In Search of... The Origin of Nations
THE PEOPLES OF NORTHERN EUROPE
Mystery of Mysteries. Who was Arphaxad? Who are his descendants? What do his offspring look like? Most do not know. Many who do know who his descendants were, do not know where they are today. I trust that in this chapter I will be able to provide convincing evidence for who his descendants were and where they are today.
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* From whom the peoples of Northern Europe descend
* the meaning of certain of the names mentioned in Genesis 10 and how they relate to Northern Europeans
* who the ancient Khabiru, Aramaens, Urartians and Hurrians descend from and where they are located today
What Does Arphaxad Mean?
His name may be spelt also as Arpachshad or Arpaksad1155. The "ksad" at the end of his name is a corruption of "kesed" or "kasdim", meaning "Khasdim" or "Chaldeans"1156. Professor Sayce writes:
"Arphaxad is written in the original Hebrew as Arpa-Chesed, 'the Arpha of Chesed'".1157
Josephus may also be helpful, for he wrote:
"Arphaxad named the Arphaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans" 1158.
The original Chaldeans descend from Arphaxad. The Hebrew is Arpha- or Arfa- or Urfa- Chesed, meaning Chaldeans. It is of interest to note that it was generally understood during the Middle Ages that Arphaxad was promoted to be a fourth son of Noah1159. But what does "Arfa" or "Urfa" mean?
In the Bible Mount Urartu or Ararat is mentioned (Gen 8:4). Ur means: flame, fire, to shine, bright or light; especially the latter. By inference to be luminous, prosperity, glorious1160 - a light-bringer or bringer of truth and knowledge from the righteous line. For example, "Uriah" means "my light YHVH"; "Uriel" means "God is my light".
It was through him (and to a lesser extent Aram) that the righteous line would continue; these people would be the leaders of the world, teaching God's truth to the other nations. Here we have a birthright and covenant people. Who could they be?
All over the Middle East the name "Ur" is apparent: Lake Urmial (near Lake Van) and the city of Dur - sharukin; in Mesopotama we have Nippur, Uruk, Ur, Urta; River Khabur, Urartu, Ura (in extreme north-east of Anatolia), Ura (a Cicilian sea-port); Ur-billum, Urkish (near the Taurus
1155. Douglas: 1972:86
1156. See ibid.
1157. Sayce: 1928:100
1158. Josephus : Antiquities : 6 : 1 1159Poliakov: 1974: 114
1160. ”Strong":1890: # 215-228
Mountains). Granted, the name "Ur" originally meant city - cities are equivalent to humans gathering to forge civilisation.
"Ur" is interrelated with the name "Ar". Ar means "lofty" or "exalted", later coming to mean a mountain. In the Sumerian tongue, "Ar" or "Ara" means lofty, exalted, shining or glory 1161. This is the Sumerian root of our modern word "aristocrat" which means noblest, most excellent govenor or leader. The word can also be spelt "Ha-ra"1162. Her, Hera, Herarra, Herr all mean "lord" or "master" in Gothic, Scandinavian and German. From "Ar" is derived "Aire" - chieftan of the Irish, Scots and Gaels. In the Medes tongue it is "Arios", "Harios" or "Harri" 1163. This is the origin of the name "Aryan" which means "noble" or "exalted". The Aryans are the descendants of Arphaxad and Aram (Hitlers perversion of this title notwithstanding). Many of their descendants, including those of Abraham through Keturah, settled around the Caucasus, between the Black and Caspian Seas, and north of the Black Sea - this is the "home" of the Aryans (the preferred term in this book is Nordid. And "chased" means to be wise or clever - they are an administrative people, bringers of light and truth.
It is through this line God has chosen to work for whatever reason pleases Him, but is self-evident from history.
That whole area was known as "Artashat" anciently. No doubt derived from "Arphaxad". And the original name for the population of that area was Kuro-Araxes1164. The Caucasus itself was known as the Araxes 1165. And a river running just south of the Caucasus was known as the Arax River. One branch of it is known today as the Kura, the other as Aras. The whole region became known later as the Kingdom of Ararat or Kingdom of Urartu by the Assyrians. These peoples claimed descendent from Urfa or Arfa who was Arphaxad.
The whole of Anatolia, Urartu, northern Mesopotamia and northern Syria became known as Kur or Kura-land1166. "Kur" means to be light, bright or white, although it could also mean a mountain (like "Ar").
Anatolia, Urartu, northern Persia through to north-west India, northern Mesopotamia and northern Syria were the lands inhabited by the white descendants of Arphaxad, Aram and by their descendants, through Nahor, Haran and Abraham. Italy, Greece, North Egypt and Libya were also originally of this stock.
The Cradle of the Patriarchs
Why is it so important to know the geographic location of the "cradle" of the patriarchs and their descendants? Because then we can be certain of their racial type and therefore make it easier to determine where their descendants are today.
The Aramaeans were regarded as Nordids, and therefore so are their descendants. Isaac and Jacob both married Aramaeans; Jacob is actually called an Aramaean (Gen 25:20; 31:20; 24:1-4, 10;
1161. Waddell: 1929 : 5
1162. ibid: 6
1163. ibid. I was very surprised that Waddell came to the conclusion that "Ar" (Noble) is the origin of the word Aryan for this, too, was my conclusion.
1164. Lang: 1970:78
1166 Waddell: 1929 : 41, 44, 45.
26:5)1167 and as such their wives were of the same stock as themselves. Their "ancestral habitat" was the district of Haran, known also in history and the Bible as Padan-Aram (Gen. 25:20, 6; 28:5) the field of Aram (Hos. 12:12) or Aram-Naharaim (Aram of the two rivers) and Naharina. This was a district referred to by historians which was populated mainly by Nordids, not Semites. Northern Syria was where many of the Aramaeans settled, where the Hittites fled to after the collapse of their empire and where a city called "Arpad" (named after Arphaxad) stood.1168
The Patriarchs, then, one can clearly see, were closely identified with Northern Mesopotamia and Northern Syria. Why then, do theologians claim that Abraham came from the city of Ur in Southern Mesopotamia? Mainly because they do not want to believe that the descendants of Shem through Aram and Arphaxad are Nordids. They want to believe that Abraham and the other Patriarchs are Semites. Nothing could be further from the truth. They do not want to believe that Israel falls within the ethnic spectrum of the Northern Chaldians (i.e. Arphaxadites).
But every Patriarchal contact is with Northern Mesopotamia in Genesis. They are always in contact with their Indo-European brethren.
The Muslims, for centuries have accepted the Northern Ur as the Biblical city of Ur (called Edessa by the Greeks) and still do. The Christian world also accepted the northern Ur for centuries. Only in the latter half of the 19th century when the southern Ur was discovered that the latter gained general acceptance as Abraham's home.
The New Bible Dictionary says that if the Northern Urfa is the correct location, it would require that "Chaldea" be equated "with the Indo-Aryan Haldai".1169
The Bible states that:
"Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees". (Gen 11:28)
He was called "Haran" because he was born in the district of Haran, near where Ur was, in Northern Mesopotamia (Gen. 24:10; 11:31). Nahor, too, was born in that area, which was also called "Aram-Naharaim", in which we find a city called Nahor or Nahor near Mari. The picture we gain is that the whole area of northern Mesopotamia is the theatre of activity of the Patriarchs, not southern Mesopotamia.
Now, the Bible mentions that Terah took his son Abram, Lot and Sarai and "went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees". Stephens's statement in the book of Acts lends support to the northern Ur:
"God ... appeared unto our father Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia [which means "between two rivers"], before he dwelt in Charan.
1167. Cornfield (1964) in notes: "there was in fact a close ethnic connection between the Aramean "patriarchs" of Genesis and the Amorites [he means the original Aramaeans] who settled in the region of Harran and Aram-Naharayim. This has prompted M. Noth to describe the whole clan of the Hebrew patriarchs as "Proto-Aramaeans". Thus, if biblical traditions tell us little about the early history of the Arameans, they are a valid contribution to the vexed question of Hebrew origins." (page 122)
1168. Rohl 1998: 196-97 points out that "It should be remembered that Abraham himself is presumed to have been an Amorite [he means an Aramaean] and therefore of the same basic stock as the Assyrians and the Babylonian Dynasty of Hammurabi".
1169 See Strong: 1890: # 774, 775. Douglas: 1912 :1305
"And said unto him, 'Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and come into
the land which I shall show thee' "Then came he out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and dwelt in Charran" (Acts 7:2-4. See
Gen. 24:4, 10) [emphasis mine].
Notice, God spoke to him in his country where his "kindred" were, which was in Northern Mesopotamia, as we have seen, not in the Semitic south.. How plain can you get?
Joshua's statement also proves the northern Ur :
"And Joshua said unto all the people, 'Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, 'Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood [i.e. Euphrates River] in old time, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor: and they served other gods.
"And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood [river], and led him throughout all the land of Canaan ..." (Jos 24:2-3).
Notice that Abraham came from the other side of the Euphrates River. Ur of the north was on the other side of the Euphrates.1170 For Arphaxad, "Arfu - Chesed", "Urfa of the Chaldees" - his descendants occupied northern mesopotamia.
That is where his descendants first located, 400 miles north-west of Babylon. Of course, one cannot be dogmatic about this matter, and one might argue for a southern Ur (there have been many papers published extolling the virtues of both views). However, patriarchal activity is centred around the north and as such, I favour the northern location at this time. That is were Jacob fled (Gen. 27:43), and found a wife (Gen. 29:4) and Abraham sent his concubines and their sons to the "east country" (Gen. 25:6) which was Haran (Gen: 29:1, 4).1171
What do his descendants look like? Do the Scriptures indicate their physiognomy? Indeed they do. Most people have been programmed to accept the dogma that the Patriarchs and their offspring were all Arabic-looking peoples. Such is not the case.
Notice how keen Abraham, a descendant of Arphaxad, was particular about maintaing his identity through his offspring:
"And Abraham said unto his eldest servant... 'I will make thee swear by the Lord ... that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell:
"But thou shalt go unto my country, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son Isaac ...
"... and he arose, and went to Mesopotamia [Hebrew "Aram-Naharaim"], unto the city of Nahor" (Gen. 24:2-4, 10).
This account cannot be referring to any religious reasons for the servant receiving such instructions, it must have been ethnic; for Nahor and Laban's family were pagans (Gen. 31:19-36).
Further on we read:
1170. Pfeiffer: 1966 : 602. See also Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology entry on this subject. The article "Abraham's Ur. Is the Pope coming going to the wrong place?", Biblical Archaeological Review, Jan-Feb 2000: 16-25, 60-65 is a must reading in this context.
"And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife [two Hittites] ...
"Which were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah".
"And Rebekah said to Isaac, 'I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these which are of the daughters of the land, what good shall my life do me?'
"And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, 'Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan.
'"Arise, go to Padan-Aram and take thee a wife ... of the daughters of Laban ...
"... Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padan-Aram (Gen. 26:34 -35. Gen. 27:46; 28: 1,7).
Notice, he went to Laban whose name means "white". The country of Lebanon, or Labanon, means "white mountain".
Abraham's wife was said to be "fair". The Hebrew here means something more than just beautiful. The Hebrew word is "yawfeh", meaning to be bright or light-skinned (Gen 12:11). The same word is used of Rebekah (Gen. 24:16; 26:7) and Esther (Est. 2:5,7; 1:11; 2:2-3). David, one of Abraham's descendants was also, of course, white:
"Now he was ruddy [pinkish-white], and withal of a beautiful countenance [handsome features], and goodly to look to." (I Sam. 16:12. The same word is used in Gen. 25:25)
He had a pinkish-white skin, and in all likelihood, reddish hair. His son, Solomon, was also white :
"My beloved is white and ruddy ... his locks are bushy, and black as a raven" (Song of Solomon 5:10-11. The same word is used in Is 1:13).
In other words Solomon looked very similar to a Scot. He was handsome with a pinkish-white skin and dark hair. Given that Christ's pedigree is preserved for us in scripture (Mat. 1; Luke 3). He too, looked like his forefathers, Solomon and David. From the above one is forced to admit that the descendants of Arphaxad, Abraham, Isaac or Jacob looked like the typical northwestern European (see Lam. 4:6-7).1172 Israel was a White, Indo-European or Nordid people.1173 The monuments prove this beyond a shadow of a doubt.1174
This shows that if we are to locate where the tribes of Israel are located today, they must be of this Nordic/Keltic stock.
The Hurrians were a people who came down to northern Mesopotamia, settling in the basic area of Haran or Padan-Aram. They originated in the Caucasus/Armenia/ Lake Van region1175. They poured down in such numbers that they soon flooded out the local peoples1176.
1172 "hur" means white. Several Israelites are called Hur, Uri, Geshur or Abishur in I Chronicles.
1174 Gayre: 1973 ; 35, 31, 29, 23: Sayce : 1888:17-18.
1175Pfeiffer: 1966: 161; Roux: 1982: map: "The Near East in the second Millenium BC".
1176 Pfeiffer: 1966:295
They are known to be ethnically related to the peoples of the Vannic Kingdom1177 and are thus Indo-European1178. The peoples of Van (Urartu or Ararat) showed close affinities with the Hurrians in military clothing and equipment1179 and in various other areas of culture1180.
Some may have moved southward perhaps becoming known as the Horites, who occupied mount Seir and intermarried with Esau's offspring.1181 The Assyrians are regarded as their "hereditary" enemies by historians.1182
Speiser, in The Anchor Bible, admits that the first part of Arphaxad's name is probably derived from the Hurrian "Arip".1183 He thinks, like most others, that because Arphaxad is the father of Eber (whence comes the name "Hebrew"1184) "therefore" he must be Semitic. How can this be? For his name is Indo-European.
A district where a branch of the Hurrians, the Mitanni1185 settled, was known as "Arphaxad"1186 known as "Arraphu" or "Arrapachitus" by the Greek geographers1187 and which was part of northern Assyria. A town in that dictrict was called Arapka. They naturally settled in the land of their forefather, Arphaxad. One can only speculate as to the origin of the name Hurrian. Nahor, the son of Terah, married Haran's (his brother's) daughter. That is he married his niece, Milcah. Milcah gave birth to Huz, Buz, Kemuel (whose son was named Aram) Chesed and four others. Notice "Chesed"--he is named after his fore-father Arphaxad, whose descendants down to Israel are, in a wider sense, Chaldians. Nahor's concubine, Reumah, bore him four sons. These are jointly, with the other offspring of Arphaxad, Salah,1188 Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, Abram, Nahor and Haran, called Chaldians, or Khasdim or Hurrians in history.
The name Hurrian derives ultimately from Haran. The name "Arya" means "noble" or "exalted", is equated in ancient Middle Eastern languages with "Ara", "Ari" and "Harr".1189 From Haran we get the name Hurrian. "Hur" in "Hurrian" also means "white". One of the branches of the Hurrian confederation, the Mitanni, had a tribe called the Khari or Kharrians.1190
The region from where the Hurrians sprang was the Vannic Kingdom, known also as Urartu or Arrarat or, to the Assyrians, as Nairi1191. Associated with the Mitanni were a people called
1177. Bray: 1982 : 257; Nersessian 1969 : 15.
1178. Bashan:1959 : 29; Glubb: 1969 : 15.
1179. Piotrovsky: 1969: 16.
1180. Ibid: 42
1181. Wiseman:1973 : 225. According to Gelb's Hurrians andSubarians, the name 'Hurri' was once read as 'Harri'. These Hurrians, he claims, are the same as the Horites of the Bible and the Egyptians called them 'Cha - ru'. (page 4)
1182. Havell: 1910: 73
1183. Speiser: 1964:70
1184. Rohl 1995: 200: "Egyptologists have long recognised that the appellation Habiru is the equivalent of the term Apiru found in Egyptian texts ... whilst a number of biblical authorities have concluded that the designation Habiru/Apiru is also one and the same as the biblical term Ibrim (the plural of Ibri = Hebrew which stems from the eponymous ancestor Eber)".
1185. Cotterell: 1979: 178
1186. Gayre: 1973:21
1187. ChristadelphianExpositor:p.l49. Rawlinson: 1878 : 232-233
1188. In putting together Luke 3:36 with Gen 11:12, it would seem that Cainan was a brother of Salah. It may be that he fathered the Caisittes or Kassites who were the ruling class of the Chaldeans. However, the Septuagint reads "And Arpachshad begot Kenan, and Kenan begot Shelah", paralleling the pedigree of the sons of Seth in chapter 5. Similarly the
Book of Jubilees speaks of Kenan the son of Arpachshad which may have been a later interpolation.
1189. Kalyanaraman : 1969 : 1 : 116; Waddell: 1924 : 235
1190. Gayre: 1973 :24. An alternative possibility is that as the Hurrian tablets at Nuzi called Arphaxad Arip-hurra, indicating that he was founder of the Chaldean ruling class and the father of the Hurrians, they may descend directly from him, rather than through a more distant descendant. Either way, they are descendants of Arphaxad in some way.
1191. Piotrovsky: 1969:50
Nahrima1192, probably named after Nahor. They may have later become the Naharvali whom Tacitus mentions as dwelling in Austria1193 which form part of the north-eastern or Nordic Austrians today. Although much of Austria is Assyrian, part of it is Gothic and Chaldian; thus there are two strains in Austria, and recognised as such by Anthropologists: Alpine and Nordic.
During the Dark Ages the Hungarians, Slavs and Germans ferociously fought each other over the possession of the land of Austria. Eventually the Germans won out, forming the Austrian State in the 10th century A.D.1194 Austria or Oesterreich, means "Eastern Empire" complementing the Western Holy Roman Empire of the German Peoples.
When the Humans, or rather the non-Mitanni Hurrians, moved out of northern Mesopotamia, it may be they who named the Ghorian area, the Hury River, and the Herat district in Afghanistan. In Europe they were known as the Huruli or Herli or Heruli which means "little tribe of the Hurrians" which settled in Italy.
Other descendants of Abraham included Salah or Shelah. They may be the Sali referred to by Ptolemy and the Salai of Sarike. Herodotus tells us of the Salas River in Thuringia and Ammianus Marcellinus refers to Salices, a city in Thrace, the city of Saliso in Germany (modern Selz) and the Saluvii tribe and city in Gaul (modern Aix-en-Provence).1195 Other clues are the Salassi tribe in northern Italy near the Alps, referred to by Pliny and the town of Sala in Thrace.1196 Professor Hannay makes a remarkable statement in this regard:
"As regards the Silei - some of whom were possibly the ancestors of the Shu-le, Su-leh, or Su-Lei, in the north - it is at least a curious coincidence that when Alexander fought them they were in company with, or in, the vicinity of, the Sigambri, while centuries afterwards in northern Germany we find a people called the Sicambri... It will of course be protested that the Salii were obviously so-called from the river Sala, or Saale, In whose banks they lived".1197
The descendants of Salah must therefore be in north-western Germany today.
The Hebrew form of Arphaxad, as we have seen, is "Arfa-chesed" or "Urfa-chesed" which means "Urfa the Chaldee" or "Chaldean" or "Urfa kasdim"1198. The Kasdim, Khasdim or Kassites 1199 were, it appears, with the Hurrians. In any event they settled next to them in Northern Mesopotamia.
Racially and linguistically, they are related to the Indo-European inhabitants of the Kingdom of Van 1200. They appeared from the Zagros Mountains1201 north-east of Babylon, bordering on the northern tribes of Elam. Here they were also known as Kossaeans, Kissians, Cossi or Cossians 1202. They moved westwards and settled in the southern extremity of the Hittite Empire, in South-east
1192. Waddell: 1929: 454
1193. Tacitus : Germania : ch.43
1195. Marcellinus xxxi.7.5; xvii.8.3
1196. Pliny Ill.xvi. 123
1197. Hannay 1916:444
1198. Pfeiffer: 1966:602 1199
1200. McEvedy: 1969 : 6
1201. Pfeiffer: 1966 : 125
1202. Ibid: 336; Cottrell: 1975 :205.
Cappadocia, bordering on Cilicia, where a city-state called Kishshia or Gashshia arose1203. This was within the Nahrima area1204.
I shall mention here that certain historians say the tribes moving down from the North into Mesopotamia are collectively intimated "Chaldeans" by Scripture1205. But they are mistaken in critiscizing the Bible calling Abraham's Ur "Chaldean", by saying that it is "geographically incorrect"1206. But the Bible is correct, and backed up by history. Physically speaking, the Kassites or Khasdim, are everywhere recognised as Indo-European or Nordic types1207.
The Khasdim then invaded southern Mesopotamia, forming a ruling class1208, and intermarrying with the Assyrian royalty1209. They were another link in the chain of various invading peoples who ruled Babylon. Babylon was ruled by Cushites, Semites, Gutians, Neo-Sumerians Hittites, the Kassites, (for c450 years) and Mitanni, besides the Assyrians. Yet in all this time, the name "Babylon" still kept, due to its age, fame and influence and the original Canaanite and mixed peoples residing.
Then the Assyrians reconquered the land of southern Mesopotamia1210 removing the Kassites. Some Kassites stayed behind with the Assyrians but the bulk of them "disappeared"1211. Where to? Many of them fled back north to their fellow race in the kingdom of Van and then into Europe1212. Others fled or were expelled eastwards to north-west India where many other Aryans were1213. For in Northern India we find the Aryan Kingdom of Kasi1214. And the Indian Brahmins named one of their cities Kashi1215
But what happened to the rest? And why was the land still called Chaldea after them, long after they had left?
The Chaldeans and the Romans
After the Kassites left southern Mesopotamia, others remained behind intermarrying with the dark, Semitic peoples of Arabic and Canaanite stock Babylonia.They rebelled under the leadership of Nabopolassar in 426 BC, forming what historians call the Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Empire. The inhabitants were only partly Chaldee or Kassite by race.
Professor Sayce explains it best:
“Kassites and Babylonians intermingled together, and the long continuance of Kassite rule has been thought to explain the name of Kasdim given to the inhabitants of Babylonia in the Old Testament. Chesed, of which Kasdim is the Hebrew plural, has been explained as Kas-do, 'the country of the Kassites' ... In the Septuagint the Hebrew word Kasdim is translated 'Chaldeans”
1203. Waddell: 1929: 454
1205. McEvedy: 1967 : 40. It is interesting to note that a tribe called "Khaldaioi" lived in Asia Minor (The Cambridge Ancient History, vol 3, part 1, page 361)
1207. Cottrell: 1975 : 74; Mitchell: 1976: 32; Gayre: 1973 : 23; Bashan: 1959 : 29.
1208. Gayre: 1973 : 23; Pfeiffer: 1966 : 389
1209. Pfeiffer: 1966:336.
1210. 1s. 23:13.
1211. Waddell: 1929: 466
1212. Ibid: 509
1214. Kalyanaraman : 1969 : 1 : 12
1215 Waddell: 1929 : 1 : 12
In the Greek period 'Chaldean' and 'Babylonian' had become synonymous terms, and Babylonia had come to be known as Chaldea. But the Chaldeans originally formed no part of the population of the country" 1216.
Many of these "Chaldeans" including mixed Semites and Canaanites then migrated to Italy.
By the time the Trojan fugitives arrived in Italy, there were already there a people called Latinus (Greek "Lateinos") and others who gradually expanded over all Italy.
In the 4th century BC we have the beginning of a series of wars which the Romans fought with the Samnites1217 as a part of the gradual expansion of Rome. Who were the Samnites? They were a people who were living near Rome where a related people called the Sabines were living. They appear to be the same people but with two different names. The Sabines descend from Sheba, Joktan's son. They gave their name to the River Sabus or Save, a tributary of the Danube, en-route to Italy.
After the Third Samnite War (298-290 BC), Rome dominated all of Italy to the Po valley, except for a few Greek cities scattered on the foot of Italy. These she conquered within twenty years 1218. From this consolidation Rome began her slow but sure growth to world dominance. The Romans from Troy, the Sabines and Etruscans and others descended from Arphaxad (the original Latins, were Indo-Europeans). Over time the slaves moved into the Roman Empire, overwhelming the original inhabitants. It was not long before Rome itself had mostly Middle Eastern blood (Semitic, Canaanite and mixed) pumping through its veins. So wrote Professor Frank in the American Historical Review1219.
The original Latins became the minority and the "new race" had Greek names, but were originally from the Levant, Roman historian Juvenal informs us. Most of these slaves came from Syria (where many Greeks mixed with them) and from Asia Minor1220, although many others came from North Africa as well.
As a result, the original stock steadily dwindled and the gaps were filled by the slaves1221. Many Latins could see doomsday clearly on the horizon. They decided to leave and migrate to Gaul, Spain and North Africa. Slowly but surely the ex-slaves were given the highest posts in the empire1222. For example, freedman Helius was put in charge of Rome by Nero when he toured Greece. And by the 3rd century many of the Emperors were actually descendants of the slaves of earlier centuries.1223
The Bible shows plainly in Ezra chapter four how the area west of the Euphrates, "this side of the River", was populated by Babylonians.1224 All of the nations mentioned in that scripture are from
1216. Sayce: 1928:97 -98
1218. Ferguson and Bruun: 51
1219. Frank: 1916: 689-90
1220. Ibid: 700-01; 103, p 10
1221. LaPiana: vol 20: pp 188-9
1222. Edwards: 1975: 10:727
1223. Martin : c 1965 : 12
Historians document four major reasons which brought about the decimation of the original ethnic type:
* Needless wars.
* Their birthrate was very low.
* The slave-stock increased rapidly.
1224 . Ezra 4:2,9-10
Mesopotamia, except the few Elamites. "This side of the river" meant not only Samaria, but also Syria1225. The Babylonians inhabited Samaria, Syria (having been placed there by the Assyrians)1226 and the coastal region with Sidon as the centre of Babylonian influence1227.
Later,in 312BC, Seleucus made Babylon his capital. He built a new city, calling it Seleucia-on-the-Tigris, to which he moved the peoples of the city of Babylon, leaving old Babylon deserted 1228. Then Seleucus built the new city of Antioch into which migrated even more Mesopotamians. In all he built thirty new cities, most of which were in Syria. The Babylonians poured into them. As a result Syria became the most populous area in the Roman Empire.
Cumont writes that many of the "Chaldaei" were sent to Italy during the wars against Antiochus the Great. This was their first appearance in Italy 1229. With them came both their Chaldean religion1230 and astrology1231. These Syrian Chaldeans established themselves also along the coast of Spain and southern France1232. It is these Syrians, states Glubb in A Short History of the Arab Peoples that provided Rome with many professors, philosophers, lawyers and a "considerable" number of intellectual leaders1233.
Tacitus, famous Roman historian, wrote of the depopulation of the original stock from Tarentum and Antium:
"Veterans were drafted into Tarentum and Antium but failed to arrest the depopulation of the districts, the majority slipping away into the provinces ... the homes they left behind them were childless".1234
In other places he wrote that people were migrating into Rome and Italy from the provinces1235 and that the original race was altered, with hardly a trace of the original Roman character surviving1236. Today most of central and southern Italy may be regardad as mixed Chaldean, being a mixture of Semite, Canaanite and Kassite. With them are many Canaanites, especially in the south. Rome therefore became the new Babylon.
The Urartian Chaldians
To the east of the Hittites and north of Mesopotamia, at the foot of the Ararat range, a kingdom centred around Lake Van developed variously known as Ararat. Urartu. Van or the Chaldian Kingdom, also descendants of Arphaxad. They claimed to be descendants of Khaldis1237 and worshipped him as Haldi or Chaldi1238.
They were a highly artistic people, great architects and decorators1239. Their artforms were very similar to that of Babylon1240 and the Assyrians 1241. Some have wondered how people could live in
1225. Bevan; vol I: 234
1226. II Kings 17: 22-23; Ezra 4:9-10
1227. Josephus : Antiquities : 12 : 5 : 5
1228. Smith: 1894 : 476
1229. Cumont: 106
1230. ibid: 124.
1231. ibid: 199
1232. Martin :c 1965: 31
1233. Glubb: 1969 : 17
1234. Ibid: 2.35
1235. Ibid: 1.4. See too 1236. Hoskins: 1958 : 14.
1237. McEvedy: 1978:95
1238. Huxley: 1939: 178.
1239. Waddell: 1924 : 99; Piotrovsky: 1969 : 66. See Cottrell 1975: 384
such a wilderness around Van. The truth is that the archaeological findings have proven that the climate was moister and milder in that period of time. Consequently the vegetation was lusher. To this day the Araxes valley and the area around Lake Van are still incredibly beautifull242.
Archaeologists are coming to realise that the Chaldians were much further advanced than previously thought1243. They built huge monuments, excelled in public works, fortresses, towns, temples, palaces and were great artists1244. Being Indo-European by race, so was their culture which was similar to those of Eurasia, Persia and North-West India1245. One of their cities was known as Rusahinili1246 and three of the their kings were named Rusa. And no wonder, for they were related to the Mitanni Hurrians1247 in both language1248 and race.
Only in the latter stages of their kingdom was it known as the Kingdom of Van, and after it fell 610-609 BC at the hands of the Medes, the remnants were called Alarodians1249. By the end of the century it had become incorporated into the Medes Empire1250 and of their tribes moved through the Caucasus into southern Russia 1251.
Where are they today? Where are the Chaldian peoples of Van and their Kassi brothers which migrated into Mesopotamia before being defeated and removed by the Assyrians?
Professor Waddell believes that the peoples of Van left behind themselves a "chain" of names as they migrated into Europe from Asia Minor. The following is a partial list of such names:
* Vannand in Upper Halys
* Vanota on the border with Galatia
* Vindia in the Hittite Empire
* Vinia in Phrygia
* Vinandes in Cilicia
* Veni - bazars in Albania
* Vennones tribes of the Vindeiici race of Roman times
* Vannes in Brittany
* Vienna and its "Vanii regnum" or "Kingdom of the Vans"
* Viana port in Iberia and Viana in the eastern Pyrenees
* Vienne and Venta on the Rhone.1252
* And let us not forget Venice in northern Italy
The famous Vandal tribes which later still trekked into Western Europe from the Baltic were initially from around Lake Van. With them were the Winnili, which means "little tribe of Winn" or "Van" and the Lombards and the Aramaic Goths.
100C. Cottrell: 1975 : 384.
1240. Piotrovsky : 1969 : 16
1241. Nersessian: 1969: 18
1242. Cotterell: 1980: 117-8
1243. Burney: 1971: 128
1244. Nersessian; 1969: 16
1245. ibid: 78
1246. Piotrovsky : 1969 : 199.
1247. Nersessian: 1969: 15.
1248. Cottrell: 1975 :384
1249. ibid: 119; Burney: 1971
12250. Nersessian: 1969 ; 16
1251. See Cottrell: 1975:112,
1252. Waddell: 1924 :101-3.
The Lombards or Langobards descended out of north-west Germany and settled in Lombardy, Italy in 568 AD1253. The Vandals settled northern Spain and northern Portugal1254 - the Andalusia region of Spain is named after them. Many invaded North Africa before being deported to Byzanticum 1255.
The Kassi or Cassi settled in north-west Germany. A collection of tribes called the "Cassuari", meaning "league of the Cassi" invaded Germany and remain in the north-west. The Kassi, whilst in the Near East, were famous for its "iron cross" symbols.1256 Today Germany is famous for it. With them were the Chauci, known also as the Cossaeii or Kossi mentioned earlier under the sub-heading "The Khasdim". Other tribes which settled in North-west Germany were the Cherusci and the Chalusi, named after the Chaldians.
Although the Nordic/ Indo-European element in Spain is weakening, there is still a strong element in the northwest corner (Galicia) and in the northern tip of Portugal1257.
In Italy, the fairest and tallest exist today in the north1258, especially in the mountain regions around the Po Valley1259. A few blondes have been left behind in Greece1260. Those tribes in Portugal, Spain and Italy are only a shadow of what they were centuries ago comprising only 5% of the total population of Italy and Portugal, and 10% of Spain1261. Related descendants of Arphaxad have settled in Northern France (20%)1262, America (50%), the British Isles (80%), Scandinavia (80%), the Benelux countries (75-80%) and western Switzerland (35%)1263. Canada, Australia and New Zealand still have Arphaxadite majorities at the present time. We shall discuss these Anglo-Saxon-Keltic-Nordic peoples more fully in chapter 15.
A prophecy in the book of Habbakuk, a book which deals with the Chaldeans, reveals their character when at war:
"For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation...
"They are terrible and dreadful...
"Their horses are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than evening wolves."1264
1253. Huxley: 1939 : 172.
1254. Poliakov: 1974: 12
1255. Coon : 1948 : 205.
1256. Waddell: 1929: 456, 608
1257. Ludman: 1977 : 47; Huxley ; 1939 : 170
1258. Huxley: 1939 : 172
1259. Lundman: 1977: 48
1261. Robertson: 1981: 562
1263. Ibid: 59
1264. Spence & Exell: c 1900: 14 : sec. on Habbakkuk : 8. Of this, the Pulpit Commentary states: "They are called hasty as being vehement and impetuous in attack and rapid in movement." (this seems to have been some kind of blitzkrieg)
Who are the Frisians?
The Frisians dwell today in the northern Netherlands and are a Nordic people. Near them may be other descendants of Arphaxad who dwell in southern Denmark and north-west Germany. Salah; the descendants of Eber, who served in the armies of the Hittites and who must dwell in northern Germany today according to Num. 24:24; Peleg (the Pelasgians); Reu; Serug; Nahor; Terah. Terah begat Abram (father of various northern European nations); Nahor (the Naharvali of Austria) and Haran (the Hurrians). The Greeks knew the descendants of Reu as Ragau, the Akkadians as Ra ‘u.1265
The Frisians, then, must descend from one of these. Dr. Herman Hoeh in volume 2 of his Compendium of World History explains:
"In 321 b.c. a line of princes migrated via India to the area of northern Holland and north western Germany under their leader Friso. Friso descended from Ragan or Reu (Gen. 11:19) according to La Grande Chronique ... de Hollande, Zelande etc., p28. Friso was an adventurer in the service of Alexander the Great. After being released from service, he came with a group of settlers from the river Indus to Europe. There he gained power (313) over the local counts by means of intrigue. A descendant, Friso, became king in 287, commencing a secondary line of rulers".1266
These people are also known as the Frisii, Frisones, Frisiones or Frisoevones.1267 Encyclopedia Brittannica this to say of the Oera Linda Book, which gives the traditional history of the Frisians as kept by them over the centuries:
"There is one book which more than any other, has attracted the attention of other than Frisian scholars. If the Oera Linda Book, as it is called, could accepted as genuine, it would be, after Homer and Hesiod, the oldest document of European origin; but unfortunately it must be recognized as nothing more than a brilliant forgery ... [by] a ship carpenter."1268
A "brilliant forgery" by a ship carpenter?
The paper read at a meeting of the Frisian Society, February, 1871 gives abundant proofs of why this could not be so. Amongst them is that the Oera Linda Book was written in ancient Frisian, known to no one in the eighteenth century; the paper used was at least 500 years old, and that the type of ink used was 500-600 years old. They state:
"By these evidences the date given, 1256, is satisfactorily proved, and it is impossible to assign any late date. Therefore all suspicion of modem deception vanishes".1269
"... Friso came from India, and that thus the Frisians were of Indian descent; and yet they add that Friso was a German, and belonged to a Persian race which Herodotus called Germans ... according to the statement in this book, Friso did come from India, and with the fleet of Nearchus; but he is not therefore an Indian. He is of Frisian origin, of Frya's people. He belongs, in fact, to a Frisian colony which after the death of Nijhellenia,
1265. see Bryant 1775:42
1266. Encyc. Brit., Art. Frisians, 9th ed.
1268. Scrutton 1977: 230-46 (Appendix B)
fifteen and a half centuries before Christ, under the guidance of a priestess Geert, settled in the Punjab [the time of the Aryan invasion of NW India - ed], and took the name of Geertmen. The Geertmen were known by only one of the Greek writers, Strabo, who mentions them ..."
"The historians of Alexander's expeditions do not speak of Frisians or Geertmen, though they mention Indo-Scythians, thereby describing a people who live in India, but whose origin is in the distant, unknown North.
"In the accounts of Liudgert no names are given of places where the Frieslanders lived in India. We only know that they first established them-selves to the east of the Punjab, and afterwards moved to the west of those rivers ... we find in Ptolemy ... on the westside of the Indus, the name Minnagara; and ... east of that..., Another Minnagara. This name is pure Fries."
Scrutton, in his book, The Other Atlantis quotes from the Saturday Review, July 1, 1876;
"Friso came from India in fleet of Nearchus, one of the offices of Alexander, that he was of Frisian origin, and, in fact, belonged to a Frisian colony which settled in the Punjab 13 centuries and a half before Christ. This fact receives confirmation from Strabo, and in ancient maps of the country names appear which are identically Frisian. The known philological affinities between the German language and those of Persia and certain parts of Northern India also favour the statement. Of the 12,000 Persian primitive words more than 4,000 are pure German."1270
The ancient Frisians, when in the Pujab region of India where the Aryan invaders settled, were great ship builders, having built Alexander the Great's fleet, and then sailed these ships for him.1271 How like Their descendants centuries later. In his book, Evolution of the Dutch Nation, Bernard Vlekke has this to say:
"The long voyages of the Frisians during the Crusades seem quite out of proportion to the then modest sea trade of the Netherlands ... in the Xlth century the reputation of the Frisians as sailors was well established. Adam, Archbishop of Bremen, relates how Frisian sailors had penetrated into the Arctic seas ... Their contribution ... to the growth of the Netherlands is too evident to need gross exaggeration".1272
The Frisians were a warrior people,1273 successfully expelling the Romans from their lands. They had settlements in southern Denmark, extreme north-west of Germany, Heligoland and northern Holland. The Reudigni, mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania as living in Schleiswig, are very probably a tribe of the Frisians.
What do these Frisians look like? Sacheverell Sitwell, writing in The Netherlands, gives us a good description:
"... the present House of Orange [is] descended from this prince of Friesland [i.e. John Friso] ... This race was never conquered by the Romans. It is not that, like the Irish, they were never invaded by the legions, but that they defeated them in the battle, as a result of the Auricomi of Tacitus [living in] Denmark ... the women are famous for their blue eyes and ... ash-blond hair. This, above all, is the distinctive appearance of their race, and
1270. Scrutton 1977: 228 (Appendix A)
1271. ibid: 238
1272. ibid: 50
1273. See Beowulf: 1080-1085
they are to be known by it wherever seen in Holland. As to their inhabiting Denmark, there is more of truth in that. The inhabitants of all the Frisian islands, Dutch and German, are of Frisian origin ... the language of the Frisians is said to nearly resemble 'broad' Yorkshire and to be intelligible to Yorkshire fishermen ... the fisherfolk of Leith are said to be of Jutish origin, and their wives ... are, decidedly, of, Jutish or Frisian appearance ... Leeuwarden itself is charming and pretty as a provincial capital, not less so because of the good looks, the blue eyes, and ash-blond hair of a great part of the population, those, particularly, who have come in from the country districts. The Frisians do have the appearance of a race apart".1274
Over 300,000 Frisians are still extant to this day.1275 Therefore the Frisians, or a major component of them, are descendants of Arphaxad through Reu.
Aramaeans: Ancient And Modern
There once existed in the Middle East, centred around the territory we call Syria today, a nation of people called the Aramaeans who are often mistaken with Amorites by historians. Their racial type was Nordic or Neo-Nordic. In other words Aram gave rise to a white, fair-skinned people, oftentimes with blonde hair.
As Dr Gayre in his work on The Syro-Mesopotamian Ethnology of Genesis X wrote:
"... we come to Aram. This refers to the land of the Aramaeans ... These were definitely an Indo-European people, as their features from the Egyptian monuments make plain without any doubt, both as to colour and form.
"They became settled in Syria and in the land of Nahor (Nahoraim) and also in the city of Ur (that which is in Mesopotamia, and not that in Babylon). It was from this city that Abraham emigrated in the first instance ... This then is the stock from which Israel came.
"... at the time of the Patriarch there is even reason to believe that as Syrians they were of northern European type ..." 1276
The New Bible Dictionary concurs, warning that the Armaeans are called "Syrians" in the English Old Testament where the Hebrew is "Aram". In other words they were not Arabic-type peoples which are extant today in Syria and who go by that name. Those Arabic type peoples infiltrated into Syria and Mesopotamia through to the Iranian mountains.1277 The Greeks called them "Syrians" because they were part of the Assyrian Empire. Some Aramaeans joined with the Neo-Hittites in Northern Syria while others settled in Babylonia mixing with the Arabic peoples there.1278 Those that mingled with the Arabs in Syria are known today as Syrians.
The Syrians today are still quite different to the Arabs of Saudi Arabia in many ways, and in fact, appear to have many characteristics with the Greeks with whom they also mixed.1279
"Aram" means to be "high" or "exalted", later coming to mean "a mountain". The name indicates that they were a people of ruling class attributes similar to his closest brother Arphaxad where "Ar"
1274. Sitwell 77k Netherlands, pp 71-72
1275. Encyc Brit Micropaedia, 1974, art "Frisian Language"
1276. Gayre: 1973 : 23
1277. Douglas: 1972 : 55
1278. Wiseman: 1973: 181
1279. Glubb: 1969 :17
means to be "high" or "noble" and "chesed" means to be "clever" or "wise". More on this in the following chapter.
Rebekah, Isaac's wife, was an Aramaean1280 as was her brother Laban (Jacob's father-in-law) and of course Jacob's wives. This is why Jacob is called an Aramaean in the book of Deuteronomy1281 Laban lived in Aram-Naharaim1282, which means "Aram of the two rivers" (i..e. the Tigris and Euphrates rivers). It was also known as Haran, where Terah, Abram and their family once lived.1283 Nahor, Abram's brother (and not to be confused with his grandfather of the same name) had a son called Aram 1284. One would assume that his descendants inter-married with the Aramaeans, his racial kin. We also find a curiosity in I Chron. 1:17 where the sons of Aram are elevated to be, along with their father, sons of Shem their grandfather.
But the Aramaeans are no longer in the vicinity of Syria. So where are they today? Both history and the inspired Bible reveal that the Assyrians took them captive and placed them in Kir or Kur, near Armenia. In II Kings we are told:
"... the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin". (II Kings 16:9)
The prophet Amos mentioned much the same:
"Thus saith the Lord; 'For three transgressions of Damascus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof...
" 'I will break also the bar [i.e. gates of defence] of Damascus and cut off the inhabitant from the plain ... and the people or Syria shall go into captivity unto Kir' saith the Lord". (Amos 1 :3, 5; See 9:7)
Josephus wrote similarly in his famous Antiquities of the Jews. He wrote that the Assyrians
"transplanted the people of Damascus into Upper Media and brought a colony of Assyrians, and planted them in Damascus".1285
Notice - they settled close to related nations. But where could they be today? Pliny makes mention that the Syrians were known as Arimaeans and Aramaeans 1286. He also mentions a people called Aramii in southern Russia amongst the Scythians.1287 With them were the Arimaspi.1288
Let us now trace the Aramaeans through each of the four sons of Aram to their modern locations.
1280. Gen 28:2
1282. Deut. 26 : 5
1283. Gen. 24:10. He also spoke Aramaic. See Gen. 31 : 47
1284. Gen. 22:21 -32
1285. Josephus: Antiquities 9:2:3
1286. Pliny: Natural History : 12.34
1287. Ibid: IV. XVIII. 50
1288. Ibid: VI. XVIH.50; IV.XII. 88
The Families of Uz and Hul
Uz, Aram's firstborn, "founded Trachonitis and Damascus" in Syria, according to Josephus.1289 Buz, a son of Nahor, married into this line.1290 He is called Bazu in the Assyrian inscriptions and settled among the Aramaeans according to Professor Sayce 1291
A place in northern Mesopotamia, where many of the Aramaeans were settled, was called Uz1292. From there they migrated northwards, giving their name to the Sea of Azov or Oziv. They were known as Ozonians or Ausonians when they migrated into Italy who were a Germanic people which invaded both Italy1293 and northern Spain.
Whether any of the Ussuns or Uzuns who were a fair-skinned, light haired people noted in ancient northwest China, is not known, but the similarity in name and physiognomy is inviting. There are none there today, having mixed with the local inhabitants or migrated to the Caspian Sea region. Certainly the Tocharian speakers of northern China were very northern European in appearance.1294
1289. Josephus: Antiquities: 1:6:4
1290. Gen. 22: 21
1291. Sayce: 1928 : 99. Interestingly, God is called "Oz" or "Uz" in Jer. 16 : 19
1292. Gayre: 1973 : 25
1293. More than one tribe of people were known as Suevi (Cox: 1951:112).
1294. An article appeared in The Australian newspaper titled "China's first capital unearthed":
"Archaeologists believe they have found the capital of China's earliest Dynasty, the Shang, dating back 3,600 years, the China Daily said yesterday ...
"There are several theories about the Shang, whose dynasty is the first reliably recorded in Chinese history. One says they were Indo-European invaders from the West." [emphasis mine]
Is it possible? Could it have happened? Did Indo-European peoples, descendants of Arphaxad, have a hand in forming the great civilization of China? We may not be able to prove it absolutely at this time, but clues remain which give us reason to believe that this may well be the case. It seems very possible that they were involved to some degree, but to what extent we do not know at this time. Many researchers now feel that this may well be the case. In support of this possibility, I quote from several sources below.
These Indo-Europeans are often described as green-eyed and tall (Cox 1951:17; Garraty 1972: 110). Paul Topinard also stated that the early peoples in China were had green eyes and red hair. Pile states that the Manchus were of a "remote Nordic descent" and that they had green eyes (Pile, pages 22, 30). While Dr Lenz wrote:
"It remains doubtful ... whether Chinese civilization and the Chinese State were mainly originated by true Mongols. In Northern China there are millions of persons having a slender build, a narrow head, a narrow face, and a narrow prominent nose, whose general type, therefore, suggests European origin" (Lenz 1931: 636. Dr Bertil Lundman agrees (quoted in Kuttner 1967:13-14) and Gobineau wrote that Indo-Europeans were responsible for much of Chinese civilization (quoted in Comas 1958: 35).
Dr Winchell wrote:
"The Usun were a fair, blue-eyed people in north-eastern Asia many centuries before our era, against whom the Turkish Hiong-Nu made persistent war. Who were the Usun? Who were the similar Ting Ling and Kiekars?" (Winchell 1830: 347).
Ivar Lissnar states:
"Kublai Khan, who ruled the Mongol empire in 1260, had a red and white complexion. Marco Polo tells us that Genghis Khan... was brown-complexioned whereas most members ofhis family had reddish hair and blue eyes." (Lissnar 1962: 255)
Another, Rogers, wrote that:
"The Chinese of the North ... incline ... to the Caucasian type and some are almost indistinguishable from whites, due probably to mixture with them." (quoted in Putnam cl970: 67-68).
Josephus maintains that the sons of "Ul founded Armenia"1295 by Kir or Kur. This would have been after their captivity in c732 B.C. There can be no doubt that they gave rise to the Halani who were also known as Alani or Alans1296. Mount Alaunus was named after them.1297 A tribe in south Georgia, bordering on Armenia is known as the Syanians which may be a corruption of "Syrians" of which they may be a mixed remnant. Some writers even claim that the Ossettes, living in this area, are the now mixed descendants of the Alans or perhaps more accurately, mixed descendants of Uz or Oz.
Not far to the north, dwelt the Alazonians, close to the Borysthenites, according to Herodotus1298. Herodotus also mentions that the Chaldians of the Vannic Kingdom which served in Xerxe's Persian army were called Alarodians. Could these have been Alans who dwelt on the borders of the Vannic Kingdom? All historians will admit is that the Alans, at one stage, were just north of the Caucasus, before moving into Europe1299. We are also told that they spoke an "Iranian tongue" when in the steppes of southern Russia. They dwelt with the Sarmatians1300 and led them for a time before their power was broken. Some then joined the Huns, others the Vandals 1301.
What did the Alans look like? They are everywhere described as being a tall, blonde people.1302 They may be the ones which the Armenian traditions recall as light-eyed, light-haired men who dwelt near them and who performed great deeds and were great men of valour 1303. Famous Gordon Childe calls them the "Iranian Alans", whom, he mentions, were a fair, tall race 1304 and were clearly of Nordic or neo-Nordic racial type 1305. One ancient historian, Ammianus Marcellinus referred to them such:
"... almost all the Halani are tall and handsome, their hair inclines to blond".1306
Eventually they settled in parts of northern Italy, south-eastern France and Northern Spain 1307. Huz, (called Khazu on Assyrian inscriptions), son of Nahor and brother of Buz, settled among the Aramaeans1308 and must have intermarried into that stock.
Who are the Goths?
The third son of Aram was Gether from whom spring the Goths. A Goth by the name of Jordanes wrote a brief account of the history of the Getae and Goths in 551 A.D. He mentioned that the Goths came out of Scandinavia 1309 where they dwelt for some time after Noah's Flood (it was known as Gotland or Gotarna). They migrated down into Central Asia for Josephus informs us that "Gether founded the Bactrians".1310
1295. Josephus: Antiquities : 1 : 6:4
1296. Sulimirsky: 1970 : 28
1297. Rouse: 1906: 132
1298. Herodotus: Bk. 4, eh.17
1299Shepherd : 1956 :29
1300. McGovern, 42
1301. Coon: 1948: 137.
1302. Maenchen - Helfen; 1973 : 362; Coon: 1948 : 198.
1303. Shepherd: 1956 : 114
1304. Childe: 1926; 160.
1305. McGovern : 1939 : 42
1306. Marcellinus: XXXI. 2. 21.
1307. Bachrach: 1973: 135-7
1308. SAYCE: 1928:99
1309. Jordanes: IV and XVII quoted in Kachur: 1975 : 7 - 8
1310. Josephus: Antiquities: 1:6:4
About 2000 B.C. they appeared in Mesopotamia as the Guti - fair-skinned and fair-haired invaders who temporarily set themselves up as a ruling class there. They were enemies of the Assyrians and after their defeat were conscripted into the Assyrian army, who called them the Qutu1311. Perhaps the district in the neo-Assyrian Empire, south of Assur, along the Tigris which was named Qu-te-e1312 was named after them.
Physically, the Goths are known to be Indo-Europeans1313 and historically all historians trace them back to the northern Black Sea coast and Baltic (clOO B.C. - 100 A.D.).1314 Their western branch became known as the Visigoths while those in the east were called Ostrogoths, the latter becoming part of the Hunnish hordes which invaded Europe.1315 Where are the Goths today?
The Visigoths (western Goths) settled in Gotalonia (Modern Catalonia) in northern Spain1316 and in northern Portugal1317, forming a ruling class.1318
Their brethren, the Ostrogoths (eastern Goths), consisted of two tribes, the Grutingi and the Austrogoti1319. Many Goths settled in northern Austria1320 which became an Ostmark or eastern branch of Bavaria and was incorporated into the German Empire of Otto I in the 10th century A.D. From thenceforth Austria became both linguistically and culturally an appendage of Germany1321. Some Ostrogoths settled in Northern Italy (489-493 AD)1322. Perhaps many or most of the prophecies dealing with "Syria" in the Scriptures refer to these Goths1323.
Where is Mash located today?
Josephus informs us that "Mesa founded the Mesaneans" 1324. A branch of Mash, or Mesa or Moesa settled in Asia Minor at one time, occupying the land of Mashi near the Moschi (Meshech). In the Assyrian inscriptions mention is made of the land of Masmash. And the terrible Assyrian king Sargon said that he had conquered Mas for a time. In fact, in I Chronicles, Mas is called Meshech.1325 Dr. Gayre writes that they came down from Mount Masius (or Masius Mons) near the eastern Taurus in the upper basin of the Taurus.1326
One may assume that they then ended up dwelling amongst the Elamites, as the Massadetae tribe. When they migrated with the Elamites into Southern Russia they became known as Messagetae or Massagetai. Professor Hannay states that the prefix "Massa" or "Maz" as he also spells it, is an old Persian word for "great"1327. The rest of the word is "getai" or Goths.
1311. Edwards: 1975 : 1 (pt.2): 444.
1312. Oded: 1979 : map opposite page 142.
1313. Gayre: 1973: 25
1314. Coon: 1948: 206
1315. Ibid: 205; see Kachur: 1975 : 20
1316. Taylor: 1947:170.
1317. Poliakov: 1976 : 12; Coon: 1948 : 205
1318. Jamieson: 1982:13.
1319. Diesner: 1982:93
1320. Geipel: 1969:200
1322. Huxley: 1939:172; Scheinfeld: 1939 : 344-5.
1323. For Prophecies related to Aram see: Is. 7:2-8; 8-4; 10-9; 11-1 4; 15:1-3,9;16: 1-14; 25:10; 17: 1-3; Jer.49: 23-27; 48: 1-67; 25:21; 9:2.; Ezek.25:8-11; Amos 1 : 3-5; 2:2
1324. JosephosiAntiquities : 1 :6:1;
1325. IChron. 1:17
1326. Gayre: 1973 : 25.
1327. Hannay: 191 6:160
Dr. Pilkey believes they (the Massagetai) were amongst the Sarmatians.1328 Now this is interesting for more orthodox historians make mention of the tribe of Maeotians dwelling amongst the Sarmatians.1329 The Sea of Azov itself was named Maeotis after them1330. Where could they be today?
They migrated into Europe as the Moesians, becoming known as Masowians or Mazovians or Kurpie. They live in Poland around Warsaw and toward the Soviet border - and according to one expert, were known as the Mazurs originally.1331 Some anthropologists relate them to the Byelo-Russians for they are neo-Nordics and there has been some intermarriage between the two stocks because they live adjacent to each other.
One branch must have remained with the Moschi (Meshech) in Asia Minor (where we find the town of Mush) and migrated with them for we have today a people to the north-west of Moscow known as the Zyrians, Sirians, Syryenians or Komi. The town of Maschk-owa near Tula where they live may be named after them as well the Mesha River in Russia. They are still regarded as "proto-Nordic"1332 with blonde hair and grey eyes. Although many Great Russians have moved into their land since its industrialisation in the post World War Two era, the Zyrians are still there to this. The very fact that Mash is called Meshech in I Chronicles indicates that they were in all probability closely interrelated1333 and lived in proximity to one-another, even in ancient times.
Why Mash dwells next to Meschech and not in western or central Europe is unknown. It may be that Mash married a descendant of Meschech or Riphath or by dwelling next to them, his descendants married into that line.
The descendants of Aram are a Nordid type people and none are left today in Syria, which was populated by Arabic and Canaanite peoples.
We now need to examine who were the Hyksos that settled in northern Egypt. What relationship was there between them and the Israelites? Did Joseph marry an Egyptianitess or a woman of another race? History assists in answering these questions.
The Egyptians and the Hyksos
To gain a very broad outline of the historical setting of the periods that Egypt may be divided into as generally agreed to by most historians, I list them below (I do not enter into a debate whether the Old Kingdom was pre-flood or parallel to later dynasties or other problems with chronology. As such, the dating of dynasties and other events in this book merely assist in gaining an historical framework):
* Old Kingdom: Dynasties I-VI (3110-2258 B.C.)
* First Intermediate Period: Dynasties VII-XI (2258-2000 B.C.)
* Middle Kingdom: Dynasty XII (2000-1786 B.C.)
* Second Intermediate Period: Dynasties XIII-XVII (1786-1570 B.C.)
1328. Pilkey 1984:102
1329. Rostovtzeff: 1922: 33
1331. Barnett: 1958:46
1332. Taylor: 1937 : 489
1333. Douglas: 1972 : 811. Also, east of Moscow are the Meri people (and cities of Marina and Muroma) and Mari-el autonomous region. They may be descendants of either Riphath or Aram.
• New Kingdom: Dynasties XVIII-XXX (1570-332 BC)
Details of how the Hyksos came to power are debated amongst scholars, however they all agree that they usurped power during the second Intermediate Period.
Around 1750 BC the Babylonians overthrew the Kingdom of Mari (ie the Aramaeans - sometimes incorrectly labelled as Amorites by historians). Many of the tribes under Mari control migrated westwards and infiltrated into the Goshen or delta region of northern Egypt. The Egyptians called them Hikau khasut or Hyksos. Hyksos variously means "Rulers of Foreign Countries" or "Shepherd-Kings".1334
In Act of God, Graham Phillips nicely summarises the research into this matter:
"Hikau khasut seems to have been the term the Egyptians used for the chieftains of the city states which the migrant Mari people had established in Canaan ... There is even evidence of a people who may actually have been the Israelites being prominent among the Hyksos slaves. They are specifically referred to as Apiru - also rendered as Hapiru or Habiru by some translators - a name which some scholars believe to have been the origin of the word Hebrew ... In fact the word Apiru almost certainly refers to a specific Hyksos tribe."1335
After infiltrating and settling in the delta area over a long period, they eventually became powerful enough to take over the northern part of Egypt where they reigned about 150 years - cl720-1570 BC. It is therefore very reasonable to assume that Jacob and his family had entered Egypt during this period of Hyksos control.1336 The Israelites multiplied in the Nile delta where the Hyksos were centred1337.
Hyksos has also been identified with the Kasdim (Kassites) and Midianites, Hurrians (sometimes mistakenly identified with Horites) and especially the Aramaeans (the Mar. Tu or Amurru) whose major city was Mari, Canaanites and Amorites. This is why they are called a 'mixed multitude' by historians. A similar description is given to those tribes that later fled Egypt with Israel (Ex 12:38) of whom many or most had Hurrian names1338.
They adopted much of the culture of Egypt but ruled only the northern part of Egypt whilst the south remained under the control of the native rulers. In their religious worship they showed preference to certain deities such as Set, but they did not suppress the other gods. "The title given to Joseph's father-in-law, priest of On, is interesting. On is the Egyptian city ... Heliopolis ... the centre of worship of the sun god Re".1339 Whether this priest was a priest of Re or the preferred Hyksos deity, Set, is not known.
1334. David Rohl in his A Test of Time has a very interesting explanation:
"There is one possible biblical reference to Egypt's Hyksos oppressors and this occurs in the Psalms. He (i.e. God) loosed the full heat of his anger, fury, rage and destruction by sending evil angels against them (i.e. the Egyptians). [Psalm 78:49-50] ... The correct Hebrew for 'evil angels' is malakhim-roim ... The phrase 'king-shepherds' in Biblical Hebrew is malakhei-roim!" (page 288)
1335. Phillips 1998: 190, 199, 200
1336. Harrison 1970: 114
1337. Roux 1982 : 248; Ex. 12:37; Gen. 47:6,11
1338. Wiseman: 1973 : 224
1339. Aling: 1981:46
It seems that it was a Hyksos monarch whom Joseph became an interpreter of dreams (Gen 41:14-37) and who ceded land to Joseph in Goshen (Gen 47:6). As such, the new king mentioned in Ex 1:8 would have been a native Egyptian monarch of the New Kingdom. He would have reversed the validity of any land claims by the Israelites and others.
Customs of Joseph's experiences are related to the Hyksos: eg the chariot (unknown in Egypt until the appearance of these Asiatics), the ring and the way of treating the Pharoah are Hyksos customs.1340 (The term used for "overseers" that Joseph uses when talking to Pharaoh is an Aramaic title).
The Hyksos peoples, from all accounts, were very innovative - these innovations were to prove very useful in later on in Egyptian history. The Atlas of Ancient Egypt summarises these:
"Until this time Egypt had been technologically backward in comparison to with the Near East ... Among the new techniques were bronzeworking ... an improved potters wheel and the vertical loom; hump-backed cattle (zebu) and new vegetable and fruit crops; the horse and chariot, composite bows, and new shapes of scimitar and other weapons ... new musical instruments ... and ... dances".1341
According to The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment,
"Coming from the northeast, the Hyksos were basically Semitic, but their leaders seemed to be Aryans, and possibly some Hurrians. Manetho describes them as savage destroyers. He called them "Shepherd Kings," but in Egyptian the name means "rulers of foreign lands".
The Hyksos conquered Egypt about 1720 B.C. They soon put Semites in official positions and seemed to have some kind of relationship with the Habiru, or Apiru/Aperu in the Egyptian language. Two of the Hyksos leaders had the names Jacob-el and Jacob-baal. Joseph and the migration of Jacob's family to Egypt may have taken place early during the Hyksos rule of Egypt".1342 [emphasis mine]
Other scholars note that name Jaqob-bar (a name akin to Jacob) was a fairly common name of the Hyksos period1343 which gives further credence to the relationship between the Israelites and Aramaeans.
Cyrus Gordon in The Ancient Near East:
"The Hyksos hordes included Indo-European warriors [an Aryan ethnic group which included Hittites and Mitanni in the Near East]. With the Indo-Europeans the horse, effectively used for pulling the war chariot, entered the Near East and revolutionized the art of warfare. The Iranian plateau was to become a great stamping ground of the Aryans
1340. Livingston: 1974: 153
1341. Baines and Malek 1984:42. Ian Wilson explains:
"While the Egyptians had old-fashioned solid wood bows, and had been somewhat backward in metallurgy for the manufacture of battleaxes and the like, the Hyksos had not only the much more powerful composite bow but also better made, better designed weapons of close combat and a revolutionary innovation for striking terror into enemy foot-soldiers, the horse-drawn chariot".
1342. Livingston: 1974: 26. See alsoHallo & Simpson 1971: 251
1343. Wilson 1985: 64
(as we may call the segment of the Indo-Europeans to which the Iranians belong)."1344 [emphasis mine]
So, from this we may deduce that the ruling class and many of the peoples comprising the Hyksos were European in racial stock (ie called Indo-European or Aryan by historians).
Because they were unable to quell Egyptian nationalistic feelings, the Hyksos formed an alliance with the Nubian Kingdom of Kush to contain the Egyptians. Even so, the city of Thebes in southern Egypt commenced a war which resulted in the expulsion of the Hyksos by Ahmose I.1345 (Moses is a form of Ahmose)
Who were the Hyksos Apiru?
The Bible and secular history make mention of a people called the Apiru, Khabiru, Hapiru or Hebrews who were in the Middle East prior to the Exodus. Who were they?
Let us first notice the pertinent scriptures :
"Moreover the Hebrews that were with the Philistines before that time ... turned to be with the Israelites" (I Sam. 14:21).
"And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet, throughout all the land, saying, 'Let the Hebrews hear'...
"And some of the Hebrews went over Jordan to the land of Gad and Gilead" (I Sam. 13:3,7).
These are not Israelite Hebrews, but different Hebrews altogether1346 who descend from Eber, grandson of Arphaxad.1347
They are first mentioned c2000 BC where they are found wandering all over the Near East: Alakh, Amarna, Boghazkoy, Babylon, Larsa, Mari, Nuzi, Ugarit and Palestine. The Khabiru appear to have been mercenaries fighting for the Hittites and Hurrians1348. There was even a valley of Habur between Euphrates and the Tigris. Ethnically they were Indo-Europeans of the same stock as the Hittites and the Hurrians1349. Apparently they were concentrated in the general area from where Abram came1350 - Northern Syria/Northern Mesopotamia1351. Many of their names are Hurrian (Indo-European), and being with the Hurrians may be the reason for Palestine being known as "the land of Hum"1352.
Later, many of them were allies of the Aramaeans and helped them rule northern Egypt as we have seen.
1344. Gordon 1965: 280
1345. See Stump 1988:14-17 and many other articles and books on the subject
1346. Roux: 1982 : 221. Pfeiffer: 1966 : 223
1347. Noorbergen: 1978 : 81; Wiseman: 1973 : XVIII; Gayre; 1973: 26; Cottrell: 1975 : 165
1348. Wiseman: 1973; 8-9; Gayre: 1973 :26.
1349. Douglas: 1972: 511
1350. Roux: 1982: 221
1351. Gayre: 1973 : 26, Roux : 1982 : 221.
1352. Wiseman: 1973 : 8-9,225
Did Joseph marry an Egyprianitess?
This is what we are told:
"Gen 41:44 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without a word from you, no man shall lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnath-paaneah. And he gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On, for his wife. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt." (see also 46:20, 34)
It does not state that she was an Egyptian at all. Now, given that On was in the Goshen area where the Hyksos and their aristocracy settled, it is reasonable to assume that he married into that stock for the Egyptians proper were driven southwards.
Although her name is Egyptian, remember that most Black Americans, for example, have names of Whites, so a name itself is not proof for her being a Black Egyptian. Note Ex 2:16-19 where Moses is called an Egyptian for example.
The Aramaeans were closely akin to the Hebrews. Aram is a son of Shem (Genesis 10:22). The Israelites were even taught to say "A Syrian (Aramaean) ready to perish was my father" (Deuteronomy 26:5). In Genesis 24 and 29 we find that the kinship of the Hebrews and Arameans was cemented by the marriage of Isaac with Rebekah, the sister of the Aramaean, Laban; and later of Jacob with his daughters. In IChronicles 7:14 the Israelite Manasseh marries an Aramaean woman. This demonstrates the ethnic closeness of the descendants of Arphaxad through the generations to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, with the descendants of Aram.
As we have seen, there were fair Hyksos and Aramaeans (wrongly translated as 'Syrian') living at the edge of Goshen, where the Israelites were later to dwell. After they were expelled, the Egyptians turned on Israel. See Deut 26:4-8 where Jacob is called an Aramaean because of the close association with them (and the Hyksos).
Why did Israel live in the area of Goshen and not further south?:
"But I have said to you, You shall inherit their land, and I, I am giving it to you to possess it, a land that flows with milk and honey. I am Jehovah your God, who has separated you from the nations." (Lev 20:24. Cp Acts 17:26) [emphasis mine]
It was under the Hyksos, ethnically related to Joseph, that he rose to prominence and his wife must have been of this stock I353. After the Hyksos were overthrown and expelled from Egypt, Israel fell from favour and was enslaved. Today the Khabiru are probably in northern Europe, with other descendants of Abraham or in northern Germany or even perhaps in parts of Denmark. A prophecy in Numbers appears to suggest the possibility of Eber being located close to Assur (Num. 24:24).
The Vanished Sons of Joktan
Joktan is the great-grandson of Arphaxad, and son of Eber. He is thus an Ay an by race. A brother (he had many brothers and sisters - see Gen 11:17) was Peleg whose descendants lived in Paliga, on the Euphrates, just above the mouth of the Khabur River.
1353 Gen. 46 : 20.
He is also known as Phalga1354 which was also the name of a city located next to the Euphrates. Custance, in his work Noah's Three Sons speculates that the original Pelasgi or Pelasgians came from him; these were a Indo-European (fair-skinned people) who claimed Pelasgus as their first king.1355 Baldwin suggests that a knowledge of the Pelasgians was recorded in the Sanskrit which mentions the Palangshu of Asia Minor (Placia in Mysia).1356 They also occupied a territory by the river Hebrus, named after their father.1357 His descendants may be among the northern Poles. From Peleg descended Reu, his son Serug. Serug in turn begat Nahor who begat Huz and Buz. Huz may be the father of many of the Czechs for we find place names such as Usti, Usobi, Uzenichy, Uzice, Hazlov, and so forth. In turn Buz may be the father of many of the Slovaks for here we find the region of Bystrica.
Nahor himself may be remembered in place names such as Naharany may be found in the Czech Republic. The last son of Nahor was Maacah. Again place names such as Machnin, Machov, Mecichov, Mecin and Mechov may recall him.1358
Concerning Yoktan or Joktan himself the southern Arabs of the Arabian peninsula claim descent from him1359 whom they call Qahtan or Khatan. Although a White people known as the Yotan settled on the north coasts of the German ocean1360 who are likely to be his descendants.
We are told that Joktan's descendant's "dwelling was from Mesha as thou goest towards Sephar, a mount of the east"1361. Arab tradition places Sephar with Dhofar. Later, Josephus explains that many of them had settled in Afghanistan :
"These inhabited from Cophen [a River where Kabul is], an Indian river, and in part of Asia adjoining it" 1362.
Part of Asia? This is probably the Tajik or Tadzhik Republic in Russia - for its ancient capital was anciently known as Yotkan. Their having dwelt at one time in Afghanistan, leads one to speculate that they were among the Aryans of north-western India.
Joktan's Thirteen Sons
The sons of Joktan, like those of Ishmael and Edom, are often difficult to track down. They are listed as:
The Descendants of Joktan
1354. Gayre: 1973: 26
1355. Lempriere 1788: 453; see Bryant 1775: 397. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov (1986: 53) claim that the Pelasgians settled the Peloponnesian peninsula "even before the arrival of the Greeks [Hellenes] proper".
13356. Baldwin 1869:163
1357. Custance: 1975:115
1358. David Skelly discusses these place names in his article "The Other Descendants of Arphaksad", in Origins of Nations, April-June 1996
1359. Douglas: 1972: 652
1360. Hannay 1916:361
1361. Gen. 10:30
1362. Josephus: Antiquities: 1:6:4
Almodad may have originally been in Al Mudad, but now in Dalmatia (Dalmata). Sheleph may originally have been at Es Sulaf in the Yemen and may be the "Salapeni" referred to Ptolemy 1363. Some speculate that they could be submerged into the general population of Bactria.
Hazarmaveth was anciently in Hadramaut 1364 and some of his ancestors may have intermarried with the local stock. But he may have joined Elam, perhaps contributing to the name of "Sarmatians".
The name Yrh (Jerah) occurs in south Arabian inscriptions1365 and is believed to have founded the Kingdom of Yemen. His name may be identified with a certain fortress named Jerakh, near Hadramaut. Certain authorities believe that his name originated the word "Arab", which, they think, means "Arid". The Arabs call him Yarab and he may have founded Yerats on the Sea of Galilee. He may also have founded the port of Jaderia Colonia in Uyria.
Hadoram, called Jorham by the Arabs, is believed to be the founder of Hejaz, containing Mecca and Medina. According to Arab tradition, the daughter of Mudad, a descendant of his, became one of the wives of Ishmael. They claim that Kedar was the offspring of the union of Ishmael and this wife. His descendants dwelt in Hadramaut. He may be the Adramitae of south Arabia mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny. Or he may be the Adorsi Prussian tribe (the Adler or Adules) which lived on the Upper Rhine.
Uzal gave his name to the old capital of the Yemen1366, called Uzal. Azila was also a town in Morocco. Perhaps he was ancestor of the Azali who settled in Aezeland in Pannonia, around Vienna and they may have been known previously as the Osyli in Sarmatia.
Dikla gave rise to the Dikla in the Yemen. Some have connected him with Hiddeke or Dijla on the River Tigris. Alternatively he was along the Upper Rhine with Hadoram, but now in Gedrosia.
Obal's descendants were known as the Abil in south Arabia. There was also a Wibal tribe in Arabia who may be, in part, his descendants. A town called Wibal may be found in the Wady Bepi Ruwaihah. The tribe, or a section of it may have migrated to the River Elbe or Obalus, giving their name to it. They may have been the Ophlones of Sarmatia.
Abimael may be the father of the Albions, the ancient British before the arrival of the Brythons, Angles and Saxons. He may also have given his name to Albania.
1363. Custance: 117
1364. Douglas: 1972:868
1365. ibid: 605
1366. Custance: 1975:117
Sheba may have blended in with the Sabaeans in south-west Arabia according to the New Bible Dictionary1367. However, Pliny refers to the Sabini tribe of Italy and he calls the Sabines the Sebini.1368 One of their ancient kings was Sabus.1369 While Jordanes in his Gothic History refers to the Sabiri, a tribe of the Huns.1370
He may also have given rise to the Sabus or Sau who settled on the River Sabes or Save a tributary of the Danube in Northern Yugoslavia. They migrated into Italy known as the Samnites or Sabines. The Romans fought three wars against them in the fourth century BC. All the traditional gods of the Sabines go back to a name that would be a Latin form of the name Sheba 1371.
Havilah may have dwelt in south Arabia 1372, but others assert that his ancient name was Hoeril and that from him came the Heruli1373.
Jobab probably gave rise to the Jobaites which Ptolemy mentions as dwelling in south Arabia. The Italian spelling of Jobab is "Tiobo", later changed to Tibiscus, which migrated into Hungary.
Ophirs descendants are clearly difficult to trace and many of them, originally being white, seem to have disappeared having melted into the local south Arabian population. Or alternatively, perhaps some have, but others migrated into Europe as we have seen.
Where is Ophir?
I have briefly discussed each of Joktan's sons, except Ophir. He is of considerable interest to most people and much has been written about him. Where could his descendants be today?
A potsherd discovered at Tell Qusile has inscribed on it: "Gold from Ophir for Beth-Horon". This proves that the fabulous land of Ophir existed. This also proves that the Bible does not fabricate places or events which athiests like to think it does. Ophir was real, it existed.
Wherever Ophir was, it was a place of gold mines, various Scriptures point out:
"Upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir." (Ps. 45:9)
"...Where shall wisdom be found? ... It cannot be valued with the gold of Ophir." (Job 22:24)
"Then shalt thou lay up gold as dust, and the gold of Ophir as the stones of the brooks." (Job 28:16)
The above scriptures clearly indicate that "Ophir" was a place abundant in gold.
13678. Douglas: 1972 : 1172
1368. Pliny III.v.39; III.xi.1.8
1369. Lempriere 1788: 553
1370. The Gothic History of Jordanes in English, page 60
1371. Unfortunately the reference has been lost.
1372. Douglas: 1972: 506
1373. Unfortunately the reference has been lost.
There have been many
"Attempts at solving the Ophirian enigma ... Of the interesting attempts I will only say that Calme (Disser-tation sur le pays d'Ophir, in the Traites Geographiques, a la Hays, fol.287) places Ophir in Armenia; A.J. van Hardt (Diss, de Ophir, Helmstedt, 1746) in Phrygia, Alderman (Diss, de regione Ophir, Helmsted, 171 8) in Spain; Arias Montanus, Wilhelmus Postellus and others in Peru; M. Lipenius (Martini Lipinii, diss, de Navigatione Salomonis Orphirica, in Ugolini thesauro, vol. v. fols.343-87), relegates it with Flavius Josephus to the Malayan Peninsula (Aurea Chersonesus); Hadran Rolandus (Dissertatio iv de Ophir, in diss. Misc. Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1706, fol.186) and William Ouseley (Trav. London 14, vol i, fol 47) to Ceylon; Macdonald (Asia f. Researches, Vol.i, no. 17) to Sumatra. And Christopher Columbus was firmly convinced that he had found Solomon's Ophir in the West Indies".1374
I quoted at length from Dr. Carl Peters book King Solomon's Golden Ophir (published in 1899) to show you how much interest has been taken of this subject. And those were only a few of the works published prior to 1899.
The New Bible Commentary itself mentions south-west Arabia, Punt on the Red Sea, Zimbabwe and India as possibilities. The three most popular theories for the location of Ophir is south-west Arabia, Zimbabwe and Afghanistan or north-west India. Let me briefly discuss each one.
As has already been explained, some of Joktan's descendants may have settled for a time in southwest Arabia1375.
Ptolemy mentions "Aphar" or "Sapphara" or "Sephar" the Sabaean capital (probably the modern Zaphar)1376, which sounds awfully like "Ophir". Two days inland from Saudi Arabia was the ancient Szohar (modern Zur), known also as Ofar or Ofra. There was also an Afir in El Ahasa (Ghofar) and a mount Ophir in Bahrain1377. Surely there can be no doubting that Ophir, along with other descendants of Joktan, settled in south Arabia at one time. In the Genesis account (Gen. 10:28-29). Ophir is placed between Sheba and Havilah who dwelt in Hadramaut1378. This was clearly the original Ophir. But he is not there today. Then where did he go?
Josephus wrote that the Joktanites settled the Cophen River (Kabul) in Afghanistan,1379. They then migrated down into North-west India and settled among their fellow Nordid/Aryans. Josephus also explains that Ophir was the Epirus (rus = blondes?) in ancient history1380.
In an earlier chapter, I mentioned the old work "The Philippine Islands". In it the author mentions that Ophir was in India.1381 According to the Bible, the Ships of Tarshish would stop over at Ophir1382 and pick up peacocks and apes. Not only are peacocks native only to India, but the words for both peacocks and apes are Tamil (Indian) not Hebrew. The nature of their merchandise was Indian1383 1384 not African, Malay or any other "Ophir" that has been postulated.
1374. Peters: 1899:25-6
1375. Guthrie: 1970 : 334; See too Toussaint: 1966 : 20
1376. Ptolemy: Geography: 6.7.
1377. Peters: 1899: 36-37
1378. Peters: 1899: 36-37
1379. Josephus: Antiquities: 1:6:4.
1380. Could some have migrated from s.w. Arabia into Epirus. Greece?
1381. Philippine Islands: c.1900 : 40 : 38
1382. 1 Kings 22: 48
1383. MacPherson: 1979: 147.
Indeed, an Ophir was in north-west India. They were probably located at Suppararha (Sopher) - an ancient seaport of India. And in Afghanistan today a tribe calling itself the Afridi or Afri exist. Could they be, in part, mixed remnants of the tribe of Ophir?
In any event, today Ophir in general is not located there. They migrated away from there or a sub-tribe may have located elsewhere previously. But before discussing the exciting possibilities of where they might have next located, allow me to quickly explain why they could not have settled Zimbabwe.
Many have speculated that the Great Zimbabwe ruins were Ophir1385. The same theorists sometimes speculate that the name "Africa derives from Ophir (ica), Afir, Afer, Africus, Africa1386. But, as Dr. Peters explains, "Afer" or "Afir" is Arabic for "red" and
" was applied to the inhabitants of the Phoenico-Carthaginian Province, and was only in a later period extended to the entire province"1387.
In the final analysis, Dr Peters feels that Southern Africa symbolised by the ruins at Zimbabwe, was visited by the Phoenicians on behalf of Solomon. It is likely that they did visit that region1388, but Zimbabwe, according to radio-carbon dating, is 2,000 years too late for them to have built it.
The Zimbabwe ruins were built only a few hundred years ago (c.1100 AD)1389. In fact, nothing that can be described as non-African (prior to c.1100 AD) has been found there 1390. However, native tradition insists that an alien, long-haired black race from the Malabar Coast sailed to Mozambique hundreds of years ago. This is close to the site of Zimbabwe, but nothing as yet has been confirmed to connect such "aliens" with Zimbabwe1391.
Lost Ophir - Discovered at last?
The Scriptures may give us a clue. Let us carefully examine the most important and oft quoted verses:
"Then went Solomon to Ezion-geber, and to Eloth, at the sea side in the land of Edom.
"And Huram sent him [from the Mediterranean coast] by the hands of his servants ships, and servants that had knowledge of the sea; And they went with the servants of Solomon to Ophir, and took thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold, and brought them to king Solomon ….
"... and the servants also of Hurram, and the servants of Solomon, which brought gold from Ophir, brought algum trees and precious stones ...
1384. Kalyanaraman: c 1890 :1969 :1:67
1385. Bullinger:c 1890: 598.
1386. Peters: 1899:67
1388. Did they establish the mysterious "Lost City of the Kalahari" if such a city exists?
1389. Garlake: 1973: 108
1390. White:1974: 124
1391. Toussaint: 1916 : 704
"... Now the weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred and threescore and six talents of gold". (II Chron. 8:18; 9:10, 13. See also I Kings 9:28; 10:11; 22:48; I Chron. 29:4; Dan. 10:5; Jer. 10:9) [emphasis mine]
The New Bible Commentary feels that it is "absurd"- ridiculous - to read into that passage that the ships were transported overland from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. Instead, they feel that the timber for the ships was transported to Eloth 1392.
True, the ships were of course not transported overland; but neither do these verses indicate that timber was transported overland.
Instead, the above passage indicates that the ships of Huram went to Ophir from the Mediterranean Sea 1393 and returned to Eloth on the Red Sea. They went to the Western Ophir. As there were two Tarshishes, so there were two Ophirs.
The clue is that they "had knowledge of the sea". The route to the Western Ophir was known only to the Phoenicians who kept it top secret. But, everyone knew the way to the Eastern Ophir in India. Two different Ophirs are referred to in the Bible.
As Cyrus Gordon, author of Before Columbus writes, either there were two Ophirs, or it was reachable from both the Red and Mediterranean Seas I394.
Let us stop and think for a moment: The Ophir in the East, wherever it was, was accessible from the Red Sea. But the Ophir in the West was accessible from the Mediterranean ports. That would place this Ophir either in West Africa, Europe or the Americas.
There is not the faintest suggestion of any Ophirs in Europe or West Africa anywhere in history. This leaves us, after a simple deduction, with the Americas. But where?
Fernando Montesinos, Spanish historian of the 17th century had this to say after visiting South America
"Speaking with the modesty due when treating of a matter hidden by Holy Writ and unknown for so long a time previous to our century, I say that Piru and the other [countries] of Hamerica were peopled by Ophir, grandson of Noah, and by their descendants.
These came from the east, establishing their settlemants as far as Piru, which is the last land in the world as far as their voyage is concerned" 1395. [emphasis mine]
The first Inca king of Peru, according to this author was Puma, Pacari Manco1396, derived from ”Ophir", and in turn which the country Peru derives its name.1397
1392. Guthrie: 1970: 386
1393. See Buliinger's comment in c.1890 : 578
1394. Gordon: 197 : 113; Peters: 1899 :59; Kalyanaraman: 1969 : 2 : 475; Finlayson 1974: 260-63.
1395. Kalyanaraman; 1969 : 2 : 557 - 558.
1397. One of the most learned of the earliest Spanish invaders, Bochart (1527-1598), said that the word Parvaim was equivalent to Ophir. This accounts for the following passage in Ben Johnson's Alchemist, Act ii Scene 1:
"Come on, sir; now you set foot on shore In Novo Orbe. - Here's the rich Peru; And there within, sir, are the golden mines, Great Solomon's Ophir."
Interestingly, "Para" in the Sanskrit (language of the Aryans of North-west India where a branch of Ophir was once located) means "light".1398 "Ophir" is from a root meaning to "Revolve" or a "wheel", referring ultimately to the sun, giver of light while the word "Para" in the Sanskrit means "other side (of the ocean)"1399.
Ophir in Peru?
The sailors of Huram and Solomon would either have dropped sail in North-east South America and met traders from Ophir there, before rounding the tip of Africa and sailing into the Red Sea. Or, they would have sailed around Cape Horn, and met with the traders on the North-west coast of South America, before returning across the Pacific Ocean.
In any event, there is definitely a link between ancient Peru and the Mediterranean world, indicating a certain amount of trade between the two. For example, the architectural design of certain amphitheatres of Peru are similar to those of the Mediterranean1400. And the Sillustani Megalith circles of Peru are rather similar to those of Stonehenge in England.1401
I would exhort the reader to obtain a copy of Heyerdahl's astounding books Early Man and the Ocean and American Indians in the Pacific (Read Part V: "Traces of Caucasian-like Elements in Pre-Inca Peru", pp 217-347). Also Honore's In Search of the White God. In this section Heyerdahl proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that a tall, fair-skinned White race, many with blond or red hair, once inhabited Peru. Being ultimately descended from Arphaxad, Ophir were a Nordic-type people.1402
One final proof. In Isaiah, God says that the future destruction on the earth will be so great that
"I will make man more precious than fine gold; even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir". (Is. 13:12. ie Very few people will be left alive on the earth. See also Is. 17:6; 24:3,6)
The Hebrew for "golden wedge" signifies "a tongue of gold". Here is a mention of a particular instrument of gold - something famous in Ophir.1403
One of the earliest rulers of ancient Peru was the Incan Manco Capac of the Pirau Dynasty. He carried with himself a golden staff. It was at least three feet long and two inches in diameter. Apparently, in his travels with his people he mentioned that they would stop and settle where the ground was soft and fertile - where the golden wedge could be driven into the ground.1404
Now, since the earliest ruler of Peru was Pirua Paccari Manco, whose name derives from "Ophir"; since the earliest settlers were White and had red beards; since there is an abundance of gold there;
1398. ibid: 463
1400. Kolosimo: 1973 :224
1401. Van der Veer: c 1970 : 146
1402. According to Jones, Joktan took the surname of Abdushams which means "Servant of the Sun" (vol 1, page 57). While Kalyanaraman says that the name of "Inca" may have derived from the "Inaka", which means "People of the Sun", (vol 2, page 463). See also Perry's work The Children of the Sun. Of further interest is the region of Yucatan in central America which may be derived from the name of Joktan. After all the Arabs called Joktan Yuktan or Khatan.
1403. Dankenbring: 1978 :106
1404. ibid: 106-7
and since the golden wedge corresponds to Capac's golden wedge, then surely it cannot be denied that Ophir dwelt in Peru?
Nearby dwelt the fair-skinned Chachapoyans, the "cloud people", who built structures on mountain tops all over that region. One can witness the remnants of these cities and walls to this day. The mummies, tombs, hieroglyphics are proof that that their culture was very advanced, much like the Inca who inhabited the region later. Due to the destruction of their civilization, not much is known about these 'fair jungle people', but further exploration may tie them to Joktan's descendants.
The peoples of Ophir eventually intermarried into the local stock, with only small genetic traces of them left today. Others probably left South America and headed back to the Old World. Where are they today? In Europe or South Africa? There is no way of telling. But some day, at His return, Christ will reveal all. For indeed, Joktan's sons have "vanished".1405
One final note, when we explore the ancient history of the peoples of the Middle East, Northwest India and Europe, we are forced to come to the following conclusions: the peoples of Italy, Southeast Europe, Greece, Asia Minor, Iran, Afghanistan, Northwest India and others scattered throughout central Asia were a people who are everywhere described as relatively taller than many other nations; blonde, red or brown-haired; fair-skinned; blue, green or hazel eyes; noble; semi-democratic and such like.1406 These are the descendants of Arphaxad.
1405. Given that the name of Ophir is a different pronounciation of Hapir or Apir, this would indicate that many of them dwelt with the Elamites for the Elamites called themselves Apir (Aalders 1981: 237)
1406. The Teuton and the Roman by Charles Kingsley and Race Life of the Aryan Peoples by Joseph Widney (2 volumes)
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