as a man in His feelings and
walk submitted to God's Word and Spirit. As a man He was Himself
sanctified by them; for as He said, "By the word of Thy lips I
have kept me" (Ps.17:4). The law said, "Man shall not live by
bread alone, but by every word of God" (Deut.8:3; Luke 4:4). And
Jesus, as man, fully did so: every step, every feeling, obeyed.  
But all this is lost sight of in the turtledove. The
discrimination of the parts, and the washing of water, are both

(3.) A third distinction between the different grades of the
BURNT-offering is, that while in the first grade the offerer is
seen to lay his hand on the offering (verse 4); in the other
grades this act is not observed. I have already adverted to the
import of this action as representing the identity of the
offering and offerer. In the first grade of the Burnt-offering
this identity is seen: it is wholly lost sight of in the other
Not a few see Christ as offering for us, without fully realising
that His offering was Himself. They see that He gave up this
thing or that; that He gave much for us, and that what He gave
was most precious. But they do not really see that "He gave
Himself," that His own blessed person was what He offered. This
is clearly seen in the first grade of the Burnt-offering. It is
lost sight of, or unobserved, in the other grades.

(4.) A fourth distinction, closely allied with the one just
considered, is, that in the first class the offerer is seen to
kill the victim, in the last the priest kills it. In fact, in the
last class, the priest does nearly everything, the offerer is
scarcely seen at all; whereas in the first class it is just the
reverse, there are many particulars noted of the offerer. The
import of this is at once obvious, when we see the distinction
between the priest and offerer.    
The offerer, as I have already observed, sets Christ before us in
His person. The priest represents Him in His official character,
as the appointed Mediator between God and man. Where the identity
between the offerer and offering is apprehended, the offerer is
seen to kill the offering; that is, Christ is seen in His person,
of His own will laying down His life; as it is written, "No man 
taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself" (John 10:18)

On the contrary, where the identity of the offering and offerer
is unseen or disregarded, the priest is seen to kill the victim,
that is, Christ's death is seen as the work of the Mediator; and
is connected with His official character as Priest, rather than
with His person as the willing Offerer. So with believers, where
there is only a limited measure of apprehension, little is known 
of Christ save His office as Mediator: He Himself, His blessed
person is overlooked or but little seen.

Such are the chief varieties of the BURNT-offering: how full are
they of instruction to the believer; how clearly do they mark the
different apprehensions among saints respecting the work and
person of our Lord. Some, however, I speak of believers, are
content to know nothing of this; and they would rather not be
told their ignorance. They can see but one truth, the Paschal
lamb, and anything further they neither care nor wish for. Such,
whether they are aware of it or not, shew too plainly that they
know little either of the wilderness or of the tabernacle, that
hitherto their home has been Egypt, and that as yet they are
little better than bondsmen there. But after, through grace we
are out of Egypt, and have received a knowledge of the varied
offerings; after we know and are assured of our deliverance, and
have spiritual apprehension enough to see the different aspects
of Christ's offering; how much remains to be learnt of Jesus in
any or every aspect of His work. There are babes as well as
strong men in the wilderness, and the babes can know but little
till they are grown. Yea, there are men of Israel, full-grown
men, in the wilderness, who through unfaithfulness are almost
strangers to the offering. With all such the measure of
apprehension will be limited, and consequently their joy and
strength but small. 
Lord, awaken Thy saints to know their calling, by knowing more
and more of Jesus; that instead of boasting themselves as
children of Abraham, while they are bondsmen in Babylon or Egypt,
they may seek as sons of Abraham to walk as He did, as strangers
and pilgrims with Thee.

Here I conclude my remarks on the Burnt-offering. In it we have
seen Jesus as our representative. His offering was offered "for
us;" therefore "as He is, so are we in this world" (1 John 4:17)
the measure of His acceptance is the measure of our acceptance,
"we are made accepted in the Beloved" Eph.1:6). But in the
Burnt-offering Jesus stands also as our example, "leaving us an
example that we should follow His steps" (1 Peter 2:21), the
measure therefore of His devotedness should be the measure of
ours, "we should walk even as He walked" (1 John 2:6)

May the Lord grant to His Church more fully to know and apprehend
her calling, her union with Jesus dead and risen, and her hope
when He appears; that while she rejoices in her inheritance, and
that Jesus represents her above, she may daily be found nearer to
His cross, and more and more represent Him here,


Yes, indeed, some great and wonderful thoughts and explanations
of typology in the BURNT-offering, as presented by Andrew Jukes.
Next we shall go on to the MEAT or MEAL/GRAIN-offering as it
actually was - Keith Hunt

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