Keith Hunt - The NEW Jerusalem Restitution of All

  Home Navigation & Word Search

The NEW Jerusalem

For the age to come - For all eternity

                              NEW JEREUSALEM

SCRIPTURE DESCRIBES the New Jerusalem as "the Jerusalem above"
(Galatians 4:26), "the city of the living God, the heavenly
Jerusalem" (Hebrews 12:22), and "the holy city" that "comes down
out of heaven from God" (Revelation 21:2,10). The Old Testament
refers to it as the abode of God .... The sacred structures
within the heavenly city contributed the heavenly design for the
earthly Tabernacle and Temple, and in its future descended form
as the "tabernacle of God among men" (Revelation 21:3) it will
constitute a celestial Temple that is both physical (Revelation
21:12-z1) and spiritual (Revelation 21:22).


The Old Testament prefigures the heavenly Jerusalem in the
heavenly "mountain" and "sanctuary." Ezekiel refers to "the holy
mountain of God" as well as "sanctuaries" in heaven (Ezekiel
28:14,16). Psalm 2 refers to "God who sits in the heavens" and
"Zion, My holy mountain" (verses 4-5). The former refers to the
place where God is enthroned in heaven, and the latter refers to
the earthly Jerusalem, here God will enthrone His King after     
defeating the nations in the battle of Alrmageddon. Davidic
psalms also refer to God being in His "house" or "Temple" (Psalm
11:4; 23:6; 26:8; 27:4; 138:2), even though the Temple was not
built until after David's death. Such references must then be to
the heavenly Temple, an identification that one psalm makes
explicitly: "The LORD is in His holy Temple; the Lord's throne is
in heaven" (Psalm 11:4). In this Hebrew parallelism, "holy
Temple" and "throne n in heaven" must refer to the same thing.
Both a Moses (Exodus 15:9,40) and David (1 Chronicles 28:11-19)
were shown the heavenly Temple and used it as a pattern for the
later construcnon of the earthly sanctuary (the Tabernacle and
the First Temple. If there is a heavenly Temple, would there not
also be a heavenly Jerusalem, since the earthly structures were  
copied after the heavenly (Hebrews 9:23)?    

The Old Testament does not explicitly mention the New Jerusalem,
but it speaks of the eternality and inviolability of Jerusalem.
Psalm 125:1 says, "Those who trust in the LORD are as Mount Zion,
which cannot be moved, but abides forever." However, the Old
Testament prophets also predicted that neither the present earth
nor heaven would continue (Isaiah 34:4). A New Jerusalem must be
created to fulfill such prophecies. Some prophecies tie a
restored Jerusalem to a new heaven and new earth. For example,
Isaiah 65:17-18 says, "For behold, I create new heavens and a new
earth; and the former things will not be remembered or come to
mind. But be glad and rejoice forever in what I create; for
behold, I create Jerusalem for rejoicing and her people for
gladness." Isaiah 66:20-22 adds, "Then they shall bring all your
brethren from all the nations... to My holy mountain
Jerusalem.... I will also take some of them for priests and for
Levites, says the LORD. For just as the new heavens and the new
earth which I make will endure before Me, declares the LORD, so
your offspring and your name will endure."

Despite the association of Jerusalem with a new creation, some
ambiguity remains. The context of Isaiah 65:17-25 reveals that
the millennial kingdom is in view because death (verse 20), decay
(verse 22), and giving birth (verse 23) remain. However, the
opening statement of the section (verse 17) concerns the new
heavens and earth. This could be a general introduction with the
millennial description following, but it is unclear. In Isaiah
66:10-24 the same period seems to be in view from verses 10-21,
but the comparison to the new heavens and earth points to the
eternal state (note the statement of eternal punishment in verse
24). Nevertheless, later Judaism apparently understood these
implications and built upon them.

(The CONTEXT of the above verses proves it is the 1,000 year age
that is in mind, and in a figure, that age will have a
resoration, hence in figure, a new heaven and new earth. With all
the pollution that man has done, with all that will yet come to
pass from what is written in the book of Revelation, the heaven
and earth will need to be re-newed in the millennium, for it will
have been corrupted by many things - Keith Hunt)


The goal of the restoration was conformity to the divine ideal,
but the earthly restoration after the exile did not achieve this.
After the Jews built the Second Temple, Jewish apocalyptic
literature and the Jewish midrashim developed the concept of a
heavenly restoration. These extrabiblical documents describe as
the pinnacle of restoration a heavenly Jerusalem, perfect in
every respect, which either replaces or transforms the imperfect
earthly Jerusalem. The following Jewish apocryphal texts contain
apocalyptic references to the New Jerusalem: Tobit 13:8-18;
Testament of Dan 5:12-13; Sybilline Oracles 5:420-27; 1 Enoch
90:28-29; 2 Esdras 7:26;10:25-28;13:36; and 2 Baruch 4; 32:1-4.
The Dead Sea Scroll documents contain an apocalyptic text known
as "The New Jerusalem." Extant only in a collection of
fragmentary copies from four different caves, it records a vision
of the New Jerusalem after the fashion of Ezekiel's vision of
millennial Jerusalem and the Temple (Ezekiel 40-48). As in
Ezekiel and Revelation, the dimensions of the New Jerusalem are
much greater than those of the ancient city of Jerusalem. The
language describing the city's construction is similar, including
such details as the 12 gates of the city, each named for one of
the 12 tribes, beautiful walls of pure gold, streets paved with
alabaster and onyx, and living waters. In addition, this text
notes that this New Jerusalem will appear after the final
end-time battle in which Israel emerges victorious over the
Gentile nations and is restored in glory. Because this structure
appears to be of earthly construction and houses a new Temple, it
may be the restored Jerusalem of the millennial kingdom. Even so,
it bears witness to the New Jerusalem tradition in Second Temple
Judaism. Jesus and the writers of the New Testament would have
been well acquainted with this.

In the Talmudic age, the Jewish community had lost both its
Temple and its city but not its promises. Therefore, even while
retaining the hope of the restoration of the earthly Jerusalem,
teachers emphasized that which could not be lost or destroyed -
the heavenly Jerusalem. For example, we hear the rabbis explain,
"Not only on the face of this earth is there a Jerusalem, called
in Hebrew 'Yerushalaim Shel Matta' ('Jerusalem the Lower'), but
also in heaven is there such a city: 'Yerushalaim Shel Maalah'
('Jerusalem the Upper')." 

According to the Judaism of the Second Temple and the Talmudic
periods, the New Jerusalem appears as both present and future.
For example, the Talmud teaches that although the heavenly city
will be realized in the age of redemption, the righteous can
already see it and receive inspiration from it in moments of
grace. Therefore, Judaism understood that the New Jerusalem
exists presently, will be realized in their millennial era, and
will continue into the final age.


The New Testament follows the Old Testament concept of the
heavenly Jerusalem in such passages as Hebrews 13:14, which sets
the heavenly city as the goal of the godly. Hebrews traces this
hope back to Israel's beginning in Abraham: "By faith Abraham ...
was looking for the city which has foundations, whose architect
and builder is God" (Hebrews 11:8-10). This text indicates that
the heavenly Jerusalem was preexistent ...
In like manner, the New Testament continues the Old Testament
teaching that the earthly sanctuaries were constructed according
to a divinely revealed pattern based on structures within the
heavenly Jerusalem. Stephen's speech in Acts chapter 7 alludes to
Exodus 25:8-9,40, and Stephen declares, "He who spoke to Moses
directed him to make it [the Tabernacle] according to the pattern
which he had seen" (Acts 7:44). The author of Hebrews compares
the earthly and heavenly sanctuaries and refers to "the copies of
the things in the heavens" (Hebrews 9:23). These same passages
teach that "the Most High does not dwell in houses made by human
hands" (Acts 7:48), but in "the greater and more perfect
tabernacle, not made with hands... not of this creation" (Hebrews
9:11). These heavenly structures are not symbolic because the
actual earthly structures were made according to them. This
should be kept in mind when considering the texts in Revelation
that depict the furniture of the heavenly Temple (Revelation
11:19; cf. 4:5; 5:8; 6:9; 8:3; 9:13;14:18;15:58; 16:7) and the
structural elements and dimensions of the New Jerusalem itself
(Revelation 21:12-21).

The New Jerusalem also appears in several New Testament texts. In
Galatians 4:26, the apostle Paul speaks of "the Jerusalem above"
in distinction to "the present Jerusalem" (verse 25). The author
of Hebrews also understood the concept and contrasted the
heavenly Jerusalem as a place of grace to the earthly Mount Sinai
as a place of the law (Hebrews 12:18-22). He also described the
inhabitants of the heavenly Jerusalem: "You have come to Mount
Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem,
and to myriads of angels, to the general assembly and church of
the first-born who are enrolled in heaven, and to God, the judge
of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect, and to
Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant" (Hebrews 12:22-24). 

(The "spirits of the righteous" in heaven are NOT the saints
walking and talking and thinking. To understand "spirit" you
need to study "Death - then What?" and "The 'spirit' in Man?" -
on this Website - Keith Hunt)

This registry accords with Old Testament statements concerning
the heavenly destination of believers (2 Kings 2:11; Job
19:25-27; Psalm 11:7; 73:24) and with descriptions of the
heavenly court and the population of the New Jerusalem in
Revelation (see below).

(Elijah going to heaven? See the study "Enoch, Moses and Elijah -
are they in Heaven?" Job standing on the earth is his
resurrection, not living in heaven after his death. See the
studies on "resurrection" and "death." God receiving us to
"glory" is also when we are glorified, and that is not until
Christ returns and the resurrection of the saints takes place.
The writer here follows the popular Roman Catholic and Protestant
teaching of going to heaven of hell at death. All of which is a
fancy false doctrine - Keith Hunt)

Hebrews 12:26-28 explains that the old creation will one day be
removed, leaving that "which cannot be shaken" (the
indestructible kingdom, the heavenly Jerusalem) as the eternal
inheritance of the saints (see also Isaiah 65:17; 66:22). This
agrees with Peter's description of the day of the Lord, which
will climax in a cosmic dissolution and "a new heavens and a new
earth" (2 Peter 3:10-13). Paul declares that "our citizenship is
in heaven" (Philippians 3:20; see also Ephesians 2:19; Hebrews

(We do indeed belong to the heavenly Kingdom of God, we are now
the children of God, but we do not yet appear as we shall appear
when Jesus returns - 1 John 3:1-3 - we shall be like Him. The
saints do not go to heaven when they die. We belong to God, we
are then citizens of heaven, even now while in the flesh, but we
do not have our glory and we do not IN-HERIT eternal life until
Jesus returns to earth, when the resurrection or change (if you
are a living saint) from mortal to immortal takes place. All of
which is expounded upon in many studies on this Website - Keith


The term "New Jerusalem" (Greek "ten hagian Ierousalem") is found
only in Revelation. Because the book was written after the
destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, some commentators have
suggested that the concept of a "new" Jerusalem developed in
response to the loss of the "old" Jerusalem. However, the "old"
Jerusalem was never entirely lost to the Jews. The concept had
existed in the Old Testament, Jewish apocalyptic literature, and
the New Testament letters long before the Temple's destruction.
John, as a Jew, would have been quite familiar with these texts
and traditions. For example, Revelation 21:22-23 closely
parallels earlier Jewish midrashim on Isaiah 6o:19 and Psalm
132:17. The similarities in these accounts do not mean that John
borrowed his material from the Jewish midrashim, but that Jews
and Jewish Christians arrived at similar conclusions concerning
the New Jerusalem based on their interpretation of the same
scriptural texts.

(How about simple INSPIRATION of the Holy Spirit to give writers
of the Bible the truth about the NEW Jerusalem; that which will
be in the millennium, and that which will come down from heaven
with the Father as given in Revelation 21 and 22 - Keith Hunt)

The most complete description of the New Jerusalem is in
Revelation 21-22. John calls it "the bride, the wife of the Lamb"
(Revelation 21:9), which has been "made ready as a bride adorned
for her husband" (Revelation 21:2). The background of the
marriage metaphor is the Jewish custom of the bridegroom husband
leaving the bride at the betrothal to prepare a new house where
they would dwell together once he returned to take away his
bride, When the bridegroom returned, the bride was splendidly
adorned, and the wedding took place. In the same way, the New
Jerusalem will come down from God as the glorious place promised
to the church.

(Yes, and you will notice the saints of the church will live on
EARTH, the NEW earth and heaven, AFTER the 1,000 years, when the
Father Himself comes to live WITH His children. The Christianity
of the world has it all backwards - stating we go to heaven to
live with God the Father, the Bible says exactly the OPPOSITE -
God the Father comes to EARTH, to live with His children -
Revelation 21. Who will you believe, the fables and lies of men
or the truth of God's word? Keith Hunt)

The appearance of the New Jerusalem also finally fulfills the
divine goal for the earthly Tabernacle and Temple (Exodus 25:8)
and the church: It will be a "spiritual temple" (Ephesians
2:21-22) where the Creator and His creatures can enjoy a holy
relationship. The New Jerusalem is therefore "the tabernacle of
God" where God will forever "dwell" among His people (Revelation
21:3; 22:3-4) and a "temple" for "the Lord God, the Almighty and
the Lamb" (Revelation 21:22). In this light, it is significant
that the New Jerusalem is laid out as a "square" (Revelation
21:16). This design of a cube matches the unique cubical shape of
the Holy of Holies in the Temple, in which the presence of God
dwelt in the midst of Israel (1 Kings 6:20; 8:10-13; 2 Chronicles
3:8; 5:14-6:2). The New Jerusalem, then, completes the purpose of
the temporary Holy of Holies by serving as the permanent and
unrestricted meeting place for all the saints (as God's priests)
and God.

Revelation compares the city's building materials to precious
earthly stones. The brilliance and splendor of iridescent stones
of every color and hue and streets of pure gold like transparent
glass both speak of accommodation. In Exodus 24, when Moses and
the elders of Israel were permitted to see the God of Israel,
their vision of His heavenly court was of "a pavement of sapphire
as clear as the sky" (verse 10). Ezekiel's vision of God's throne
contained similar descriptions: "something like an expanse, like
the awesome gleam of crystal," "something resembling a throne,
like lapis lazuli in appearance" (Ezekiel 1:22,26).

This jeweled adornment of the city and the statement that the
city is "the bride, the wife of the Lamb" (Revelation 21:9) have
caused many interpreters to conclude that the whole description
of the New Jerusalem is symbolic of the church. However, the
language here is metaphorical, the use of an object for what it
contains (the church in the city). Revelation 21:2 says the city
is "made ready as a bride adorned for her husband," a clear use
of simile, a literary device that makes a comparison between two
separate things. Moreover, in Revelation 22:3 the church ("the
bond-servants of the Lamb") is clearly separate from the city (in
which they serve), so it cannot be a symbol of them. The city
qualifies in every sense as a physical reality, with measurable
architectural structures, planned design, building materials,
rivers, trees, and human inhabitants. What appears to be an
incredible description is intended to accommodate our present
inability to grasp such heavenly realities. An eternal city
designed for an eternal people is not of earth, and as the
handiwork of an infinite God, we should not expect it to conform
to human convention.

God's new creation (Revelation 21:5) bears many similarities with
His original creation. The inner city has "a river of the water
of life," "the tree of life," and "fruits" and "leaves ... for
healing of the nations" (Revelation 22:1-2). Although reminiscent
of the Garden of Eden (Genesis 2:8-17), there is no reason to
suppose the scene in either narrative is symbolic. Like the
earthly Tabernacle and Temple, which were patterned after the
heavenly originals, the earthly Garden of Eden could have been
created as an archetype of the New Jerusalem.

The walls of the New Jerusalem reveal that Israel and the church
share equally in the inheritance of the city. The names of the 12
tribes of Israel are inscribed on its 12 gates. The names of the
12 apostles are on its 12 foundation stones (Revelation
21:12-14). Even though these are all Jewish, they still represent
the dispensations of Israel and the church (as in Hebrews 12:23).
The New Jerusalem has the glory of God (Revelation 21:11). This
particular feature seems to have most impressed John, for he
emphasized it in his description of the city. The supernatural
illumination of the city, eliminating the need for the earthly
cycle of day and night, derives from the presence of God and
Christ (Revelation 21:23; 22:5). The illumination of the city
also extends to the earth, allowing "the nations to walk by its
light" (Revelation 21:24). This verse and verse 26 also state
that the earthly kings will bring their tribute into the heavenly
city. The prophets predicted that Gentiles would make pilgrimages
to the earthly, millennial Temple and pay tribute to the Messiah
(Isaiah 60:6-9; 66:18-21; Haggai 2:7; Zechariah 14:16-I9). This
may support the view that the New Jerusalem descends to earth
over the earthly Jerusalem during the millennium so that the
nations pay tribute to God in both the earthly and heavenly
Jerusalem. The immediate objection may be that this context
describes the eternal state, not the millennium (Revelation
21:I). However, John may be considering the position of the
people (within and without the city) without regard to the
position of the city itself (that is, in the millennium or in

(The physical Jerusalem city and Temple has its own prophecies
pertaining to the 1,000 year age, and is not a part of the
prophecy of Revelation 21 and 22 which pertain to only the
heavenly city coming down to the new earth. The account in
Revelation 21 and 22 is AFTER the 1,000 years or millennium. The
word "nations" (#1484 in Strong's Con. can be translated
"peoples" or "race." The people of all nations by this time,
those who accept salvation, will be immortal, living on the
earth, even the new earth. All the children of God from all
nations, will not all live within the heavenly Jerusalem,
millions will be living in other parts of the earth, but will
come into the heavenly Jerusalem at times. What eternal life will
be like for all the millions of people made into the very sons
and daughters of God, is not given to us at this time, in any
detail. But we know the universe will be ours to have and hold
and to do with, whatever the plans are of God the Father. We
certainly will not all be living inside the holy city Jerusalem
for all eternity. The idea about that city coming down to kinda
"hover" over the physical city of Jerusalem during the
millennium, is just that ... an idea of men, with no Scriptural
support whatsoever. The light of all the earth will be the light
of God and Christ. We shall be in a full demention of the spirit
glory world of the eternal God kingdom.  - Keith Hunt)

Regardless of when the New Jerusalem descends from heaven, the
prophetic promise of this eternal home of God's people compels
the prayer of the saints, "Amen. Come, Lord Jesus" (Revelation



Hayut-Man, Yitzhak. "Realizing the Heavenly Jerusalem."
Jerusalem: Academy of Jerusalem Monographs 3. March, 1995.
McClain, Alva J. "The Greatness of the Kingdom." Winona Lake, IN:
BMH Books, 1974.
Pentecost, Dwight J. "Things to Come." Chicago: Moody Press,
Price, Randall. "Jerusalem in Prophecy." Eugene, OR: Harvest
House Publishers, 1998.
Smith, Wllbur M. "The Biblical Doctrine of Heaven," Chicago:
Moody Press, 1968.
Walvoord, John F. "The Revelation of Jesus Christ." Chicago:
Moody Press, 1966.



Reading and understanding prophecy need not be complicated.
Prophecies regarding the Messiah Kingdom age on earth for 1,000
years, and all within its context, be it Israel, Judah, the city
of Jerusalem, and Temple, and other nations, should be understood
within that context. The context of the heavenly holy city
Jerusalem has its own context which is Revelation 21 and 22. The
two Jerusalems - one of the 1,000 year age to come, and the other
of the new heavens and new earth - should not be mixed up with
speculations, human ideas, additions or subtractions. 
When you keep the two seperate, then the prophecies regarding the
two are easy to understand. 
Because the fundamenatl prophets are not willing to put verse
with verse they come up with complicated patterns that puts
Christ coming again TWICE, once as an invisible return to
secretly but suddenly take away the saints to heaven, for either
7 years or 3 and 1/2 years [depending which fundamental prophet
your reading] while a great tribulation goes on down on the
earth; and then a visible coming of Christ to set up the Kingdom
of God on earth. 
And so it seems goes the fundamentalist folly of making simple
verse with verse unity into seperate confluted ideas of men,
which become doctrines repeated so many times, millions soak them
up as if they are the truths of God.

Keith Hunt

  Home Top of Page

Other Articles of Interest:
  ... ... ...

Navigation List:

Word Search: