by Craig  White


Who was Nimrod in history? Many have wondered and speculated, not least myself. When his empire fell, what became of the former inhabitants? We have already touched on this question in the previous chapter. As you will notice as we proceed, these two chapters overlap, but this cannot be helped.


who Nimrod was in the time shortly after the Flood of Noah

who the Australian Aborigines have descended from

the likely route taken by them in their migration to Australia

that it may be possible that ancient Egyptians also visited Australia

Genesis chapter 10 has this to reveal concerning Nimrod:

"And Cush begat Nimrod [from Hebrew "Mar-ad", meaning "to rebel" or even "panther

of Hadad" (Baal)]; he began to be a mighty one in the earth.

He was a mighty hunter before [Hebrew is "in defiance of] the Lord ...

and the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the

land of Shinar.

Out of that land went forth Asshur, and builded Ninevah (and the city of Rehoboth) and

Calah [Calah became known as Nimrud.],

And Resen between Ninevah and Calah ..." (Gen. 10:8-12)

Nimrod, with other sons of Ham, after the flood of Noah

"journeyed from [Hebrew "to"] the east, ... they found a plain the land of Shinar [Sumeria or Babylonia534]; and they dwelt there ...

And they said, 'go to, let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth

So the Lord scattered [Hebrew "dispersed", "spread"] them abroad from thence upon the

face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city

Therefore is the name of it called Babel [confusion]"535 (Gen. 11:2,4,8-9)

In most places in the Bible the Hebrew for "east" is rendered 'toward the east' or similar. Given that Moses is the author, it should be noted that he was writing from the perspective of his much sought after Holy Land (see for instance Genesis 2:8; 10:30).

From Genesis 11 we can see that the descendants of Nimrod moved eastwards into Sumeria (Shinar). We would term the region as Mesopotamia today. Whilst some scholars seek a northern Shinar, very


Theplain of Shinar may have extended all the way from the north to the Persian Gulf. See Lennart Moller's The Exodus Case (page 26). When I discovered this book in March 2002,1 was pleasantly surprised to see that he, too, accepted a northern Ur which is discussed more fully in section three dealing with Shem.

Garraty and Gay (1972:61) mention that later barbarians from the east swept away the house of Sargon. It took more than 100 years to reunite Mesopotamia.


little evidence to date has arisen to back up this claim to date, although one cannot fully discount such a theory.

Where are the cities of Babel, Erech, Accad, Calneh, Ninevah, Rehoboth and Calah today? Below I summarise the findings of archaeologist and historians:

* Babel - south-central region of Mesopotamia 

* Erech (Uruk) - south

* Accad - central-south

* Calneh - unidentified but the Hebrew may be rendered "all of them". There is another Calneh in the far north called Kullani. This northerly city may have been named later after the mother city to the south which was a common practice in antiquity536

* Ninevah - north Rehoboth - unidentified but may have been an outlying suburb of Ninevah Calah (Nimrud) - north

The descendants of Nimrod settled in Babylonia and created its civilization together with other descendants of Cush and Canaan.537 They were the original Babylonians whom historians describe as non-Semitic, but Hamitic with Turanian (Mongoloid, central Asian and even Finnic-Ugrian) races also present.538 Finno-Ugric includes the population residing today in Hungary. The Table of Nations pictures the Cushites and Nimrodites as being very close at hand after the flood. Babylonia was even referred to as the land of Cush.539

Unger 's Bible Dictionary notes his power:

"Hamitic imperial power is said to have begun in Babel, Erech, Akkad and Calneh ...
Shinar ... was divided according to the cuneiform accounts into the northern portion
called Akkad in which Babel (Akkad. Babilu, signifying gate of god) and the city of
Akkad (Agade) were situated."540

Who could Nimrod have been in the ancient record? He was likely to have been the historical "King of Uruk and King of Sumer", Lugalzaggisi. Evidence identifying Lugalzaggessi as the historical Nimrod is due to the following reasons:


International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, article "Calneh"

Gayre: 1973: 58. In 1939 John G Jackson wrote a paper on "Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization" in which he made the following revealing comments (pages 1, 4-5, 8,12):

In the latest edition of his Outline of History, Mr. Wells ends his chapter on 77ie Early Empires with the following remarks: "No less an authority than Sir Flinders Petrie gives countenance to the idea that there was some very early connection between Colchis (the country to the south of the Caucasus) and prehistoric Egypt. Herodotus remarked upon a series of resemblances between the Colchians and the Egyptians." (Wells' New and Revised Outline of History, p. 184, Garden City, 1931.) It would have been proper for Wells to have quoted the remarks of Herodotus, so as to give us precise information on the series of resemblances between the Cholchians and the Egyptians.

"Since we are dealing with historical sources and authorities, a study of the researches of Sir Henry Rawlinson, the Father of Assyriology, on the Ethiopians in the ancient East, is in order. The following extract is condensed from an essay entitled: On the Early History of Babylonia:

1. The system of writing which they brought with them has the closest affinity with that of Egypt—in many cases indeed, there is an absolute identity between the two alphabets.

2. In the Biblical genealogies, Cush (Ethiopia) and Mizraim (Egypt) are brothers, while from the former sprang Nimrod (Babylonia.)

3. In regard to the language of the primitive Babylonians, the vocabulary is undoubtedly Cushite or Ethiopian, belonging to that stock of tongues which in the sequel were everywhere more or less mixed up with the Semitic languages, but of which we have probably the purest modern specimens in the Mahra of Southern Arabia and the Galla of Abyssinia.

4. All the traditions of Babylonia and Assyria point to a connection in very early times between Ethiopia, Southern Arabia and the cities on the lower Euphrates.

5. In further proof of the connection between Ethiopia and Chaldea, we must remember the Greek tradition both of Cepheus and Memnon, which sometimes applied to Africa, and sometimes to the countries at the mouth of the Euphrates; and we must also consider the geographical names of Cush and Phut, which, although of African

        origin, are applied to races bordering on Chaldea, both in the Bible and in the Inscriptions of Darius. (Essay-VI, Appendix, Book-I, History of Herodotus, translated by Professor George Rawlinson, with essays and notes by Sir Henry Rawlinson and Sir J. G. Wilkinson.)

"The opinions of Sir Henry Rawlinson are reinforced by the researches of his equally distinguished brother, Professor George Rawlinson, in his essay On the Ethnic Affinities of the Races of Western Asia, which directs our attention to: "the uniform voice of primitive antiquity, which spoke of the Ethiopians as a single race, dwelling along the shores of the Southern Ocean from India to the Pillars of Hercules." (Herodotus, Vol. I., Book. I., Appendix, Essay XL, Section-5.) Rawlinson adds an explanatory note to this section of his essay, which we here reproduce: "Recent linguistic discovery tends to show that a Cushite or Ethiopian race did in the earliest times extend itself along the shores of the Southern Ocean from Abyssinia to India. The whole peninsula of India was peopled by a race of their character before the influx of the Aryans; it extended from the Indus along the seacoast through the modern Beluchistan and Kerman, which was the proper country of the Asiatic Ethiopians; the cities on the northern shores of the Persian Gulf are shown by the brick inscriptions found among their ruins to have belonged to this race; it was dominant in Susiana and Babylonia, until overpowered in the one country by Aryan, in the other by Semitic intrusion; it can be traced both by dialect and tradition throughout the whole south coast of the Arabian peninsula."

".... The earliest civilization of Mesopotamia was that of the Sumerians. They are designated in the Assyrio-Babylonian inscriptions as the black-heads or black-faced people, and they are shown on the monuments as beardless and with shaven heads. This easily distinguishes them from the Semitic Babylonians, who are shown with beards and long hair. From the myths and traditions of the Babylonians we learn that their culture came originally from the south. Sir Henry Rawlinson concluded from this and other evidence that the first civilized inhabitants of Sumer and Akkad were immigrants from the African Ethiopia. John D. Baldwin, the American Orientalist, on the other hand, claims that since ancient Arabia was also known as Ethiopia, they could have just as well come from that country ... "The Sumerian stories or origins themselves tell a very different tale," Perry points out, "for from their beginnings the Sumerians seem to have been in touch with Egypt. Some of their early texts mention Dilmun, Magan and Meluhha.... Dilmun was the first settlement that was made by the god Enki, who was the founder of Sumerian civilization.... Magan was famous among the Sumerians as a place whence they got diorite and copper, Meluhha as a place whence they got gold. Dilmun has been identified with some place or other in the Persian Gulf, perhaps the Bahrein Islands, perhaps a land on the eastern shore of the Gulf. ... In a late inscription of the Assyrians it is said that Magan and Meluhha were the archaic names for Egypt and Ethiopia, the latter being the south-western part of Somaliand that lay opposite." {The Growth of Civilization, pp. 60-61,2nd Edition, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1937, Published by Penguin Books, Ltd.) "Another great nation of Ethiopian origin was Elam, a country which stretched from the Tigris River to the Zagros Mountains of Persia. Its capital was the famous city of Susa, which was founded about 4,000 B.C., and flourished from that date to its destruction by Moslem invaders about the year 650 C.E. (Christian Era). In speaking of the Elamites, H. G. Wells [claims some] to have been Negroid in type. There is a strong Negroid strain in the modern people of Elam." {Outline of History, p. 166.) Archaeological evidence favors this view. Reginald S. Poole, the English Egyptologist noted that: "There is one portrait of an Elamite (Cushite) king on a vase found at Susa; he is painted black and thus belongs to the Cushite race." (Quoted by Professor Alfred C. Haddon, in his History of Anthropology, p. 6, London, 1934. Thinker's Library Edition, published by Watts & Co., 5 & 6 Johnson's Court, Fleet St., London, E. c-4, England.) "We cannot devote much space to the early inhabitants of India, though they were beyond all doubt an Ethiopic ethnic type. They are described by Professor Lynn Thorndike as "short black men with almost Negro noses." {Short History of Civilization, p. 227, New York, 1936.) Dr. Will Durant pictures these early Hindus as "a dark-skinned, broad-nosed people whom, without knowing the origin or the word, we call Dravidians." {Short History of Civilization, Part I, p. 396, New York, 1935.)

"These Asiatic black men were not confined to the mainland, for we are informed by no less an authority than Sir Harry H. Johnston, that:

In former times this Asiatic Negro spread, we can scarcely explain how, unless the land connections of those days were more extended, through Eastern Australia to Tasmania, and from the Solomon Island to New Caledonia and even New Zealand, to Fiji and Hawaii. The Negroid element in Burma and Annam is, therefore, easily to be explained by supposing that in ancient times Southern Asia had a Negro population ranging from the Persian Gulf to Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. {See An Introduction to African Civilizations, by Willis N. Huggins. Ph.D. and John G. Jackson, pp. 188-190, New York, 1937.)" [emphasis mine]

Orr 1906: 401

Custance: 1975: 75.

Unger 1966: 442


* his father was Ukush who was possibly the Biblical Cush or Kush

* he lived exactly at the time in history when we would expect to find Nimrod to have lived (between 100-300 years after the flood)

* he ruled over the very cities and region Nimrod was said to have ruled (Gen 10:10)

* he was the first mighty king of the Mesopotamian region who ruled over black peoples and others

* ”Lugal" means to be a big or mighty man, great man, or even king (compare Gen 10:8)

   his chief enemy to his north was Sargon of Akkad, probably Assur himself. This seems to have been the commencement of the King of the North and King of the South tensions mentioned in the longest prophecy of the Bible in Daniel 11.

I have seen no other figure in history that so closely resembles the Biblical Nimrod. Until plausible alternative proofs are presented, at this time I have settled with this identification.

When Nimrod was conquered by Sargon the Great, his empire was smashed, but what became of Nimrod's subjects, descendants and related peoples?

His subjects were Cushitic peoples. In Iranian tradition Prince Helius (Nimrod) was in command of various black tribes which correspond with the Dravidians and Australoids and in the Ennead of Plutinus Nimrod-Geb had a son Seba-Osiris whose descendants became the Argonautic Aeetas some of whom, according to tradition, were to be found in the land of the Colchis.541

Nimrod's Empire Scatters

Rawlinson, who wrote the Origins of Nations, clearly proves that early inhabitants of Babylonia were Cushites.542 Writing about an ancient black population in southern Assyria, Professor Sayce mentions that there is evidence that they also inhabited Babylonia:

"It is found on one of the oldest monuments of Chaldean art yet known ... and may be detected in the Babylonian soldiers in the Assyrian armies. We also meet with it in Elam. We are therefore justified in looking upon this particular type as that which originally occupied the southern valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris as well as the mountains of Elam to the east of them."543

John Baker, famous physical anthropologist and author of Race, states that the Cushites were the main racial group around the Persian Gulf in ancient times544 including Negritoes (Asiatic

pygmies). 545 These people were non-Semitic (i.e. not Arabs), according to Wiseman's article on


Genesis 10: Some Archaeological Considerations.546   More evidence is found in the most ancient bas-reliefs where figures of Negritos appear in battle in the time of Naram-sin.547


Pilkey 1981:189,177.

Rawlinson: 1878: 212-3.

Sayce: 1928: 199-200

Baker: 1974: 510. Unfortunately, many still wish to wrestle with the evidence, according to Douglas: cl975: 1057. See also the New Funk & Wagnails Encyclopaedia, vol 12, 1950-51: 4199-4200.

Huart 1927: 26

Wiseman: 1955: 14.

Field 1939: 126. He continues that "in Susiana there are traces of dark-skinned population who, from the monuments, indicate a Pre-Dravidian ... stock" (page 236) which means a Veddoid/Australoid stock. Later he states "Ethiopians" once dwelt to the southeast of the land and "some may be related to the Dravidians of India" (page 155).


The black peoples who originally populated Mesopotamia, were "connected" to, racially, the blacks who anciently dwelt in the Indus Valley.548 They referred to themselves as "black-headed" people as a distinguishing feature from the other nations. As there were many other black-haired people roundabout, that they must have been literally implying that their heads (like the rest of their bodies) were black.549

The fact that there were Cushites of the South Indian type and Negritoes in the area of Elam and the Persian Gulf is further proven by Bernal in his Black Athena. Their language even belonged to the Dravidian linguistic family.

Nimrod's Empire was eventually scattered. Some of followers fled to the north to Cappadociafand then on to the Colchis bringing with them place-names similar to those found in southern Mesopotamia.550 Others moved eastwards into India. Still others fled south. To this day there is a town called Sakakah in Saudi-Arabia, south of the Iraqi border, in the Syrian Desert. To the east of Cappadocia, on the western shore 'of Lake Van we find a mountain called Nimrud Mountain, which carried the name far to the north of Babylonia.

From there they migrated into South Arabia and Ethiopia as we saw in the previous chapter.551 They first occupied Oman and the port of Muscat before spreading into Africa across the straits of Bab-el Mandeb.552 With them were the descendants of Sheba and possibly certain of Seba - Oman was called anciently Asabi. Later the "Saba" are mentioned amongst the peoples of the ancient Kingdom MeroS in southern of Egypt.553

As a result the name "Cush" was applied to the

"district of Arabia in which the sons of Cush first settled ... extending east as far as the Tigris, and having for its western boundary the Nile"554

The population left behind after the flight of these people were Canaanites and others.

The Sukkiim

The only direct mention of the Sukkiim in the Bible is recorded in II Chronicles (c. 923 BC):

“And it came to pass, that in the fifth year of King Rehoboam Shishak King of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had transgressed against the Lord, "With twelve hundred chariots, and three-score thousand horsemen: and the people were without number that came with him out of Egypt: the Lubims, the Sukkiims, and the Ethiopians." (II Chron. 12:2-3)555


548. Custance: 1975: 152, 74.

549. Ibid: 72. Their conqueror, Sargon, himself said, "For forty-five years the kingdom I have ruled, and the black heads [ie, black race] I have governed" (in Ragozin: 1887: 205-7). And researcher George Smith in Chaldean Genesis says that Sargon ruled the people of the "black face" (p. 82).

550. Hoeh:1957:21.

551. Christadelphian Expositor: c l970: 145.

French archaeologist Francois Lenormant wrote the following: "We may perceive the remembrance of a powerful empire founded by the Cushites in very early ages, apparently including the whole of Arabia Felix, and not only Yemen proper" (quoted in "Africoid Populations in Early Asia", c l995, page 3, internet article).

552. Although Bab-el Mandeb now means "gate of tears" or "waters" in Arabian, it may have derived from Babel! As Babel can also mean "gate of God". Interestingly, several Australian tribes appear to bear this name Mandeb: Mandandanji, Mandara, Mandi, Mandjil-djara, Mangala, Mangaraai (Tindale: 1974: 162).

553. Jarvis 1960: 167.

554. Lawsonc. 1870:1:374.


The Sukkiim originally dwelt on the east coast of Africa.556 Josephus' rendition of I Kings 10:22 as "ivory, Ethiopians, and apes" suggests that the Hebrew was "Sukkiyyim" or black people, rather than "Tukkiyyim" or peacocks.557 Even if Josephus is wrong, at least his statement shows that the Sukkiim were understood to be black.

Speaking of Shishak, King of Egypt, Josephus writes:

"concerning whom Herodotus was mistaken, and applied his actions to Sesostris; [who came] with many ten thousand men ... they were the greatest part of them Libyans and Ethiopians".558

"Herodotus of Halicamassus mentions this expedition having only mistaken the King's name;... He says withal that the Ethiopians learned to circumcise ... from the Egyptians; with this addition, that the Phoenicians and Syrians that live in Palestine confess that they learned it of the Egyptians."559

Before continuing our tracing the movements of the Sukkiim into the Sinai and Palestine and into Asia Minor, let us notice how the name is recalled in Africa.

Firstly, there was a city called Sakkara in lower Egypt.560 Whether it was one and the same as Sakha (Xoiss) in the Nile Delta, I do not know. Nor can one say for certain that the names are connected to Sukkiim. The modern Suwakim, a town on the Red Sea in the Sudan was originally known as Suakim. Again, one cannot positively identify that with Sukkiim, but it is a possibility. Also, I might mention that the African goddess, Hathor, was anciently known as Seket or Sakti which may be connected to the Sukkim.561

Several African tribes bear the name Suk or Sok. But whether they are related to the Sukkiim, is unlikely. More likely, they were associated with them and perhaps received their name due to that association.

In south-west Zaire dwell a tribe called the Suku, numbering only about 100,000. The area of Sakania, in Zaire, bordering on Zambia is probably named after them.

The Sukuma, a different tribe, live today in Tanzania. They number about two million. Their threshing and growing of Sorghum is almost identical to that of the central highlands of Ethiopia, observers tell us.562 Did they "originate" in Ethiopia?

Yet another tribe, the Suk, are found in Kenya, north of Lake Baring. They are noted for farming cattle, sheep, goats and they also keep camels.563 They are not Negroid but Nilo-Hamite (Cushitic)


555. In 16:8 we are told that the "huge host" poured into the Middle East.

556. Bullinger c 1890: 581 (Note on II Chron 12:3)

557. Josephus: Antiquities: 8:10: 2

558. Ibid: 8: 10: 3.

559. Ibid: 8: 10: 3.

560. Grant: 1971: 3.

561. Kalyanaraman: 1969: 1:21.

562. Dogget: c 1970: 259.

563. A History of Discovery and Exploration 1973: 151.


and like so many Cushites, they have an adoration of cattle having established a cattle cult. To them milk is sacred564 and in this connection some anthropologists have pointed out the similarities between the cattle cults of East Africa and southern India. They cannot fathom out how this could be. But they could know if they only accepted the Bible. Taylor, who I have already referred to, puzzles over the many similarities, for example, between the Kurumba Dravidians and the Ethiopians.565

A people called the Sokorro or Sorko live on the banks of Lake Chad (south-west of the country). Perhaps the town of Sokoto in north-west Nigeria and a river of the same name which extends into central Niger, is named after them; also in southern Mali stands a town called Sikassa.566

A Negroid tribe, originating from the African coast, were brought into Madagascar. They live today on the west coast of the island and are known as the Sakalava567 and speak a language of that name.568 They have mixed considerably with the Arab, Indian and Indonesian elements there.569 But the African element now dominates.570 Buxton even mentions that the blacks of Madagascar may, in part, be derived from the blacks of South-East Asia.571 Is this possible? Could it be that a certain Saka or Suka tribe from Asia settled in Madagascar, intermarrying with the Negroids?

Interestingly enough, a small state called Sikkuri. lay in the mountains south-east of ancient Assyria in ancient times.572 The steppe district on the western bank of the Euphrates River was known as Shuki or Sukhi573 And an area called Sukhu (Shuah) lay north-west of Babylon.574 Here is where Nimrod's descendants and Cushitic allies dwelt. Their language bears a remarkable resemblance to that of the original natives of Ethiopia.575

But let us return now to the story flow. Two quotes may help to further illuminate a complex study. Lawson's Scripture Gazeteer says:

"Sukkim ... were ancient tribes who dwelt in caves in various part of Palestine, Arabia, the coast of the Red Sea, Egypt".576

The Bible Dictionary has this to add of the Sukkiims:

"the Greek and Latin versions call them 'troglodytes', or dwellers in caves; but if the word is Hebrew, it rather means 'dwellers in tents', or Scenites... Fttrst thinks the Sukkim were dwellers in Sok. a mountain region near the Red Sea, where Pliny fixes thetroglodyte city of Suche: and he thinks the modem Nubian name Suakim may be connected with the same district”577


564. Seligman: 1930: 105.

565. Taylor: 1937:210; See also Coon 1956:403.

566. There might therefore be something to the reference to the "Lubim and Put" in Nah 3:9 and the "Lubim and Sukkim" in IlChron 12:3 given that both are similar in fashion and that this indicates that there was a people descended from Put amongst the Sukkim, and not Cushites alone.

567. A History of Discovery and Exploration: 1973: 151.

568. Philips College Atlas: 1969: 9.

569. Sibree: 1880: 109-110.

570. Brown: 1978: 20.

571. Buxton: 1925: 68.

572. Williams: 1908: 1: 378

573. Edwards: 1975: 1 (pt2): 287. Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria spoke of the "land of Sukhi" (Moscati 1959: 65) which is also the name of a tribe of people (ibid).

574. Ibid: 532.

575. Rawlinson: 1878: 209. 576Lawson:c. 1870:455.


The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible states that the Sukkiim were probably from Libya. Indeed certain Sukkiim may have migrated into Libya for we find to this day an Australoid element in the Ushtetta peoples of Algeria.578

In the previous chapter we have seen how the various Cushitic tribes of East Africa filtered into the Sinai and Palestine, or were taken there as warriors or slaves. When Egypt was defeated by the Assyrians, many of the Cushites were taken by them and resettled near the Colchis where remnants of Nimrod's empire were already located.579 Isaiah foretold this in prophecy:

"And the Lord said, 'like as My servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia;

"So shall the King of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks uncovered to the shame of Egypt.

"And they shall be afraid and ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation, and of Egypt their glory.

"And the inhabitant of this isle [Heb. "coastland"] shall say in that day, 'Behold, such is our expectation, whither we flee for help to be delivered from the King of Assyria; and how shall we escape?'" (Isaiah 20:3-6) 58°

The cruel Assyrians (Isaiah 19:4) enslaved these peoples from the Red Sea Coast who were in the Egyptian army, and then sent many of them on to the Colchis.

The Land and Peoples of the Colchis

Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, said that the Colchians were related to the Egyptians.581 He gave several reasons. Firstly, their languages are similar; secondly they practiced circumcision; and thirdly because the linen for which they were famous, was woven in the exact manner as the Egyptians. And no other peoples wove it that way. Further they were black with tight curly hair like the Nubians.582 He claimed them to be remnants of Sesostris' army' 583 which Josephus says was not, but he felt was rather Shishak's.

Herodotus' actual statement is as follows:

"On his way back Sesostris came to the river Phasis [which is in the Colchis], and it is quite possible that he here detached a body of troops from his army and left them behind

to settle - or, on the other hand, it may be that some of his men were sick of their travels

and deserted. I cannot say with certainty which supposition is the right one, 

but it is undoubtedly a fact that the Colchians are of Egyptian descent ... 

the Colchians remembered the Egyptians more distinctly than the Egyptians 

remembered them. The Egyptians did, however, say that they thought that the 

original Colchians were men from Sesostris' army".


557. The Bible Dictionary: 1887: 1051. Troglodytes were also known to have dwelt in parts of Palestine which may have been related to those of eastern Egypt (Hall 1913: 183).

558. Taylor: 1937: 206. These are probably represented by the Tedas who dwell today in both Algeria and Chad. 579. Hoeh:1957:21.

580. The prophet Amos 9:7 wrote: "Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto Me, O children of Israel? Saith the Lord. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt [like the Ethiopians]?"

581. Euterpe (Bk2) sec 103,41. Apollonius Rhodes {Argon, iv. 279) also states that they came from Egypt.

582. Avery 1972: 89.

583. Chambers Encyclopedia: 1886: vol. 3: Art. "Colchis".


Diodorus makes similar claims that Sesostris had sent out a fleet of 400 ships based at the Red Sea and with them subdued coastlands of India and

"... it was at this time, they say, that some of the Egyptians who were left behind near the Lake Maeotis founded the nation of Colchi".

From at least the 7th century BC, the Greeks called it the "fabulous land of Aea"584 and Hippocrates also stated that they were a dark people.585

Ammianus Marcellinus mentions that beyond the Agathyrsi dwell "the Melanchlanae and the Anthropophagi"586 and "the Colchians, an race of Egyptian origin".587 Later he wrote that the Anthropophagi dwell near China and India near a mountain.588 He adds that just north of the Colchis, on the Black Sea coast, dwelt the Sinchi.589 They, together with the Arichi and the Napai "are terrible for their cruelty, and since long continued license has increased their savageness, they have given the sea the name of Inhospitable".590 Nearby dwelt the Sindi and Sinde591 which sounds awefully like Sinite.

After researching the above many years ago, it was a pleasant surprise to stumble across the following quote in Black Athena by Martin Bernal:

"... even today, there is an African Black local population in from the subtropical coast near the resort of Sukhumi. The people, who survived Stalin's attempts to scatter them and to force intermarriage, speak the local Caucasian language of Abkhaz and are fiercely Muslim. There is no doubt that some of their ancestors migrated there in more recent times when the region was under Turkish control ,.."592

Further, one Abkhaz ethnographer and linguist, Dmitri Gulia claims that the early Colchians had Ethiopian and Egyptian origins and that traces of Egyptian influence may even be found in geographical, divine and personal names in the region.593

Many Canaanites may have been with them for it has been demonstrated that the dark Picts who later set down roots in Scotland before being defeated and ousted by the incoming Celts (these Celts were also later known as Picts as a result). In fact, the nineteenth century author, Pinkerton, wrote that the original, Picts, were black or brown-skinned who came from the Colchis region.594 More on the Picts in a later chapter.


584. Encyclopedia Americana: 1973 vol. 7: Art. "Colchis".

585. Ibid.

586. Marcellinus xxxi.2.14-15

587. Marcellinus xxii.8.28

588. Marcellinus xxiii.6.64-66.

559. Marcellinus xxii.32-35

590. Marcellinus ibid

591. Maracellinus xxii.8.41

592. Bernal 1991, vol 2: 31

593. ibid: 249.

594. Pinkerton Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, pp 74-75.


The Colchis was roughly a triangular area: to the east was the Black Sea; the Caucasus Mountains bounded the north and the Moschic or Meskhetian (modern Surami) Mountains were on the south. Today it is in the western part of the Georgian Soviet Republic. The Black Sea was known to the Greeks as the Euxine or "Unfriendly Sea" because of the Colchis being inhabited by a wild people, very barbarous.595 An ancient Milesian colony was established in the area, named Dioscurias.596 The Romans called it Sebastopolis, later it became known as Sukhum Kale, perhaps named after a district or the people who once inhabited the area. Today it is known as Sukhumi and is capitol of Abkhaz autonomous province.

The Euxine-Colchis region is classified as a Fagus-Abies Forest area which extends along most of North Anatolia and the Black Sea Coast of Thrace (Istranca Mountains). On the slopes exposed to the Black sea, dominantly deciduous forest is formed in a belt from sea level up to 1200 metres. The main species are beach trees often associated with several species of deciduous oak. The old Colchis region is subtropical with palms, eucalyptuses, liana-entwined jungle - probably providing a relatively comfortable environment for Cushitic, Australoid and Canaanite immigrants.

Geographically, ancient Colchis comprised the land bounded by the Black Sea to the west, the Caucasus Mountains to the north, the Surami Range to the east and the Meskhetian Mountains to the south. In this fertile, sheltered area, Colchian civilization flourished. Their Late Bronze Age (15th to 8th Century BC) saw the development of an expertise in the smelting and casting of metals that began long before this skill was mastered in Europe. Sophisticated farming implements were made and fertile, well-watered lowlands blessed with a mild climate promoted the growth of progressive agricultural techniques.

Ancient Greek legends told of a fabulously wealthy land where Jason and the Argonauts stole the Golden Fleece from King Aeetes with the help of his daughter Medea. It was a distant land that was reached by the Black Sea and down the River Phasis. The actual site of this legendary kingdom has never been found but the Greeks must have been greatly impressed by the Colchis region of Georgia, through which the River Phasis (currently the Rioni River) runs, for such stories to have been born.

It is likely that the Golden Fleece existed. Earlier in this century, remote mountain villagers in Svaneti (a part of ancient Colchis) were observed using sheepskins to trap the fine gold particles in the rivers that flowed from the Caucasus Mountains. The skins would then be dried and beaten to shake out their contents. However, it is debatable as to whether or not the legendary 'wealth' of Colchis referred only to gold. Archaeological evidence dates the earliest Greek imports of painted pottery and amphorae to the end of the 7th Century BC. In exchange, it is thought that Greeks sought the rich natural resources of Colchis including wood and metal ores as well as textiles. Even today, the mountain slopes remain heavily forested and the Ancient Greek writer, Herodotus, referred to the superior quality of Colchian linen.

In 1959, the Journal of Near Eastern Studies published an article claiming evidence of a black population in ancient times in the region of the south-east corner of the Black Sea and later in the Caucasus.597 This strongly suggests that many experts admit the reality of the historical record. It is tremendous that they do as they sometimes ignore historical evidence outside of the establishmentarian dogma.


595. Avery: 1972: 90.

596. Chambers Encyclopedia: 1964: vol. 9: Art. "Sukkum Kale".

597. ”Cushites, Colchians and Khazars" by P English, published in The Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1959, vol 18: 49-53


What became of these people can only be left to conjecture at this time.

The Move Eastward

It is quite possible that the town of Sakcagozu (cl500 BC) between Tarsus and Carchemish may have been named after the Sukkiim or Sakkiim.598 In northwest Turkey lay the Sakarya River anciently. Lang in his Armenia. Cradle of Civilization informs the reader, that after the fall of the Hittite Empire (cl200 BC), an area around and just south of the Murat (or Aratsani) River became known as Sukhumi or Sokhmi named after the Sukhumi tribes who were living there. This area is just south of the Colchis. Much later the Armenians were termed Somkheti, after these people


Professor Waddell assures us that there were Dravidian or Pre-Dravidian-type black peoples (now in South India) living in Armenia anciently, called Vani or Biani; the Pani of the Indian Vedic hymns. In the hymns they are described as "dark" or "black-complexioned" and "demons of darkness" who lived in caves with their cattle (i.e. they were troglodytes600). O'Flaherty says that the Panis are to be identified with the black Dasa or Dasyus.601 Undoubtedly these black people living in the area close to the Vannic Kingdom of Urartu were either the Sukhumi or ethnically related to them.602

It is perhaps due to the black Sukhumi that Turkey was called "Ae" ("black") in antiquity, which much later evolved into "Asia". Turkey became known as Asia Minor, after which all of the East was named "Asia". Also, we have in Persian mythology the demon god of anger and violence named Ae-shma603 which may have some connection to the "Ae" of Asia Minor. As the Sukhumi or Sakhumi moved eastwards, we are able to plot their movements as each place they or a branch of them stopped over, was named after them.

The Caspian Sea, due east of the Black Sea, was known as the Sikim Sea to the ancient Eastern Geographers according to the Encyclopaedia Brittanicca.604

Further south, along the coast of Godrosia in Persia were the towns Colta (derived from Colchis?) and Sacala605 where the troglodytes lived. Nearby lay the town of Sabis, already referred to.

Later still, the region between the River Gouraios (modern Panjkora) and the Indus was known as Assaceni.606 A little further east, a tributary of the Indus was known as the Asikni River (modern Akesines) next to which stood the town of Sakala.607 To this day a city named Sukkar stands next to the Indus River, Pakistan.

Let me interrupt myself here to state that I am not attempting to present a story of a monolithic movement of Cushite remnants into Asia.  Rather, there would have been advance guards moving


598. Grant: 1971: 2.

599.  Lang: 1971: 114.

600. O’Flaherty: 1981:151.

661. O’Flaherty: 1981: 151.

602. Anthropologist Carlton Coon insists that there is evidence of black genes in the population bordering on the Black Sea (Coon: 1956: 66). Surely further proof that Black tribes once inhabited that area! Rogers writes that a black colony may still be witnessed near Ucinj on the Adriatic, just north of Albania (1972: 289-90). Further "In the Soviet Caucasus about fourteen miles from Sukkum on the Black Sea lives a colony of 800 or more Negro [i.e. Black] families nearly all unmixed blacks, known as Abhkazians or Abcavians. That is to say, they are 'Black Caucasians'" (ibid)

603. Cotterell: 1979:48.

604. Encyclopedia Brittanica: 1910: vol. 5: Art. "Caspian Sea".

605. Rhys: 1907: map 15.

606. Davies: 1959: 11.

607. Ibid: 7.


eastwards soon after Babel. Scattered remnants would have moved in tribal groups continuously over centuries. There was not one massive movement of these peoples although there would have been one main movement, preceded and followed by smaller movements, as is often the case in mass migrations and colonization.

There was also a people called the Sakivas who dwelt to the east of Kosala, between the Himalayas and the Ganges.608 A Sakya prince of Kapilavastu came to Upper Burma (before the time of Buddha) and founded a dynasty of thirty-one kings, which were eventually overthrown by the Mongols.609 It is quite probable that the Sakivas tribe were a remnant of the black Cushitic Sukkiim or had many of them with them. Other place names were Sikar in Rajasthan (India) and Djajapura (Indonesia) was once known as Sukarnapura.

History is full of accounts of an invading people of Mongoloid extraction into India called the Scythians (the original Scythians were White, but other nations also became known as Scythians. This will be explained more fully in the section dealing with Shem). Is it possible that a Sukkiim remnant dwelt with them? Let us explore this possibility.

An Arab geographer Istakhri says that the Scythian Khazars whose kingdoms stretched down to the region between the Black and Caspian Seas near the Colchis, from south-western Russia included black Khazars.610

Could these Black Khazars have been remnants of the Sukkiim, left behind in Georgia, which later followed their fellow clans with the invading Scythians, into India?

There are at least 3-4 nations known to have been called Scythians or Sakas because the Persians called all the nomadic tribes to their north "Saka".611 Professor Coon differentiates between the western Scythians (a White people) and the Saka. Between these two, he says dwelt at least two other Saka or Scythian peoples: the Massagetae and the Sarmatians.612

Rapson makes mention that there were at least one Scythian people in Europe, and at least two in Asia: one north of Bactria (i.e. western Turkestan (Kazakh); another Scythian race he identifies as living between India and Persia in southern Afghanistan. He tells us that they were also known as the Saka, Caka or Sakai.613


but this may have been the name of the locals, adopted by

The Scythians who swept into the Middle East, helped the Medes and Babylonians smash the Assyrian Empire (612 BC) before being driven back over the Caucasus in 584 BC. The name "Sakas" or "Sacae" lasted until at least the first century AD in northern India.614 A people called the Sakas dwelt in central India c200 ADf them from the minority invaders.


608 Ibid: 6.  609.Kalyanaraman: 1969: 26.

610 "The Khazars do not resemble the Turks. They are black-haired, and are of two kinds, one called the
Kara-Khazars [Black Khazars), who are swarthy verging on deep black as if they were a kind of Indian, and
a white kind [Ak-khazars], who are strikingly handsome ... the Black Khazars were wild men ... and the
manners of wild beasts, eaters of blood."

These may be related to the Black Huns who are said to have been associated with the Cushites, according to the Arvisurak, an ancient book of the Magyars (Winters & Bator, cl995: 2)

611. Coon: 1956:196.

612. Ibid

613. Rapson: 1914: 136-137, 202

614. Langer: 1968: 56, 141: Grant: 1971: 56.

615. Grant: 1971: 77.


Magasthenes, a Greek, came to India in the fourth century BC. He lived in the court of Chandragupta in Payaliputra or ancient Patna. Unfortunately his original account of life in India has been lost to us, but extracts from his works are scattered in many subsequent works. He writes that in the north of India, and beyond the Himalayas (i.e. Tibet), the land "is inhabited by those Scythians who are called the Sakai".616 It is probably these who gave their name to Sikkim, a small state bordering on Tibet between Nepal and Bhutan. The race now residing in in Sikkim, the Lepchas, have no traditions or legends of migrations into Sikkim, but it is likely that the Sukkiim migrated with certain Scythian sons of Gomer into Sikkim on the way to Tibet.

Where are the Sakai today? A tribe of that name related to the Aetas or Itas, Negritoes (kittle blacks" as labelled by the Spaniards617), as well as the Veddah and Australian Aboriginals (but mixed a little with the Aeta) dwell today in Malaysia.618 They have wavy, not frizzly hair like the Aetas; a cephalic index smaller than the Aeta, Mincopi, Semang or Tapiro; and are a little taller.619 The Kunbix and Coorgs of southern India appear to be related to the Sakai.620

Buxton says that the Sakai may well be related to the Scytho—Dravidians that lived in a belt of western India, extending from Gujarat to Coorg.621

Perhaps it is these Sakai, and related Veddoid and Australoid tribes which left certain place names behind themselves as they ventured further southwards, through the southeast Asian isles and into Australia.

The earliest capital of Siam (in northern Thailand) was named Sukhotai or Siak. Farther south lay Langasuka.622 Interestingly, both Josephus and Jerome labelled some of the Scythians as Skuthai or Skolotai (meaning "prisoners of Sak"); a possible connection to Sukothai?

Other place names in southeast Asia include Sukabimi, Sukarnapura (modern Djajapura), Mount Sukarno (Irian Jaya), and Sukachana (west Borneo) in Indonesia.

We have seen how many Melanesians and Aeta, once occupied southern China. Ancient Chinese records called the black people who lived there "barbarians" and cannibals.623 Chang claims that the early southern Chinese, given skeletal remains, were predominantly black.624 There may be a substratum of them to this day.

These Chinese Bamboo Annals even mention that China's first king was black. He was called Shun. His father was Kusou or Chusou and was of the same race as the blacks of southern China.625 He succeeded Yao or Japheth in the records. Could Shun be Nimrod, and Chuson, Cush, his father? Are the Bamboo Annals referring back to Nimrod's rule over them and other peoples after the great flood?   Others of the same race as Nimrod would include the Veddoids and Australoids.   A


616. Quoted in Dutt: 1888: 202.

617. Cole 1945: 56-59

618.  Philip’s College Atlas: 1969:9 brook and Webber: 1974, 47, Buxton: 1925: 236; Evans 1968 8-9

619. Buxton: 1925: 126.

620. Ibid: 125.

622.  Rand McNally Atlas: 1946: 127.

621. Schulz: 1967: 82.

623. Chang: 1964: 359-375. See also Lacouperie, T de (1889) "Origin from Babylon and Elam of the Early Chinese 624. Civilization: A summary of the Proofs", Babylonian and Oriental Record 3, no.5, pages 97-110

625. Ibid. He was also called Shoo King, Shen Nung, Shen, Shun or Shin.


soapstone figurine of Shun Lao was found in Darwin in 1897, possibly of the Tang Dyansty (c 618-

907 AD) or much earlier (more than likely)626     It was either brought by migrating Aboriginals or 

by trading.

In the Bamboo Annals, a certain Duke Muh of Shanxi, stated that a minister "would be able to preserve my descendants, and my black head people". This could well be Black people as the Black peoples of the ancient Near East, you would recall, were also called the 'Black heads'.

Various place names such as Sukagawa, Sukumo and Sakai (near Osaka) are found in any atlas containing a map of Japan. Perhaps these names were brought by the Ainu. The experts are still quarrelling over the origins of the Ainu. Are they Caucasoid, Mongoloid or Australoid? Many do agree that they are a mixture of all three and later left China to migrate for Japan?627 Let us return to the Saka of northern India and Tibet for a moment.

The Saka of Tibet

Professor Coon in his Living Races of Man reveals that in Tibet there once lived a dark-skinned, curly-haired race. They dwelt in the Valley of Tsangp or Brahmaputra. Unfortunately, this region has not been explored much.628 So we do not know if in fact a small number of black Saka or Soka people still survive there today.

Guatama Siddartha (c563-479 BC) was a north Indian prince born at Limbini, near the Nepal-Indian border. He was son of the king of the tribe of Sakyas, mentioned earlier.629 He became known as "Sakyamuni"- "the silent sage of the Sakya clan."630

Guatama became disgusted with Hinduism, and set out to purify it. Guatama derived his thinking from a great Indian philosopher, Kapila, who lived a century previous to him. The two philosophies are quite similar.631 Guatama eventually became known as Buddha.

Centuries later, Buddhism spread into Tibet, beginning in the seventh century AD.632 The Tibetans, in their traditions, held that their religion originally comes from the Sacae or Saka. Their variation of Buddhism is Lamaism, the head of whom is the Lama.

Of further interest is that the food which comprised the Buddha's last meal is called "Sukara-maddava" and the western paradise of the Buddhas Amitabha is known as "Sukhavat".

What did Buddah look like? The original busts of him, show him to have Affid or Cushitic features; a broad nose; and spirally or very curly hair.633 Was he related in any way to the Aetas, Melanesians and Australoids? As the Buddhist religion spread, so the images of him made in each nation, reflected that nation's racial type. All I can say for certainty, is that he was different racially to the great body of Scytho-Sakas who had invaded India.634  Most of them were Mongoloids, but there


626. Tindale: 1974: 141.

627. See Hurlimann: 1970: 90.

628. Coon 1956: 202. I have also read about a group of people called the Saka who once lived in Tibet, but have lost the references.

629. Mitchell: 1976:64.

630. Cotterell:1979:66. 

631Dutt: 1888:246.

632. Langer: 1968: 363.

633. Hislop: 1916: 57. See also Sir William Jones' Works, vol 1: 41-42. 634. Dutt: 1888: 17-18.


does appear to be a minority of captive blacks with them. Indeed, Carlton Coon reported that a curly haired, dark-skinned population lived in the Brahmaputra valley (the Tsangpo valley) north of the Indian border as we have seen.635 One work which I finally tracked down, The Tribes of the Brahmaputra Valley,636 has photographs of some of these tribes, but only one seems partly related to the Dravidians, the Koch. In fact, most of the peoples in the photographs look strikingly like South American Indians.

It has been reported that an incredible similarity between the Aboriginal men of high degree and the yogis of Asia exist.637 The training of these Aboriginal men is similar to the traditional Tibetan meditation and yoga technique, says Professor Elkin638 demonstrating contact between the Aboriginals and Asians as well as migrations of Aboriginals through southern Asia. See the section "Comparison with Tibet" in his work Aboriginal Men of High Degree (pages 59-67).639

A Tibetan Lama, Zazep Tulku, who was sent by the Dalai lama to live at Eudda (north of Brisbane, in Queensland, Australia) at the Buddhist training centre also found incredible similarities between the psychic powers and teachings of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, and the Aboriginals.640 The rituals, prayers, chantings and even certain musical instruments bear a striking resemblance to each other, says Lama Tulku.

Buddhism has some similarities, though few, to Catholicism. Similarities include the Lama, the Pope of Buddhism, holy water, prayer wheels, rosary beads, monasteries, monks, each has a holy city and so forth. The Aboriginal weather control ritual by the way, is very similar to those of Java, New Guinea, Arabia, East Africa, Japan, China and Italy.642 These peoples must have been connected at some distant date in the past.

Pocoke in his India in Greece has this to say about

"the astonishing resemblance that exists between the external rites and institutions of Bud'hism and those of the Church of Rome. Besides celibacy, fasting, and prayers for the dead, those are enshrined relics, holy water, incenses, candles in broad day, rosaries of beads counted in praying, worship of saints, processions and a monastic habit, resembling that of the mendicant orders".643

He continues, stating that the Christians feel

"that by some diablerie these things have been borrowed from his own church; but why should we do such violence to the subject, when there is the much easier, more intelligible, and more straightforward course of deriving both from something older than either; and, remaining persuaded, as most of us must have been long ago, that the Pagan rites and Pontifex Maximus of the modem Rome represent, in outward fashion, the Paganism and Pontifex Maximus of the ancient.644


635. Coon 1956: 202

  636. This interesting book was authored by L A Waddell, 1901. Reprinted by Sanskaran Prakashak Pub, Delhi, 1975. 

637. Lofittel979:76.

638. Elkin 1994: 59-67.

639. ibid

640. Lofitte 1979: 77-79

641. See Daisetsu, S. Mysticism, Christian and Buddhist (1979).

642. Gonzalez - Wippler: 1978: 263: see also p. 310.

643. Pococke: 1856: 314.

644. Ibid: 316.


The Buddhism of Tibet is today a mixture of the teachings of Buddha and other elements. Either way, it derives ultimately, though circuitously, from ancient Babylon.

The Australian Aboriginals

As they are genetically related to the Pre-Dravidian Veddah (a cave-dwelling people like the Sukkiim) and Sakai, the Australian Aboriginals are undoubtedly a branch of the Cushites.645

The Aboriginals do not only look very similar to the Pre-Dravidians or Veddah, but their blood groups are common to both.646 The Veddah, in turn, are similar to the Sakai, Negritoes and even in a few respects, according to Hulse, the Africans.647

Further, there is an underlying unity of Austro-Asiatic and Austronesian languages: from the

Himalayas to Easter Island, and from Hawaii to Madagascar, 648

Why this, if there were no connection between these peoples anciently?

Today there are four main black groups in Australia, comprising over 500 tribes and sub-tribes:

Barrineans - these are not Aboriginals, but are a people of Negritoe/Papuan stock who lived in the rain forests of northern Queensland. The extinct Tasmans were also Papuan.649 These, together with the extinct pygmy element, are the firstcomers to Australia.

Next came the Murrayian Aboriginals who dwell mainly along the coastal regions of eastern, southern and western Australia. In some respects they are similar to the Ainu.650 Could the Murray ians be partly descended of Sinite and partly of Cush? Their skins are very slightly lighter and hair straighter than the Carpentarian Aboriginals. In some respects they resemble the eastern Polynesians.651

Lastly came the Carpentarian Aboriginals who are undoubtedly related to the Vedda of southern India.652 They occupy central and northern Australia and are darker than the Murrayians. Their hair is curlier as well.

Torres Strait Islanders - these are also not Aboriginals, but linguistically and physically are Papuans (Melanesians) who have infiltrated into the Cape York peninsula region.653

The Aboriginals used to trade with the Malaysians, learning from them how to make a dugout canoe.654 Many would not see the cultural development of the Aboriginals in a positive light. Yet, if we judged them by their language alone, we Westerners might find ourselves taking a backseat. For example, they exceed both Greek and Sanskrit as they have four futures, and three past tenses -


645. See Pearson 1991: 180.

646. Huxley: 1974: 140-4.

647. Hulse: 1963: 359. Coon 1956: 426.

648. Kalyanaraman: 1962: 2) 172.

649. Birdsell: 1967: 153. 

650. Birdsell: 1967: 153.

651. Tindale: 1974: 92.

652. Birdsell: 1967: 153,138; Kalyanaraman: 1969:2: 315.

653. Tindale: 1974: 26.

654. Ibid: 1974: 36, 37, 234-5, 262.


making the past as remote, proximate and instant. But that is not all; there are nine participles corresponding to these tenses. It is indeed a very complex language.655

Now, for something very interesting. The Australian Aboriginal peoples describe the creation of man thus:

"In the beginning the world lay quiet, in utter darkness. There was no vegetation, no living or moving thing on the bare bones of the mountains. The world was not dead, It was asleep" They then describe how light manifest itself upon the earth. Man was created "in the bodily and mental form of the Baiame ... the Father-God, the Great Spirit".656

 This roughly accords with the Bible record that man was created in God's image both physically and

mentally (compare Genesis 1:26-27). In another tradition we have an account vaguely similar to the

Bible story. We find the following in Aboriginal Stories by A.W. Reed:

"... the Australian blacks in the neighbourhood of Melbourne said that Pund-jel, the Creator, cut three large sheets of bark with his big knife. On one of these he placed some clay and worked it up with his knife into a proper consistence. He then laid a portion of the clay on one the other pieces of bark and shaped it into a human form ... [He] blew his breath hard into their mouths, their noses, and their navels".657

He was so pleased with His creation that He danced with joy.658 There is definitely some resemblance to the Biblical story of the creation of man in the story and this is further indication of the migration of the Aboriginals from the Middle East to Australia via Pakistan, South India, the Indonesian Islands, before settling in the Great Land of the South.

In another creation story the following has been relayed down the generations which also connects with the creation account of Genesis 1:

"And again like the Lord God, Baime walked on the earth he had made, among the plants and animals, and created man and woman to rule over them. He fashioned them from the dust of the ridges, and said ' These are the plants you shall eat - and these and these ...'"

So much for them evolving on this continent 40,000 years ago. 659

The Aboriginals of the head waters of the Murray River, like many peoples, have legends of the flood of Noah.660 They believe that they are alive today because of a man and his wife staying alive on a canoe while all other people drowned.661 One tradition of the flood centres around Nowulu Island. "Nowulu" could be a corruption of "Noah" while another speaks of the whole country being


655.  Fraser: 1892: XIVII.  656. Reedl994:ll,8-9

657. Frazer 1923: 4-5

658. Frazer 1923: 4-5.

659. Scientists are frustrated by the rush to bury old remains found in museums, of purported Aboriginals. Dr Rhys Jones is dismayed by development: "How can anyone on the basis of a very small genetic link make an exclusive claim for all the remains of all people who have lived in this continent, going back 40,000 years? ... only the radical view tends to be heard and supported by government" (quoted in Derriman 1990). People who lived in Australia 15,000 years ago (if this be the case, they would be pre-Adamic hominids) "are simply too far removed from modem Aborigines morphologically for Aborigines to be able to claim exclusive rights to them ... He says many of the remains in question are of people who had little in common physically with Aborigines".

660. Peck: 1933: 37.

661. Coates: 1982: 6-9.


under water.662 And the Aboriginals of Western Australia claim that the Creation took place across the ocean, in the west.663 How true, and how accurate.

Some Aboriginal Culture and Practices

Several items should be mentioned during the course of this study, as they have a strong bearing on tracing the origin of the Aboriginals. Let us first turn our attention to the boomerang or throwing wood. From where did it spring?

Figuier (1893) writes:

"The chief weapons of the Australian are the waddy, a large club, and the boomerang ... One of the chief weapons depicted on the walls of the tombs of the ancient Thebian kings [of central Egypt] is now believed to be a boomerang, and the use of this weapon amongst the Dravidian hill tribes of India is still known. It is curious that Professor Huxley ... classifies the ancient Egyptians, the Dravidian hill tribes, and the Australian Aborigines together in one race."664 [emphasis mine]

The boomerang was first found along the Nile. Professor Childe states that the Australian Aboriginal received it from Egypt.665 It would be impossible to develop the boomerang independently in two remote areas of the world. The Australoid-looking Vedda of South India, too, used the boomerang.666

Lenoch in his paper "Throwing Wood and the Boomerang" attempts to demonstrate cultural and historical origin and connections to the boomerang. After deep study on the subject, he says that it was probably invented in India and the ancient Orient (ie the Middle East).667

Why is this so? For in the ancient Middle East, civilizations used these strange throwing woods as symbols, signs of dignity to the gods and royal badges, primarily in the area of Babylonia and also Assyria.

"Its land of origin is Babylon. Later it was transferred to Egypt and Greece ... according to Winckler the idea of the throwing wood came from the advanced civilizations of the Near East and spread in Europe, Africa, India and even in Australia; Bork maintains that the Australian boomerang was derived from the Babylonian weapon of the gods."668

Another clue: the Colchians did not burn nor bury their male dead.669 Instead, they left them on trees exposed to be eaten by birds.670 This is exactly what the Aboriginals do671 and they later may place the bones in a cave in the dead person's home territory.672


662. Frazer 1923: 88-89.

663. Ibid.

664. Figuier: 1893:610.

665. Childe: 1935: 65.

666. Kalyanaraman: 1969: 2: 172.

667. Lenoch, "Throwing Wood and Boomerang" quoted in Heitman (et al), cl998: 2

668. five thousand years ago. Beside its extensive use throughout Australia, it is found today in southern India, and in California and Arizona where certain Indian tribes still kill birds, rabbits, and other small animals with the boomerang."

669. Avery: 1972: 90.

670. Ibid: 315. Other scattered tribes mentioned in Encyc. Brit., art. "Embalming Burial and Cremation", (vol. 6, 15th ed., 1974), also did this.

671. Figuier: 1893: 611. See also Frazer 1923: 30, 287, 344


Also, I mentioned earlier how Professor Sayce relates how the early inhabitants of Babylonia were Cushites. These Cushites had a matriarchy673 - so did the Aboriginals of south-eastern Australia.

Further, the dingo dog has long been associated with the Aboriginals. Where do the dingoes come from? From the Middle East, and in particularly the area around Syria near Iraq, where Babel was according to specialists.674 The nearest dog tribes to the dingo today are in Syria, not Austronesia as one would expect.

Dr Corbett of the CSIRO, has undertaken research to show that the dingo dog associated with the Aboriginals came to Australia possibly 3,500 years ago and that dog types with skull shapes,*coat colours and social organisation resembling other dogs found in southern China, India and other Asian countries may be regarded as close relatives.675 In fact, the belt which this dog family may be found extends from Israel into southern Asia.676

Another researcher Klim Gollan, an archaeologist, has a slightly different theory to Dr Corbett and although he finds the nearest relative to the dingo on the Indus delta bred 3,000 years ago, he believes that Indian traders brought them into Timor along with sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, artefacts and dogs, with Timor becoming the link between India and Australia, about 3,000 years ago.677 Certain varieties of cats, too, may have come to Australia about 4,000 years ago according to some evidence now available.678

It is this recent, post-Flood entry of the dingo into Australia which gives further credence that the Aboriginals were immigrants to the continent about 2,000BC, and not 40,000 years ago. Indeed, the researchers find sudden cultural change at the end of the Holocene period about 4,000BC679 and another about 2,000BC. This indicates that they have discovered pre-Flood peoples and of course the post-Flood Aboriginals - without realising it.

For instance, most Aboriginal paintings are less than 1,000 years old according to the Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia:

"Despite some researchers' beliefs that some rock paintings are very old, this has been demonstrated only for a few engravings ... most paintings are likely to be dated to less that 1,000 years ago."680

Several further quotes are necessary to prove to the reader that scholars themselves debate the historicity and antiquity of the Aboriginal presence in Australia, even though the media presents a view that the evidence is concrete and that no debate should be entered into. Presenting scanty materials as evidence does great harm to preserving the true roots of all peoples:

"Professor Wood Jones ... believed that the dingo did not evolve in Australia and the best explanation for its presence was that it came with the Aborigines ...this puts the most probable time of arrival of the dingo at about 4000 years ago ... Quite suddenly, around


672. see Dingo makes us Human, by D Rose 1992; 70

673. Sayce: 1928:201.

674. Taylor: 1937: 95.

675. Beale 1988 "The sweet-and-sour dingo theory", Sydney Morning Herald, 26 March.

676. Breckwoldt 1988:53

677. ibid

678. ”Cats destroy 700m animals a year", Sun-Herald, 23 January 1994.

679. ”… sea-levels rose continuously until around 6,000 years ago" Horton 1994 (vol 1): 473).

680. Horton 1994 (vol 2): 896


5,000 years ago, three types of new stone tools appeared in the Aboriginal tool kit... The origin of the new tools remains as obscure as that of the dingo but the fact that they both appeard in Australia at about the same time cannot be ignored." (writes Roland Breckwoldt in A Very Elegant Animal. TheDingo)681

"It has been suggested that the Mungo and Kow Swamp people represent two separate migrations to Australia. Much more recently the presence of the dingo (and other possible indications in technology) may indicate the arrival of additional people in the Holocene ... The arrival of the dingo may be correlated with other evidence of cultural change around 3,000-5,000 years ago ... The greatest cultural changes to have taken place throughout Australia have occurred since the mid-Holocene (ie in the past 5,000 years) and especially during the past 3,000 years ... it has also been argued that there was a major increase in the painting of rock art sites during the last 3,000 years or so." (The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, vol l)682

One of Australia's foremost archaeologists, Josephine Flood, is noted for the book Archaeology of the Dreamtime, wrote that there may have been three different migrations to Australia, with later fusion or similtaneous immigration, with fusion. Another theory is that

"... there was little technological change over 15000 years, until about 5000 to 5500 years ago when new small tool types were added to the toolkit... the sea stabilised at its present height between 5000 and 7000 years ago ...

"Almost all the sites known along the south coast of New South Wales were first occupied within the last 5000 years, but an equal number of older sites on earlier shorelines may now lie submerged under the ocean ... At Bass Point midden there was a dramatic increase in intensity of occupation about 4000 years ago. Similarly at Burrill Lake rockshelter human activity increased over the last few thousand years ...

"It has been widely believed that there were one or more migrations of new comers into Australia, 4000 to 5000 years ago, who brought new tools together with the dingo, which first appeared to the continent at about the same time ... All but two or three Aboriginal languages have now been shown to be descended from one ancestral stock: proto-Australian ... Only two languages show no links with other Australian language: those of the Djingli of the Barkly Tableland and Tiwi of Bathurst and Melville Islands ... it is probably impossible ever to demonstrate a genetic connection between Australian and any other language family, since languages change at such a rate that after 3000 to 4000 years of separation genetic links are no longer visible ... proto-Australian could have been introduced with the dingo about 4000 years ago".683

In other words, modern Australoids entered Australia approximately 300 years after the flood.

An Egyptian Connection?

In the Daily Telegraph, an article appeared in 1970 on "Egyptians could have been first to find Australia":


681. Breckwoldt 1988: 44,49, 54

682. Horton 1994 (vol 1): 212, 285,473, 474

683. Catherine Bemdt's World of the First Australians ... concludes, among many other fascinating conclusions, that the 750 or more current aboriginal dialects in Australia stem from at most three or possibly four languages brought in from outside."


"Evidence slowly accumulates that the ancients, even 2000 years ago, were aware of the

Fifth continent - Australia. "Sporadic but most suggestive finds have been made from 

Torres Strait down the east coast nearly to the border of Victoria. "Eight years ago, 

during excavations for silo elevators at Geraldton, Western Australia,

an Egyptian bronze plate was found 20ft. below today's sea level".684

The reader will recall that it was mentioned how that Herodotus claimed that the peoples of the Colchis, the Ethiopians and the Egyptians practiced circumcision. So do the Aboriginals, 685

Surely this represents another proof of their true origin in the Near East?

Various researchers have come to the conclusion that there were indeed Egyptian visitors to Australia. Without the need to summarise or rehash the articles, they can be examined by the reader:

* White, Paul (1996) "The Oz-Egyptian Enigma!", Exposure, vol 2, no 6: 20-27.686

* Gilroy, Rex (1995) "The Lost Civilisation of Australia" (chapter 20), Mysterious Australia, Nexus Publishers, Queensland.

* Sparrow, P & Sparrow, C (cl990) "How long have Aborigines been in Australia?", Creation ExNihilo, vol 15, no 3: 48-50.

* Awareness Quest website, "A List of Australian Archaeological Anomalies".

Suffice to say that the above items refer to hieroglyphics which may be of Egyptian origin, which tell of a ship wreck and their Pharaoh and so forth. Rock scripts, boulders, strange stone circles, megalithic sites are all pointed to as being of Egyptian origin. I caution the reader on accepting these items as serious proof of Egyptian traces in Australia, but we should keep our minds open on the subject.

Campbell's book Primitive Mythology has a rather interesting entry which I stumbled across while researching something else and it would be pertinent to raise it at this point. In the chapter dealing with "Paleolithic Caves", the author discusses ceremonial masks found in various cultures which include horns or pointed sticks on their heads and in particular their representation in the famous ancient paintings discovered in the Lascaux caves, France in 1940:

"The position of the lance, furthemore, piecing the anus of the bull and emerging at the penis, spills the bowels from the area between - which is precisely the region affected by the 'pointing bone' of the Australians. And finally it should be noted that the curious horns of the weird wizard beast in the upper chamber of the great cave, among the wonderful animals of that happy hunting ground, are exactly the same in form as the pointing sticks worn in the manner of horns by the performers in many of the Australian ceremonies of the men's dancing ground".687

Other similar wall paintings to that at Lascaux have been found in the Sahara-Atlas Mountains, southwest Libya and in the Nubian desert. Similar rites are also found in the Luebo African pygmies.688


684. Daily Telegraph 26 October 1970

685. True, various other peoples scattered around the world also practiced circumcision, but nowhere near the extent the Egyptians and Ethiopians did. And the American Sioux tribe also practices this. They, too, were in Asia Minor anciently.

686. See a similar article published in Astral magazine, vol 1, no 4, 1997

687. Campbell 1969: 303-04

688. ibid.


Amongst other interesting items we find that the Aboriginals used the "quipus" - a device made of knotted cords to maintain the memory of events. It was also used in Egypt, Melanesia, West Africa, and China. They also practised abortion, like many other cultures.689

Another article which I was fortunate to come across was "How did the natives of Australia become acquainted with the Demigods and Daemonia, and with the Superstitions of the Ancient Races? And how have many Oriental word been incorporated in their dialects and languages?" published in 1854 by W Augustus Miles, JP, Commissioner of Police, Sydney. He was also corresponding Member of the Ethnological Society, the Statistical Society, and the Museum d'Histoire Nataurel, Paris.690

Again, I will not attempt to summarise the entire 47 page article, but I prefer to merely extract and quote certain pertinent fascinating sections:

"The earliest accounts state that the primitive Egyptians, before the arrival of Mene, lived upon the herb agrostis ... So the Australian natives in the interior live upon grass seeds, roots, and ferns. It appears that races have existed with teeth similar to the aborigines of this country ... Sir Thomas Mitchell found a tribe in the interior with a Jewish caste of countenance ... some are quite Asiatic ... The tribes near the coast are mostly icthyophagi...

"The aborigines of Egypt lived chiefly upon vegetables; they sheltered themselves under sheds of mean workmanship, which they thatched with the flags of the Nile. In process of time they began to feed upon the fish ... Such is the present condition of the aborigines in Australia: they are now in the same position as the ... Egyptians upwards of 3600 years ago, yet they retain superstitions of the earliest date; but when, how, or by what races oriental myths and words were brought here, is hitherto unknown, and the fact has only been recently discovered.

"... [the Aboriginals had sophisticated irrigation works] ... This system of irrigation was known in early times to the Indo-Scythians, and was introduced by them into Egypt. It also appears to have been at some time introduced here.

"The Baal is a demon known under the name of "Boyl-ya" in South Australia [a similar god is found in India] ...

"The custom of piercing the septum naris is an oriental custom of the present day ... it also obtains very generally among the Australian tribes. The natives of Senaar, Darfur, and Upper Egypt, place a bit of wood in the cartilage of the nose


Miles' article contains numerous similarities between the Aborigines, the ancient Egyptians and other old cultures including:

* the boomerang (although the Australian variety is more aero-dynamic)
   * various words which appear common to Near Eastern cultures

* similar names of deities and demons

* superstitions such as transmigration


689. According to the Australian Encyclopedia, abortion was practised by the tribes of south-east Australia "by winding thick twine round and round and round the abdomen, combined with 'punching' by hand or stick the more palpable portions of the foetus ... Infanticide before the child has taken the breast may be practised if the arrival has come too soon after its predecessor"

690. Miles 1854:4-50.

691. ibid


* stone circles (see the entry "Stone Arrangements" in The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal

Australia, vol 2, page 1029)

* raised scars in lieu of tattoos (similar to the cut on the cheeks of certain Egyptians)

* deprivation of the front teeth

* wearing of human hands around the neck in similitude to the Egyptians, Indian tribes and

southern Italy

* various types of cannibalism (cannibalism was found in various forms in almost every


* ophic worship

* carvings on rocks

* chrystallomancy

* burying the dead in a sitting position

* many words which have a similar meaning and pronounciation (and hence translation into

English) as found in the Sanskrit.

The entire article is fascinating, and time itself, no doubt, will produce a modern researcher who will build upon this foundational article. A fine work will emerge proving Aboriginal links to the ancient Middle East, like all nations have the potential to do, if only their historians would accept the Biblical record.

Of further interest is the practice of mummification which has some similarities to that practiced by the Egyptians. Professor Elkin addresses this issue in the work Aboriginal Men of High Degree in the sections "Distribution of Abdominal Operations" and "Mummification Pattern of Ritual" (Pages 29-31). He asks the question:

"But whence came this ritual into Australia? Did it come with the diffusion of the profession of medicine men and of certain forms of magic into the continent? This is possible, for esoteric rites do spread from people to people. Or was it built up in Australia on the basis of an actual burial rite that was performed there, whether introduced or evolved locally?

"No definite answer can be give ... There seems little or no reason for doubting that this ritual introduced into Australia by way of the Torres Straits Islands, where a type of mummification was practiced."692

One question the Professor does not ask, however, is "But whence came this ritual into the Torres Straits?" One can only suggest that there was a connection in the ancient Middle East between the Papuans, Aboriginals and Egyptians.

The Physiognomy of the Australoids

If you stand a Negroid side-by-side with an Aboriginal, similarities such as dolicocephalicy.693

you would notice certain physical

However, likewise, the North-West Europeans are also dolichocephalic. The blood group similarities between the Aboriginals and North-West Europeans is, in Taylor's words, "remarkable".694 This blood groups is AO (no B is present); by the way, this blood relates the Australoid directly to the black Kurumba, Bhil, Gond and Vedda of the Indian subcontinent.


692. Elkin 1994: 30

693. Havemeyer: 1929: 112; Hulse: 1963: 357-358.

694. Taylor: 1937:99; Bean: 1932:105.


Even the Australoid and Veddoid skeletal structure has some similarities to that of the European.695 No wonder Bean says that there must have been a relationship between the European and Australoid races anciently.696

One more matter regarding the physical make-up of the Aboriginals should be stressed. Many of them have blonde or red hair. And this was NOT due to White colonisation of Australia, but was a feature before the Whites arrived in Australia.697

The Aboriginals in northern New South Wales have red hair and the Tndjibandi of Hamersley plateau in Western Australia have a copper-coloured, light skin colour and blonde hair. True, Whites may have visited Australia thousands of years ago, but no evidence whatsoever exists, not even traditions, to substantiate this. Anthropologists see this aberration as a single gene mutation which began in Northern Territory and spread out from there.698 Again, this is a possibility.699

Some Aboriginal tribal names are interesting: Arab, Arabana, Dangbon, Danggali, Dangu, Maridan, Nan, Nanda, Nangatadjara, Nangatara, Nanggikorongo, Nanggumiri, Nango, Narangga, Narinari, Ramindjerie, Tedei. Some of these names may be related in some way with Nanus or Ninus (Nimrod), Dedan, Rama and the Todas.

The Scattered Australoids

There appears to be sub-stratum of Australoids in South America!

We earlier referred to Campbell's work on mythology. He also relates how small Australoid (Tasman to be exact) strains have been found in the Yahgans and Alacaloof peoples of the Tierra del Fuego; semi-Australoid strain in some nomadic huntsmen in South and North America; and a Melanesian strain in the Matto Indians of the Amazon.700 This may tie in with the earlier reference to the black and brown peoples found in early Scotland, known as the Picts, who derived from the Colchis, and who were later driven out and found a way into the Americas.

The Australoid remnants may have somehow found their way across the Pacific; or through central Asia thence Alaska and worked their way down over many centuries.

Other writers have also noticed small Australoid traces in the Ainu and certain American Indian tribes. In fact, a documentary was shown on Foxtel cable television in Australia in 2001 demonstrating this to be the case. The documentary was titled Tracing the First Americans.

I have before me a work titled "Fuegian Songs" by Erich von Hornbostel. Tucked away in the paper are the following interesting points:

    There are some similarities between musical style of the Yahgan Indians at the tip of South America and the Vedda


695. Bean: 1932: 27.

696. Ibid: 103.

697. Langer: 1968: 16; See Coon 1956: plate 78. 

698. Abbie:cl970:112.

699. No wonder ethnologists such as Coon (1956: 281) acknowledge the "affinities" between the Australoids and 

Veddoids to the Caucasoids

700. Campbell 1969: 303-04


* Sticks are used for various type of dances by beating them on the ground - this is also found

among the Assamese and the Kurnai tribe of south-east Australia

* Central and western Australian tribes have a singing manner similar to some American Indians

"Thus the situation in Australia and South America as regards musical culture appears to be exactly homologous, and this fits well in the cluster of remarkable correspondences in cultural details, on which Professor Koppers has based his hypothesis of a common origin of the southeast Australian and Andamese cultures on the one, hand, and Fuegian and Californian cultures on the other. According to such an hypothesis, the forefathers of the ... Fuegians, Californians, southeast Australians and Tasmanians, Andamese, Vedda ... would have lived as neighbours somewhere in Asia in very remote times, and from there would have migrated under pressure ... on divergent lines ...” 701

…..But we can definitely say that these people have been scattered after residing in a consolidated grouping after the great Flood.

Cushitic Presence in Oman and Yemen

Professor Coon and others stated very clearly that a few Veddoid traces may be seen in modern times in parts of Asia and the Middle East. In turn, says Professor Coon, the Veddoids of southern India are related to the Australoids or Aboriginals.702 In a few cases, individuals who could easily be 'mistaken' as Australoids may be seen.703

One group he mentions are living today in southern Arabia, partially submerged into the local

population.     Their food gathering economy is strikingly similar to that of the Veddoids and Australoids, while their cattle culture is similar to that of the Todas in India and the peoples of East


Africa.     He claims that there are still discernable traces of the Veddoid in Ethiopia and Sumatra and Coon presents photographs to back up his claim.707

How could all this be unless there was some ancient connection and consequent migrations of peoples?

Huxley, too, claims that a Veddoid population is alive and well in southern Arabia, although as a small sub-stratum rather than a distinct race.708  Bean also alludes to this, claiming that the black


701. Hornbostel 1936: 4-5 of article

702. Ibid: 431.

703. Ibid: 430.

704. ”The origin of these non-Mediterranean, partly Veddoid people in southern Arabia is obscure. Culturally, they possess many ... traits which would related them, on the one hand, to the food-gathering economy of such people as the Australians and Veddoids; and, on the other, to the cattle culture of the Todas in India and of the Hamites and Bantu in East Africa". (Coon 1939: 277). And again he says that there are among the southern Arabian Hadramauts, "individuals of somewhat Australoid appearance" (Coon 1956: 83). "...there still exists, along the shores of the Indian Ocean, from the mouth of the Indus to the Bab-el Mandeb, a submerged population of Veddoid peoples ... which includes Australoids ... At present it is impossible to tell how old this Veddoid sub-stratum is in southern Arabia" (Coon 1939: 431). Another interesting link is that the sickle-cell gene which occurs to a high frequency among the Veddoids, is also high among the Achdam peoples of southern Arabia (Tobias 1974: 28).

705. Ibid: 403.

706. Ibid: 448.

707. See especially Coon: 1956; plate 135 and preface to plates 102-143.

708. Huxley: 1974:131.


peoples of Asia came from Africa, through Egypt and Arabia709 while Howells also says that Australian Aboriginal relatives were once in southern Arabia.710 Others have shown that there are Veddoid/Australoid remnants in Algeria amongst the Ushtettas;711 among the Brahui (many whom claim descent from Nimrod) living in Baluchistan in western Pakistan (they appear to be a mix of Veddoid and Irano-Afghan; their language also, gives them away - it poses as a link between the Veddoids and ancient Elam);712 and in southern India.713 Anthropologist Cloe finds them resident among the inhabitants of the Hadhramaut and Dhofar as well as scattered in Indonesian islands.714

Many Baluchis (approximately 400,000) live today on the Arabian peninsula. They began to migrate to the Oman in the 1920s upon the discovery of oil. Some of them (probably those with Veddoid blood) claim descent from Nimrod715 but are not responsible for the Australoid peoples in the Arabian peninsular who have an ancient language, culture and traditions716 and clearly pre-date them by thousands of years.

Huxley even says that the Australoid sub-stratum exists among the Iraqis today.717 And no wonder, for they originated in Iraq, where Babylonia was situated.

Who might be Veddoid representatives today along the southern coastal strip of the Arabian Peninsular?

The Encyclopedia Britannica Online in the article "Yemen" refers to the two basic ethnic types in the region: those of the north which are of Arabian stock and claim descent from Ishmael and the southern stock as well as other minorities:

"Ethnic minorities include the Mahra, a people of possibly Australian origin who occupy the eastern border areas of former South Yemen (as well as the island of Socotra)."718 [emphasis mine]


709. Bean: 1932: 57, 61.

710. Howells: 1973:295.

711. Taylor: 1937: 134.

712. Coon: 1956:431.

713. Birdsell: 1967: 138: Coon: 1948: 198 tells us they may be found in the Garo Hills of India.

714. Cole 1965: 87

715. Prayer Profile. "The Southern Baluch of Oman" (1997)

716. Similarly, there is evidence for Gallas and Somalis arriving in India after 7th century BC. See Chatterji 1968.

717. Huxley 1974: 136

718 Encyclopedia Britannica Online, article "Yemen" (2002). In an internet article "New Peoples, New
Nations, Part I", Charles Kimball (2000: 10) notes: "Originally the Arabs came from at least two distinct
Semitic families. According to Arab genealogical tradition, the inhabitants of southern Arabia are descended
from Qahtan (Joktan in Genesis 10), while the northern tribes came from Adnan, a descendant of Abraham's
son Ishmael. Sometime the Qahtani Arabs are called "True Arabs," since they were the only ones who spoke
Arabic in the pre-Islamic era; the Aramaic-speaking Ishmaelites were "Arabized Arabs" by comparison.
However, both ethnic groups have mingled so much over the years that every Arab today carries the heritage of
many peoples in his family tree. To render the picture even more confused, there are also references to the
"Lost Arabs," Semitic or Hamitic groups that lived in Arabia before the Arabs moved in. The Mahra, a dark-
skinned Veddoid (Australoid) tribe in the easternmost province of modern-day Yemen, and the Shahra
of neighboring Oman, may be descended from them. Scholars notice enough similarities between early
south Arabian and Mesopotamian civilizations to suggest that the Sumerians helped get the Arabs started on
the road to civilization. The best evidence for contact is the early Arab or "Sabaean" religion, which focussed
on worship of the moon; remember that the moon-god was also chief over the Sumerian city of Ur. The early
Arabs had many gods, and each tribe called them by different names, but the moon was always supreme, so
much so that the crescent would one day become the symbol of Islam, while all other forms of idolatry were
eradicated." [emphasis mine]


The Mahra or Mehri language derives from those of the Sabaeans, Minaeans (Ma'in) and Himyarites and speakers only number 58,000 in Yemen and about 100,000 in all countries in the region including Oman and Kuwait.719 However, the actual ethnic population is: 294,000 in Yemen, 109,000 in Oman and 17,000 in Saudi Arabia.

Historians relate how the Mahra probably descended from the Himyarites (descendants of Hamar) who had kingdoms in southern Arabia prior to the arrival of Islam and the Arabs, with a capital at Shabwa. These were clearly a Cushitic people, not Ishmaelites. Most Yemenis claim descent from Joktan or Qahtan, however this is not genetically possible as we shall see in section three of this book. J Carter who has researched the peoples in the region published a book, Tribes in Ornbn, claims that the great interest in genealogical records by the Arabs arose after the rise of Islam. They had to do this to define their status for tax purposes when Arabs received preferential treatment. Those that were the conquered people were disadvantaged by the taxation regime in those days.

"This led to all sorts of difficulties and consequent forgeries. It is certain that the classical descent of the Mahra was one of these as they were made to fit into a record of descent that very probably does not concern them at all."720

Indeed, Mr Carter. For the Mahra descend from Cush, not Shem. This is proven by their genetics and human biology.

Amongst their practices, circumcision is carried out on the eve of marriage. A related people are the Qarra who, like the Mahra, are almost beardless, have very dark skin pigmentation and fuzzy hair. Their clan system is similar to the Dinka Cushitic peoples of eastern Africa and they are obsessed with their cattle, like east Africans and some southern Indians. Milk is a very important part of their diet and they even name each cow. They live in caves (troglodytes) and circumcision is undertaken on young boys.721

Another Cushitic people are the Akhdam whom one researcher states:

"Investigation should be made into the question as to whether they [the Akhdam] resemble in any ways the aboriginal peoples found in South India and Malaya."722

Across the sea in Somalia dwell a tribe known as the Hamariy descended from the Himyarites and who regard the Mahra as blood brothers.723 They are clearly Cushitic in racial type.724


719., "Mehri: a language of Yemen" (2002). One local Arabic word for big cat, nimr, has the meaning of hunter in Yemen - one wonders if it has any connection with 'Nimrod ... a mighty hunter'?

720. Carter 1982: 59

721. Phillips 1966:176

722. Serjeant 1966:4

723. ibid

724. Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 edition on the internet, article "Cush":

"The locality of the land of Cush has long been a much-vexed question. Bochart maintained that it was exclusively in Arabia; Schuithess and Gesenius held that it should be sought for nowhere but in Africa (see ETHIOPIA). Others again, like Michaelis and Rosenmuller, have supposed that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country both in Arabia and in Africa, but the defective condition of the ancient knowledge of countries and peoples, as also the probability of early migrations of" Cushite" tribes (carrying with them their name), will account for the main facts. The existence of an African Cush cannot reasonably be questioned, though the term is employed in the Old Testament with some latitude. The African Cush covers Upper Egypt, and extends southwards from the first cataract (Syene, Ezek. xxix. io). That the term was also applied to parts of Arabia is evident from Gen. x. 7, where Cush is the "father " of certain tribal and ethnical designations, all of which point very clearly to Arabia, with the very doubtful exception of Seba, which Josephus (Ant. i. 10. 2) identifies with MeroeM Even in the 5th century A.D. the Himyarites, in the south of Arabia, were styled by Syrian writers


Part of the territory which the Mahra occupy in Yemen, particularly, is reportedly replete with wildlife such as gazelles, birds of prey, ibexes, leopards and tigers.

A territory which belongs to Yemen, but close to the African coast (250 kms from Somalia), is the island of Socotra or Sokotra. The language spoken there is a mixture of old Himyarite, Indian and Africa, but those living in the most remote region only speak Mahra.725 Of the 258 islands in the Arab world, Socotra is the largest with a size of 3,625 km2. It represents the most disadvantaged and poorest peoples in a group of islands anywhere in the world.

It is the tenth richest oceanic island in the world in terms of biodiversity. At least 30% of its vegetation is endemic and as such, does not exist anywhere else in the world. Because it is such an inaccessible island which enjoys such mysteries and rare peoples, fauna and flora, it must be a most fascinating place to visit. This comes as a surprise to many who may normally think that this would not be possible in such a harsh environment. The island is at the entry to the Bab al Mandab, the gateway to the Suez.

Sokotra includes descendants of Greeks, Portuguese, Indians, but most are Mahra, many of whom are troglodytes. A Soviet ethnographer, Naumkin, wrote that

"Socotra ... may after all be the missing intermediate link in the race-genetic 'west-east' gradient for which anthropologists search in order to fill the gap between the African Negroids and the Australo-Veddo Melanesian types in the equatorial race area."726

Please note: I am not saying that Australoid/Veddoid peoples are extant in South America or Yemen or Oman. What I am attempting to show is that there was movement of these people into these regions and that a sub-stratum of their biological representatives reside there to this day.

In summary: Nimrod was possibly Lugalzaggisi, whose empire was scattered.727 Some of his allies and descendants moved northwards to the Colchis, others eastwards in to India. Still others fled into southern Arabia, crossed over into Ethiopia, moved through Egypt into the Sinai and Palestine. Some fought for the Egyptians and were taken as slaves by the Assyrians who later sent them to the Colchis where others were already located. From there they migrated elsewhere.728

Below are listed the six black races of Asia and Oceania which we have studied in this chapter:

Tribe  -  Location

1. Mincopi  (Andaman) — Aeta (Luzon) —  Semang (Perak) — 

2. Sakai (Sumatra, Perak)

Cushaeans and Ethiopians. Moreover, the Babylonian inscriptions mention the Kashshi, an Elamite race, whose name has been equated with the classical KoaoeiZot, Kto-crux, and it has been held that this affords a more appropriate explanation of Cush (perhaps rather Kash), the ancestor of (the Babylonian) Nimrod in Gen. x. 8." [emphasis mine]


725. Akkoush 1997: Issue 49

726. Naumkin 1993: 67

727. I found it interesting that Los wrote the following: "Could it be true that Nimrod ... here figures as the representative of the oldest layer of population of Syria and northern Mesopotamia, which was possibly Hamitic in speech ..." (1967:151)

728. See Bryant 1775: 203, 431 450, 452-53. Many came to Australia which is at least 75% desert and semi-desert! It is the driest continent on earth. Cp: Psa. 68:6; Lev. 16:22; Isa. 22:18; Luke 11:24.




Veddah (pre


South India, Ceylon



South India





South India






New Guinea, Melanesia, Micronesia, extinct Tasmans

Why were they scattered? Because of apostasy - a reason, no doubt, that God did not enter jnto a covenant with them. Their scattering prevented them from becoming a major world empire again -the Cushites are today in East Africa, parts of North Africa, southern India and all over the Pacific and Australia. Their plethora of languages - they have more languages than any other race - also prevented them from communicating to forge a major alliance for thousands of years of human history. Papua New Guinea alone boasts over 800 distinct languages. And Sudan, a branch of the western Cush, has over 130 languages.

Nevertheless, they still enjoy great blessings like all peoples and for that, God must be given the glory.

CHART 10: Modern Location of the Hamites




— Dravidians (southern Indians)


— Melanesians, Papuans


— The Sab tribe of East Africa

Raamah   :


— South Ethiopia, East Uganda, Kenya, North Tanzania


— Tribe of Dan in West Africa


— The Tedas in East Africa and Todas in India


— Australian Aboriginals, Negritos, Vedda (pre-Dravidians)




— Libyans, Scattered.


— The Northern Egyptians.


— TheFulbe


— The Southern Egyptians


— The Central Egyptians


— Berbers


— Berbers


—Black Africans, pygmies, northern Indians




— Cyprus, scattered in North Africa, Sicily, shores of the Mediterranean


— Sioux Indians


— Perhaps mixed with the Southern Spanish?


— Moors


— Chegs


— original Mexicans and Guatemalans


— Arikana Indians


— Mnrrayian Aboriginals


— Perhaps mixed with Malays or Burmese


— Perhaps mixed with north Africans?


— Egyptian enclave in Greece


Flood, J (1983) Elkin, A P (1994) Archaeology of the Dreamtime. Collins, Sydney.

Elkin, A. P (1994) Aboriginal Men of High Degree. Inner Traditions International,


Horton, D (ed) (1994) The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia (2 vols). Aboriginal Studies

Press, Canberra.

Balakrishnan, V (et al) (1975) Genetic Diversity among Australian Aborigines. Australian Institute

of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.

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