In Search of... The Origin of Nations
ISRAEL - SUCCESSORS OF ARPHAXAD
In chapter eleven proofs were offered for the northern European descent from Arphaxad, but little was mentioned specifically about the Scandinavians, northern French, northern Belgians, Holland, Anglo-Saxons and both British and Irish Kelts, my preference being to leave any mention to the final chapter.
Anthropologically these people belong to the exact same genetic composition and racial type as the other descendants of Arphaxad, but which one exactly? All agree that these have inherited the most productive lands on earth, have the highest standards of living and blessings far surpassing other nations. Their achievements have been a source of tremendous service to other nations. Why is this so?
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* From whom the peoples of North-western Europe descend
* Where the 'lost' tribes of Israel are located today
* Why the British Empire was so successful and dominated the world
* The future destiny of the British peoples
Given that we have been able to trace the various nations descended from Arphaxad and Abraham with the exception of Israel, is there a connection between these northern European peoples and Israel?
Whilst a fine chapter could be presented on how many Older Testament prophecies are or will be fulfilled by the Church, the concentration of this paper is on physical Israel. For the physical fulfilment of these prophecies are for Israel although in a typological sense may also apply to the Church.
What is Israel's origin?
In chapter eleven we saw that Shem fathered Arphaxad, the light-bringer. From Arphaxad we are told that he had a son name Salah, followed by Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah and then Abram. This is the line that God has worked with both spiritually/religiously and physically/racially.
It is a line extending back to Seth - God's covenant people - a people, for whatever reason, He chose to covenant with.
Protestant commentators in the mid-nineteenth century through to the early twentieth, wrote of a 'righteous line' from Noah, Shem, Arphaxad, down to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Israel). God chose to work through these people due to certain attributes He instilled within them. As with Arphaxad, so with Israel. As Arphaxad's descendants represent the first wave of peoples God used around the earth in regions such as Peru, southern Europe, the Middle East, central Asia, the Pacific and so on, so Israel, as we shall see, represents the second wave. In effect, Israel followed in the footsteps of Arphaxad. In other words, Arphaxad's descendants were proto-Israelites; and Israelites were Arphaxadites.
Arphaxad generated many children, of which the Bible only tells us about Salah. History attests to his other children forming ruling classes all over the world as we saw in chapter 11. Many of his descendants fell into apostasy both ethnically and religiously, and began to disappear as a distinct people in central Asia, parts of southern Asia, Polynesia, Peru, southern Europe etc. Having disappeared from history, they left behind traditions and remnants of mighty empires and some physical biological evidence (apostasy is both physical and spiritual).
God started His plan in a small way, like the grain of a mustard seed. Prior to Noah's Flood, there were just a handful of people he worked with. After the Flood, through Noah, Shem, Arphaxad and others, this number gradually grew through Israel who were physically called to a physical salvation and blessings. Amongst them were people with the Spirit of God within them. Later, this spiritual dimension grew when the New Testament Church was raised up and continues to this day. More will be called in the Millennium - so God is starting small and working up to call all of mankind, through Israel.
Scriptures such as Is 42:1; 45:4; 65:9 demonstrate how important Israel is to God's Plan - here she is called His "elect". In the Newer Testament we are told that "unless those days should be shortened, no flesh would be saved. But for the elect's sake, those days shall be shortened." (Matt 24:22) And this was prior to the formation of the Church. Whilst the Church is spiritual Israel and is also called the elect in places such as Col 3:12 etc, this does not mean that Israel is no longer His elect which replacement theology attempts to teach. Therefore, because of the elect (both physical and spiritual Israel), God will intervene in world affairs to ensure that life is not wiped off the face of this planet.
We must seek and find the people of Israel today. Finding who they are will open our minds to prophecy, how God operates and is undoubtedly the key to understanding world history.
Why did God call Israel to great blessings?
The question is answered in the following scriptures:
Deu 7:7 Jehovah did not set His love upon you, nor choose you, because you were more in number than any people, for you were the fewest of all people.
Deu 7:8 But because Jehovah loved you, and because He would keep the oath which He had sworn to your fathers, Jehovah has brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you out of the house of slaves, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
Deu 7:9 Therefore, know that Jehovah your God, He is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and mercy with them that love Him and keep His commandments, to a thousand generations.
God was using a nation which was small in number, yet with excellent capacities, to confound the other nations. There is nothing here to suggest that they were inferior which some speculate to be the case. Rather, they possessed attributes inherited from Arphaxad, their forefather, which gave them a capacity to rule, be inventive and be sober and law-abiding more so than others.
Following on from Arphaxad, ethnically and religiously, Israel was to be a special people before God and to thereby bring light, truth and righteousness to the world. In Ex 19:5-6; Deut 28:1; Is 42:6; 43:1, 10-12, 21; 60:3; 61:6; 62:1-7 they are portrayed as God's witness.
From the aforementioned scriptures the Israelites were to function as God's representatives on earth, to administer it under Him. Following I offer some scriptures as further evidence of Israel's role under God:
Exo 19:5 And now if you will obey My voice indeed, and keep My covenant, then you shall be a peculiar treasure to Me above all the nations; for all the earth is Mine.
Exo 19:6 And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words which you shall speak to the sons of Israel.
Deu 7:6 For you are a holy people to Jehovah your God. Jehovah your God has chosen you to be a special people to Himself above all people that are upon the face of the earth.
Deu 28:1 And it will be, if you shall listen carefully to the voice of Jehovah your God, to observe and to do all His commandments which I command you today, Jehovah your God will set you on high above all nations of the earth.
Deu 32:9 For Jehovah's portion is His people. Jacob is the lot of His inheritance.
Deu 32:10 He found him in a desert land, and in the deserted, howling wilderness. He led him about, He cared for him, He kept him as the pupil of His eye.
Psa 50:2 Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God has shone.
Isa 42:6 I Jehovah have called You in righteousness, and will hold Your hand, and will keep You, and give You for a covenant of the people, for a Light of the nations;
Isa 43:20 The beasts of the field shall honor Me, the jackals and the ostriches; because I give waters in the wilderness, rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen.
Isa 43:21 This people that I formed for Myself; they shall declare My praise.
Isa 45:11 So says Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, and the One who formed him, Do you ask Me of things to come? Do you give command to Me about My sons, and about the work of My hands?
Isa 49:3 and said to Me, You are My servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified.
Isa 61:6 But you will be named the priests of Jehovah; it will be said of you, Ministers of our God; you will eat the riches of the nations, and you will revel in their glory.
Isa 62:1 For Zion's sake I will not be silent, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until its righteousness goes out as brightness, and her salvation as a burning lamp.
Jer 13:11 For as the girdle holds fast to the loins of a man, so I have caused the whole house of Israel and the whole house of Judah to cling to Me, says Jehovah; sojhat they might be to Me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory; but they would not hear.
Jer 51:19 The Portion of Jacob is not like them; for He is the Former of all things, and Israel is the rod of His inheritance. Jehovah of Hosts is His name.
Jer 51:20 You are My war-club and weapons of war; for with you I will shatter nations; and with you I will destroy kingdoms, [cp Rev 2:26-27]
Jer 51:21 And with you I will shatter the horse and his rider; and with you I will shatter the chariot and his
Here are people given a great mission by God Almighty.2294 Israel was to be God's inheritance, a light, God's servant, a glory, God's weapon of war, a kingdom of priests and kings, the work of God's hands etc. Notice that Israel was also the apple or pupil of God's eye.
Bullinger in the Companion Bible explains: "First occurrence of Heb. 'ishon, used of the small round dark pupil of the eye. Heb. = hole, gate, or door of the eye ... called 'pupil' [in English] = a little girl." See also references to this in Ps 17:8 and Zech 2:8.
2294 . See Kaiser's work Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a Light to the Nations.
The historical background to the concept of being the 'pupil of God's eye' is fascinating. In ancient Egypt the Sun god, Aten is said to be the pupil of the eye and the texts reveal that the god "dwells in the Eye".
Mai 4:1 For behold, the day is coming, burning like a fire pot; and all the proud, and every doer of wickedness, shall be chaff. And the coming day will set them ablaze, says Jehovah of Hosts, which will not leave root or branches to them.
Mai 4:2 But to you who fear My name, the Sun of Righteousness shall arise, and healing will be on His wings. And you shall go out and frisk like calves of the stall.
The goddess was also called 'eye of Ra' which represented an orb - the entire world. The unborn hero of the sun god was also known as the 'pupil'. This is the context of God's love for Israel - it is so intense and demonstrates God's great interest in Israel like a father for a son or a husband toward his wife. Therefore the truth about Israel is extremely important and is not some little thing - because it is important to God.
Additionally, Israel is regarded as having been generated by God Himself! In Ps 48:2 Israel is referred to as the "sides of the north". The word sides (Strong's #3411) is the feminine of a related Hebrew word (Strong's #3409) which is a euphemism for "the generative parts; ... x body, loins, shaft, side, thigh."
From this we can see that God sees Himself as the Father of Israelites who are His offspring or children (cp Jer 1:15; Song of Solomon 8:5; Rom 8:29).
Israel was also God's bride and wife and He the husband according to Ex 19; 20; Jer 3:14; Ex 16; Jer 31:32. For God to court and choose as wife one of the nations, tells us something about the people He chose. Other relevant scriptures are listed in the endnotes2295.
2295 See Deut 9:5; 4:33, 37; Ps 44:1-3; 47:4; I Chron 17:20-21.
Deu 7:12 And it shall be, because you listen to these judgments and keep and do them, Jehovah your God shall keep to you the covenant and the mercy which He swore to your fathers.
Deu 7:13 And He will love you and bless you and multiply you. He will also bless the fruit of your womb, and the fruit of your land, your grain, and your wine, and your oil, the increase of your cattle, and the flocks of your sheep, in the land which He swore to your fathers to give you.
Deu 7:14 You shall be blessed above all people. There shall not be male or female barren among you or among your cattle.
Deu 7:15 And Jehovah will take away from you all sickness, and will put none of the evil diseases of Egypt which you know upon you. But He will lay them upon all who hate you.
Deu 7:16 And you shall destroy all the people which Jehovah your God shall deliver you. Your eye shall have no pity upon them, neither shall you serve their gods, for they will be a snare to you.
Isa 62:2 And the nations will see your righteousness, and all kings your glory; and you will be called by a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah will name.
Isa 62:3 You also will be a crown of glory in the hand of Jehovah, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God.
Isa 62:4 You will no more be called Forsaken; nor will your land any more be called Desolate; but you will be called My Delight is in her, and your land, Married; for Jehovah delights in you, and your land is married.
Isa 62:5 For as a young man marries a virgin, so will your sons marry you; and as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so will your God rejoice over you.
Isa 62:6 I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem, who will not always be silent all the day nor all the night; you who remember Jehovah, do not be silent.
Isa 62:7 And give Him no rest until He establishes and makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth.
From the above we see that Israel has the primacy, and will enjoy this privilege again during the Millennium. In a sense Israel is the firstborn amongst the nations and therefore inherits the physical birthright of the world. Almost unbelievable blessings were offered Israel in Gen 29; 30; 49; Lev 26; Num 23; 24; Deut 7; 8; 28; 33; Jud 5.2296
Recall how Assur was not chosen to inherit the birthright, but the line of Arphaxad instead. How close the Germans had come to winning World War One and World War Two. And to having the Atomic bomb within their grasp during the last World War.
What of the legend that the United States voted on an official language a long time ago that could have made German the official language of the United States, delivering the nation to domination by Germans? The story goes that it all came down to the final vote: English won by a single vote because one German-favouring member of the legislature was absent.
This is not quite true and may be labelled an 'urban legend' - having a germ of truth, but much has been added to the story. The US Congress never considered, at any time, replacing English with German. What happened was that on 13 January 1795, Congress merely considered a proposal to print the federal laws in German as well as in English. During the debate, a motion to adjourn failed by one vote (42 - 41). Apparently the motion to adjourn was taken by Congress to mean that the House had indicated no confidence in the recommendation by a committee.
A month later, on 16 February, Congress again considered the issue and the House approved publication of federal laws in the English language only. In March the Senate approved the bill and it was signed into law by President Washington.
Whilst the urban legend is an exaggerated account of what actually occurred, it does serve to demonstrate that the German element was quite strong in early America and that if federal laws were translated into both English and German, this may have led to a later, more serious attempt to make German the official language. We shall never know in this life.
But, if this did occur, then world history would have taken a dramatically different course with utterly horrific consequences.
Whatever the case, God gave the birthright promises which included the abundance of North America to the children of Israel, descendants of Arphaxad, not the children of Assur.
In previous chapters we saw the following birthright issues:
2296. Some assert that Israel is seldom mentioned in the New Testament and is not important to God anymore. However, Israel is referred to in many places -just pick up a Strong's Concordance and see for yourself. Israel is also referred to in Matt 10:6; James 1:1; Rev 7; 12; 21. Her tribulation is also referred to in Matt 24; Mark 13; Luke 21; Rev 18.
However, Israel is mentioned seldom in Job and Proverbs for instance - yet both are books of the Older Testament. Mentioning or not mentioning and the amount of mention has no bearing on the Plan of God. After all, the New Testament enriches the Old and builds upon its foundation, it does not replace the Older Testament. Whilst many do not say that it is replaced, by their theological positions, this is what they are saying in effect. Notice two key New Testament scriptures:
Mat 10:5 Jesus sent out these twelve, commanding them, saying, Do not go into the way of the nations, and do not enter into any city of the Samaritans.
Mat 10:6 But rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Jam 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes in the Dispersion, greeting.
* Shem inherited the birthright instead of Japheth
* Arphaxad instead of Assur
* Isaac instead of Ishmael and Keturah's descendants
* Jacob instead of Edom
This birthright involved God covenanting with Israel so that they became His sons. He would shower incredible blessings upon them and grant them potential and capacities above all other peoples - yet it was not something they deserved, it was His privilege and pleasure to do so. They in turn were to obey God, become a model nation and serve the world.
The Sons of Israel (Jacob)
Joseph (fathered Ephraim and Manasseh)
Where are the Covenant People of Israel today?
The scriptures are clear, the House of Israel and Judah will form very important aspects of God's Kingdom. In the first century, the term 'Kingdom of God' referred to the time of the Messiah ruling from Jerusalem, gradually extending his Kingdom across the earth, through and with Israel:
Act 1:6 They therefore, when they were come together, asked him, saying, Lord, dost thou at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?
This demonstrates that it was clearly understood that the Kingdom of God was to be restored to be administered, at least in part, by Israel.
So where are these tribes located today? We must find them if we are to understand God's Plan fully, prophecy and who will possess global dominance and rulership in the Millennium.
The story can be traced clear back to Abraham, through whom God established a single family, which He would choose for leadership and service for all the various nations and tribes of the planet (Abraham and both his physical and spiritual descendants were to be "heir to the world" (Rom 4:13)). Abraham begat Isaac who in turn begat Jacob. God later called Jacob Israel which means "overcomer" or "prevailer with God". Jacob begat 12 sons which became the tribes of Israel. From that time forward, the Bible concentrates on Israel as a special people that God is working with throughout the Old Testament and into the New Testament. In other words, they are the 'chosen people of God'.
In Exodus 19 God proposed marriage to the Israelites:
Exon 19:3 And Moses went up to God, and Jehovah called to him out of the mountain, saying, You shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the sons of Israel:
Exo 19:4 You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to Myself.
Exo 19:5 And now if you will obey My voice indeed, and keep My covenant, then you shall be a peculiar treasure to Me above all the nations; for all the earth is Mine, [this implies world servant leadership granted to Israel]
Exo 19:6 And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words which you shall speak to the sons of Israel.
Exo 19:7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before their faces all these words which Jehovah commanded him.
Exo 19:8 And all the people answered together and said, All that Jehovah has spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of the people to Jehovah.
Exo 19:9 And Jehovah said to Moses, Lo, I come to you in a thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever. And Moses told the words of the people to Jehovah.
Exo 19:10 And Jehovah said to Moses, Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes.
Israel accepted God's proposal and in the following chapter, the Ten Commandments became their basic law to guide them through all generations - a kind of Basic Law or Constitution - they agreed to obey God, their Husband - this became the basis of their joint Covenant. As such, they were the Covenant People - a people that God had chosen from a line clear back to Arphaxad, Shem and Noah.
God dealing with Israel from the time of the forging of this Covenant is recorded throughout the Old Testament and a summary is not necessary here.
If, however, they proved unfaithful to God, and joined themselves to foreign gods, then He had the right to separate from them and send them into captivity.
Deu 8:7 For Jehovah your God brings you into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills ...
Deu 8:11 Beware that you do not forget Jehovah your God, in not keeping His commandments, and His judgments, and His statutes, which I command you today ...
Deu 8:18 But you shall remember Jehovah your God, for it is He who gives you power to get wealth, so that He may confirm His covenant which He has sworn to your fathers, as it is today.
Deu 8:19 And it shall be if you do at all forget Jehovah your God and walk after other gods and serve them and worship them, I testify against you today that you shall surely perish.
Deu 8:20 As the nations whom Jehovah destroys before your face, so you shall perish because you would not listen to the voice of Jehovah your God.
This indeed occurred to Israel and later to Judah as recorded by the prophets. Yet, Israel was promised great blessings which were only partially fulfilled in ancient Palestine (eg Gen 49). Other scriptures which list the immense blessings of Israel in the end-time include: Lev 26; Deut 28; Numbers 23 & 24, Deuteronomy 33, Judges 5 and are explained in many excellent books listed at the end of this chapter.
These prophecies of national greatness are promised specifically for the last days (Gen 49:1) and were unconditional - God would shower them upon Israel whether she obeyed Him or not. The wealth enjoyed originally by Israel, and especially during the reign of Solomon, typologically fulfilled Genesis 49.
For instance the patriarch, Abraham's descendants, were to become so numerous to be like the dust of the earth (Gen 13:16), the stars of heaven (Gen 15:5; 22:17) and the sand upon the seashore (Gen 22:17; 28:14). He was destined to father large and prosperous nations, above any others in world mhistory.
The promises were partially fulfilled during the time of the Kingdom of Israel where they are said to be the dust of the earth (IlChron 1:9. See Deut 1:10), but the various promises in the book of Genesis are to be more fully applied in the "last days" (Gen 49:1). In other words, the early fulfilment were part of an ongoing unfurling of proto-types, forerunners or patterns of later fulfilments of these prophecies in these last days. The entry of Israel into the Promised Land, successes of Israel and especially King David and the splendour of Solomon are all typological of Israel's rise to prominence in the last days and the Millennium.
Dr Rick Sherrod explains this period of Israel's history very well:
"Solomon's reign brought a version of the very things which will come in earnest under
Christ's beneficent worldwide rule: peace (I Kings 4:24-25, Isaiah 2:4, Micah 4:4),
happiness and prosperity (I Kings 4:20, 22-23, 10:14-23, 27, Amos 9:13, Micah 4:4),
wisdom and the availability of spiritual knowledge and understanding (I Kings 4:29-34,
10:1, 4, 6-9, 2 Chronicles 1:12, the Book of Proverbs, most of which is of Solomonic
authorship, and Isaiah 11:9), world renown (I Kings 4:21, 10:1, 6,23-24, Ps. 72:8-11, 19,
Isaiah 2:3, Zechariah 9:10), and a massive program of building and construction (I Kings
6:1, 7:1-2, Isaiah 58:12, 61:4, Ezekiel 36:10, 33-36).
Students of the Solomonic period also describe it as an age of intellectual revival and
learning (see Lawrence Boadt, Reading the Old Testament, p. 477; James Pritchard,
Solomon and Sheba, p. 30; and Andre Lemaire's essay in Ancient Israel edited by
Hershel Shanks, p. 106)~something which will also be a major feature of Christ's
program to reeducate and elevate the newly subjugated populations of the world
(Zechariah 8:23, 14:16-19, Revelation 2:27). Indeed, the Solomonic age of glory is a
biblical forerunner of even greater fulfillments of the physical, material, and national
promise made to the descendants of Abraham".2297
In other words, Israel has only partially fulfilled its purpose and role God has in mind for them - service and leadership to the entire world. In The Lost Tribes of Israel - Found! by author, Steven Collins, evidence was provided on Israel's colonies, in many ways a miniature of the British Empire:
"Earlier Israelite nations and empires also fulfilled many of the birthright promises to Abraham. The Phoenician/Israelite Empire under King Solomon controlled Gibraltar, many land trade routes, the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and much of the Indian Ocean. Carthage also controlled Western M Mediterranean, and the Atlantic sea routes to North America.” 2298
Eugene Miller, author of Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel notes that even the successes of David, a man "after God's heart", was, in many ways, quite fragile (and as such, could not fulfil the prophecies):
2297. Sherrod 1997: 28
2298. Collins 1995:390
"Once a modicum of unity had been achieved, David was able to centralize government in Jerusalem without sacrificing local tribal distinctions and interests. At best, however, this was a loose federation, for up till the last years of his life David had to struggle with the tendency toward fragmentation, especially between Judah and the north...
"The success of his early wars... attests to his ability to organize the nation, at least on a temporary basis... By the time of David's death... the old tribal distinctions still existed, but with David there had come at least a sense of national unity in both secular and spiritual affairs.
"The United Monarchy disintegrated within one generation following David's death. That breakup testifies to the tentative character of this union".2299
In other words, the complete fulfilment is obviously yet future. Israel's breakup and subsequent captivity by the hand of Assyria is recorded in IIKings 17:18: "Therefore the Lord was very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: There was none left but the tribe of Judah only". Later, the tribe of Judah was taken into captivity by the Babylonians (2 Chron 36:17-20).
God had warned that He would "scatter them into corners ... [and] make the remembrance of them to cease from among men" (Deut 32:26). Indeed they have been forgotten and lost view of by most people. Hence they are called, even to this day, the "lost tribes of Israel".
The prophet Amos wrote that Joseph, son of Israel, would be scattered, but still within the view of God - the God Who covenanted with Abraham and Who still would guide them to their new homelands. Indeed, Amos said that God would sift Israel through the nations and as such they would not be destroyed as a distinct people. (Amos 9:8-9)
Where did Israel find herself after her captivity by her Assyrian captors? Extra-Biblical sources tell us that Israel consisted of a large nation beyond the Euphrates:
"the entire body of the people of Israel remained in that country [to which the Assyrians deported them]; wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the 10 tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers" (Antiquities of the Jews, by Josephus, Book 11, Chapter V, Section 2). [emphasis mine]
It may be assumed that Josephus' account represents common knowledge for his day. The Apocryphal Book ofEsdras contains the following account:
"Then you saw him collecting a different company, a peaceful one. They are the 10 tribes which were taken off into exile in the time of King Hoshea, whom Shalmaneser king of Assyria took prisoner. He deported them beyond the [Euphrates] River, and they were taken away into a strange country. But then they resolved to leave the country populated by the Gentiles and go to a distant land ...
"As they passed through the narrow passages of the Euphrates, the Most High performed miracles for them, stopping up the channels of the river until they had crossed over.
"Their journey through that region, which is called Arzareth, was long, and took a year and a half. They have lived there ever since, until this final age. Now they are on their
2299. Merrill 1987: 281-284
way back, and once more the Most High will stop the channels of the river [Isaiah 27:6, 12-13] to let them cross" (2 Esdras 13:39-47).
This fits with the Biblical account of the Assyrian expulsion of Israelites to Halah and Habor near the Gozan river and the cities of the Medes (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). This was south of the Caspian Sea and striking distance to the Caucasus which has an important pass bearing the name of "gates of Israel". Here many Israelite tribes moved into the Russia steppes while other tribes moved in the opposite direction around the Caspian Sea into central Asia. They were found among the Scythian nations and also the Cimmerians (you will recall from an earlier chapter that several nations were known as Scythians and Cimmerians - but the original peoples under these names were Israelites as will shortly be demonstrated).
Prominent Danish linguist, respected in her field, Anne Kristensen in her work Who were the Cimmerians, and Where did they come from?: Sargon II, the Cimmerians, and Rusa I, argues for identifying them with the Israelites, admitting that at first she was dubious with this find. This appears to be a unique position amongst scholars.
"There is scarcely reason, any longer, to doubt the exciting and verily astonishing assertion propounded by the students of the Ten Tribes that the Israelites deported from Bit Humria, of the House of 'Omri, are identical with the Gimirraja of the Assyrian sources. Everything indicates that Israelite deportees did not vanish from the picture but that, abroad, under new conditions, they continued to leave their mark on history.”2300
British-Israel scholars have written on the identification of the Cimmerians (and Scythians) with the 'lost' tribes of Israel for over 150 years.
World famous explorer and archaeologist, Thor Heyerdahl, writing in the Spring 1995 issue of Azerbaijan International, placed in print his "growing suspicion" that Scandinavians were descended from peoples who dwelt in the region of Azerbaijan, situated in the Caucasus. Gradually, as eminent historians and archaeologists such as Heyerdahl and Kristensen prove the movements of Israelites and related peoples into northwest Europe, modern-day historians will be left without excuse as to who the "lost tribes of Israel" are today.
How the Israelites ended up in Northwest Europe
So far we have demonstrated that the Israelites were taken to north-eastern Iran (south of the Caspian Sea), but from thence they migrated to their new homeland as the prophecies show - but how did they get they and where exactly is their new homeland?
The Jewish Encyclopedia presents the following startling information about the connection between the Nordic-Keltic peoples of Europe and the House of Israel:
"The identification of the Sacae, or the Scythians [recognised by most historians as the ancestors of the British peoples] with the Ten Tribes because they appear in history at the same time and very nearly in the same place, as the Israelites removed by Shalmaneser, is one of the chiefs supports of the theory which identifies the English people, and indeed the whole Teutonic race, with the Ten Tribes. Dan is identified sometimes with
2300. Kristensen 1988: 126-127. Kaplan in his The Living Torah wrote: "The Cimerians were seen as originally having been a Nordic people (Odyssey 11:18-19). Some sources identify them with he Cimbri of Jutland (around Denmark), a nation of Teutonized Celts." (page 21). See also the critique of Kristensen by Kuhrt 1990: 143-45.
Denmark and sometimes with the Tuatha da Danaan of Irish Tradition."2301
Whilst in Samaria, the house of Israel became known as the "House of Omri" (1 Kings 16:23) or Beth-Omri and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II, now in the British Museum, reveals the Assyrian equivalent of "Omri" as Khumri and the "House of Omri" as Bit-Khumri. This is the origin of the Babylonian title Gimiri. Another authority, The Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia, gives further credence to this:
"The description 'Son of Khumri' is thought merely to show that Jehu was an Israelite, because Israelite territory was called 'Bit-Khumri'".2302
This is also confirmed in Hastings Dictionary of the Bible which says:
"The Assyrians first became acquainted with Israel in the time of Omri, and they called the country of the the Ten Tribes of Israel 'the land of the house of Omri' even after the extinction of his dynasty."2303
Yet a further authority, The Old Testament in the Light of Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia states that:
"Omri was likewise pronounced in accordance with the older system, before the grain became ayim. Humri shows that they said at the time Ghomri’’.2304
The name Saxons is also derived from Sacsons meaning Isaac's sons. Also the words Scythian and Scot are derived from the Hebrew Succoth which means a booth, tabernacle or temporary dwelling.
According to the Behistun Rock Inscriptions the Gimiri (Ghomri) were the same people as the Cimmerians, the Sacae and the Scythians, who gave birth to the Cymri Celts, Saxons, Goths and other peoples of North-Western Europe. Sharon Turner states that:
"The Kimmerioi of the Greeks were the Kimbroi of the Greeks, and the Cimbri (Kimbri) of the Latin writers".2305
While Robert Owen in his historical work, The Kymry expounds this reasoning further:
"In leaving the far east, they, the Kimmerians or Kymry must have occupied a country south of the Caucasus, extending from the river Araxes to the Palus Habotia or Sea of Azof, where Herodotus remarks on the many places yet bearing the name of Kimmerian in his time".2306
This is exactly where the Israelites were exiled to by the Assyrians! Another historian, Grant says that:
2301 Jewish Encyclopedia: 250.
2302. Luckenbill 1926, The Ancient records of Assyria and Babylonia, Vol.1,46
2303. Hastings Dictionary of the Bible, vol 1, article "Omri": 688
2304. Pinches 1902: 339. See Gawler Our Scythian Ancestors (page 6). In History of Herodotus (Bk. IV, Appendix, Note 1) we find "Whether at the same time these Gimiri or Saka are really Cymirc Celts we can not positively say ... But... the Babylonian title of Gimri, as applies to the Sacae, is not a vernacular but a foreign title, and may simply mean the tribes." [emphasis mine]
2305. Turner 1852: 28
2306. Owen 1891:11
"The Nordics also swept down through the Thrace into Greece and Asia Minor, while
other large and important groups entered Asia partly through the Caucasus Mountains but
in greater strength they migrated around the northern and eastern sides of the Caspian-Aral Sea". 2307
Again we see that the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians migrated from exactly the same area that the Israelites were deported to after the Assyrians invaded Israel.
The Israelites after their exile became known as the Scythians around the northern shore of the Black Sea and the Sacae or Sakka in the area of Persia. They came via the Danube, Central Europe, Greece and the Baltic into Scandinavia, Britain and North-West Europe after numerous different migrations.2308 In History of the Anglo-Saxons Sharon Turner writes:
"The Anglo-Saxon, Lowland Scot, Normans, Danes have all sprung from that great fountain of the human race which we have distinguished by the term Skythian or Gothic... Sakai-Suna or the Sons of Sakai, abbreviated into Saksun, which is the same sound as Saxon, seems a reasonable etymology of the word 'Saxon'".2309
According to Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
"Scot (is) the same as Scythian in etymology; the root of both is Set. The Greeks had no c, and would change t into th making the root skth, and by adding a phonetic vowel we get Skuthai (Scythians), and Skodiai (Skoths). The Welsh disliked s at the beginning of a word, and would change it to ys; they would also change c or k to g, and th to d; whence the Welsh root would be Ysgd, and Skuth or Skoth would become ysgod. Once more, the Saxons would cut off the Welsh y, and change the g back again to c, and the d to t, converting the Ysgod to Scot."2310
This ties in nicely with intense research undertaken by Dr David Law, Professor of Russian. In his work From Samaria to Samarkand. The Lost Tribes of Israel, he provides very powerful arguments for Israelites migrating from south of the Caspian Sea to Samarkand (a derivation of Samaria) in central Asia. The Israelites were initially located in the Harhar province of Persia and were protected by the Assyrian armies and governed by them. There was little option for escape due to the presence of the powerful army and other states in the area.
Within a few years of their exile to Harhar, history records that uprisings occurred there which spread to neighbouring provinces. Sargon, king of Assyria managed to suppress them, but not Harhar. This permitted many Israelites to eventually move out of the region into central Asia, Samarkand, Sogdiana in particular. Here the peoples are recorded as portraying similarities to the Israelites which he details. Later still many of them were known as the Yueh-Chi, described everywhere as White people of Nordish appearance. Nearby were the related Ta-hai or Tocharians who are shown to be Keltic in physical type.2311
"Like the Hebrews of ancient times, who called themselves "the chosen people", the Yueh Chi, Tokharians, and Sogdians (known by these names) referred to themselves as
2307. Grant 1923:214
2308. Cimmerians is merely a corruption of Samarians while Sacae or Sakka is derived from the patriarch Isaac. According to Gawler in his book Our Scythian Ancestors: "The word Saacae is fairly and without straining our imagination translatable as Isaacites."
2309. Turner: History of the Anglo-Saxons: Vol.1, p.56,87
2310. Brewer 1894: 1112
2311. Law 1992:2, 26, 76-77, 95
"the fair people." This term probably came from a religious connotation, as did that of the Hebrews earlier, as well as from their light skin color. In this way, the term applied to all light-skinned people in contrast to the darker-skinned Turks, who were coming on the world scene from the east at that time.
"The use of the Hebrew term implies a direct connection with the Hebrew language, which the Sogdians knew from their Samarian ancestors ...
"The above reference to the two branches of the Indo-European language family, Iranic and Tokharian, is also significant. The language of the Sogdians (Tokharians) was a Median dialect, which the Israelites learned during their long stay in Media".2312
"It is possible that some of the Samarians, who became citizens of Parthia, moved with the Parthians into southern Iran".2313
For those of you who have studied the Indo-European element which was extant in ancient central Asia and who were knocking on the doors of China, would know that they are described by the Chinese themselves, historians, archaeologists and anthropologists as 'Indo-European' or 'Aryan' - a Nordish-Keltic physical type. Dr Law's superb book assists with this evaluation and connection to the Israelites.
Many readers would also have been following the saga of the fair-skinned Nordish-Keltic mummies found in central Asia and China dating back to 2000-3000 BC. Books such as The Mummies of Urumchi2314 by Elizabeth Barber provide a wealth of information for any serious researcher in this area.
To Barber's astonishment, some of the mummies were buried with Scottish-type plaid fabric which she spends some time discussing. They are so strikingly similar to Keltic tartans in the patterns and weave. In fact, when the heads of the mummies were scientifically reconstructed they found a face that is remarkably similar to the Celts and also the Saxons. She speculates (or is it speculation?) that migrant tribes from Iran (where Israel was exiled) moved both westwards and eastwards, taking with them their knowledge of many skills and technology, including weaving and shepherding, later finding themselves in far western China. Of course, she identifies these mummies with the Yueh-Chi or Yuezhi and Tocharians or Tokharians. Concerning their connection, she asks:
"If the Celts indeed came into Central Europe as miners seeking metal ores, might the Tokharians have left the Caucasus area at the same time for the same reason?"2315
She claims that there were at least two such migrations about 1,000 years apart. As many of these mummies clearly pre-date Israel, they are therefore descendants of Arphaxad who wondered eastwards, (possibly joined later by descendants of Abraham through Keturah) and later still, certainly by Israelites.
There are no Israelites there today, having either migrated out or mixed in with the local population.
2312. Law 1992: 96
2313. ibid: 100
2314. This book was kindly sent to me by my friend Kevin Watson and for which I am most grateful. It ties in well with Dr Law's book and various articles and other materials I have collected.
2315. Barber 1999: 145
TO BE CONTINUED