AFTER ITS KIND
From the book by the same name (1958)
Mendelism: The Last Word on Evolution
AFTER ITS KIND, the first word on evolution, and forever decreeing- its impossibility, was spoken by God at creation and given to men as a revelation through the Book. In the laws of Mendel, as they are called—in honor of the man who first discovered them, we have what is entitled to he called the last word on evolution. The latest results of modern biological research, Mendel's Laws, agree exactly with what was written by Moses three thousand years ago - and they also elucidate it. 105
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who lived about the middle of the last century. He was a biologist of note.
While experimenting with garden peas he made a—discovery. He learned that peas do not vary in heredity in any such a slip-shod, haphazard fashion as was supposed by Darwin, Lamarck, and others, but according to definite, orderly laws which he recognized and formulated. Enthusiastic over his discovery, he wrote a paper on the subject and read it before the Natural History Society of Brunn, Austria, in 1866. At that time scientific men were all absorbed with Darwin's theory of evolution by slow, gradual, minute additions, and such information concerning the heredity of plants and animals as Mendel had discovered did not fit in well with Darwin's teachings. Mendel's discovery therefore, was ignored completely, and it lay buried and unknown for thirty-five years. Not until the year 1900 was it brought to light when it was rediscovered independently by de Vries and Correns.
105 Instead of speaking of the "laws of Mendel" or "Mendelism" biologists now speak of the "principles of genetics" to which Mendel's discovery led, but we have chosen to retain the original expressions, "laws of Mendel" and "Mendelism."
The principles and laws of heredity discovered by Mendel, when they became thoroughly known, completely changed the old ideas of scientists in regard to heredity. They revolutionized the notion of evolution which was popular in Darwin's day. Bateson, the famous British biologist and student of Mendelian heredity, said that
Fig. 28. Gregor Mendel. Mendel is an answer to those evolutionists who say theologians have no scientific ability and can know nothing about evolution.
Darwin would never have written the Origin of Species if he had known Mendel's work. Not only this, but Mendel's discoveries went far to destroy the faith of biologists in evolution itself. "It comes to pass that some biologists of the greatest authority in the study of Mendelian principles of heredity are led to the expression of ideas which would almost take us back to creationism." 106 These words were spoken at Harvard University in 1916 by Prof. Caullery of the Chair of Evolution of the University of Paris.
From the beginning a pronounced dislike for Mendel's laws was apparent on the part of evolutionists. Alfred Russel Wallace, Darwin's close friend and co-worker, said, "On the general relation of Mendelism to evolution, I have come to a very definite conclusion. That is, that it is really antagonistic to evolution."107 The evolutionist Caullery, quoted above, said, "The data of Mendelism embarrass us very considerably." 108 Professor Scott of Princeton, another evolutionist, has said, "Interesting and profoundly important as are the results of Mendelian investigation, it must be admitted that they have rendered but little assistance in making the evolution process more intelligent, but instead of removing difficulties have rather increased them." 109 Bateson revealed the situation when he said, "I notice that certain writers, who conceive themselves to be doing a service to Darwinism, take occasion to say that they expected as much (of Mendelism) and that from the first they disliked the whole thing." 110
The blow that the evolution idea has received from the discovery of Mendel's laws is well presented in the words of E. W. McBride, Prof, of Zoology in the Imperial College of Sciences, England. "I well remember the enthusiasm with which the Mendelian theory was received when it was first introduced to the scientific world in the early days of this century. We thought at last the key to evolution had been discovered. But as our knowledge of the facts grew, the difficulty of using Mendelian phenomena to explain evolution became apparent, and this
106 Smithsonian Institute Report, 1916, page 343. The eminent Frenchman, Dr. Doumergue, in an article in Foi et Vie on the status of the theory of evolution in France, says that Prof. Caullery now (1925) "refuses to teach evolution, finding it of little interest."
107 Letters and Reminiscences, page 340.
108 Smithsonian Institute Report, 1916, page 333.
109 Theory of Evolution, page 163.
110 Nature, May 10, 1924.
early hope sickened and died. The way that Mendel cut was seen to lead into a cul-de-sac (blind alley)." 111
So important is the bearing of Mendel's discovery upon the Biblical account of creation that an effort will now be made to give by illustration some indication of what Mendelism is. For complete information the reader is
111 Science Progress, Jan., 1925
referred to one of the many books written especially on the subject.
There is a common breed of chickens called the Anda-lusian. The breed occurs in three colors: black, white and a mixture of black and white feathers called blue. (Fig. 29.) When a black Andalusian fowl is crossed with a white Andalusian all the chicks produced are blue.112 The blue chicks, when they mature and are bred among themselves, do not produce all blue offspring. They produce three kinds of chicks in a definite, invariable proportion: twenty-five per cent black, fifty per cent blue, and twenty-five per cent white. The black chicks, when crossed together, produce black offspring. The white chicks produce white offspring. The blue, however, when crossed among themselves, produce the same definite proportion as before: twenty-five per cent black, twenty-five per cent white, and fifty per cent blue. This law of heredity has been revealing itself as long as the ancient stock of domestic fowls called the Andalusian has been used in poultry work.
There is a plant called the four-o'clock from its habit of blooming only in the late afternoon. (Fig. 31.) The flowers of this plant are deep red, pure white, and pink-Red, crossed with red, produces red. White, crossed with white, produces white. But red crossed with white produces pink. The whole generation of offspring produced by red and white mating are pink. When, however, pink is crossed with pink, pink flowers are not the only flowers that result. Red and white blossoms also appear, and always in the proportion of one red, two pink, one white. These second-generation red flowers produce red when mated with red; these second-generation white flowers produce white when mated with white; but the second-generation pink produce, when mated with pink, pink, red and white flowers, and always in the ratio of red 25: white 25: pink 50. This process is capable of continuing on, indefinitely.
112 This is the "Andalusian" desired by poultry fanciers. It is
not a pure breed but a hybrid. It cannot be made to breed true.
still another illustration may be taken to illustrate the feature of Mendel's Law called dominance. In the cases thus far cited the hybrid, i.e., the product of the cross between two pure breeds, has been different from either parents.113 The Andalusian, for example, which is produced by mating of a black fowl and a white, one, is a black showing some white in the feathers. It is a black, but the dominance of the black over the white is not complete. The same may be said of the Four-o'clock: Inmost species, however, one factor dominates over another completely in the hybrid. Such is the case in the guinea-pig. (Fig. 30.) If a black or colored guinea-pig is mated with a white or uncolored guinea-pig, the first generation of offspring will be all black or colored. The factor for white is present in the hybrid but it does not appear. Here the color dominates over the lack of color, causing The hybrids to look exactly like the pure parent. They are, however impure varieties, which produce, when mated with one another, one pure black, two impure blacks, and one pure white. The pure black will produce only black offspring. The pure white will produce only white offspring. The impure black will produce one pure black, two impure blacks, and one pure white.
From the above illustrations it is seen that species, e.g., the guinea-pig, contain certain "somethings" that travel down from offspring to offspring as units. The black color of hair and the white color of hair are the product of two distinct "somethings" which pass from generation to generation as if they were poured in at the top, and after appearing regularly along the way, come out at the end still intact. These "somethings" are called genes. Each natural species contains considerable numbers of—these genes, which affect all parts of the organism and determine the color, size, shape which each part must assume. In dogs, for example, there are certain genes which have to do with the hair, making it long or short, rough or smooth, curly or straight, white or colored, plain or spotted as the
113 Instead of "hybrid," the original designation after the discovery of Mendelism for the product of a cross between varieties, biologists now use the term "heterozygote," which means merely "impure breeding" or "mongrel." The word "hybrid" refers property to such crosses between distinct species as mules.
case may be.114 These genes are definite, fixed in number and indestructible. They can combine in one generation in one way and produce a certain type of offspring. Then they, can separate and combine again in another way in another generation and produce still another type of offspring. (Fig. 35, 36, 37.) They can, however, produce no greater number of different types than there are genes that can be combined. What these genes are and, how this separating and recombining of them again in each
Fig. 35. The formation of new varieties within species according to Mendel's Law. As many different varieties can be formed as there are genes in the species which can be combined in different ways. In the above illustration a male and a female guinea-pig differ in respect to two pairs of contrasting character. The male has genes which produce short and colored hair. The female has genes which cause long and uncolored hair. Only the dominant genes show in the first generation of offspring, wherefore all are colored and short-haired. In the second generation four varieties appear. They are the result of various combinations of the four genes contained in the grandparents. Two of these four varieties are new in the sense that they are formed by new combinations of old genes. Nothing new in the evolutionary sense, however, has been added. The proportion of the varieties will be 9:3:3:1
114 A brief sample list of alternating pairs of characters in different natural species is here given. In peas: tall vs. dwarf. In wheat: beardless head vs. bearded head. In nettles: much-serrated leaves vs. little-serrated leaves. In cotton: colored lint vs. white lint. In carnations: double flower vs. single flower. In chickens: feathered leg vs. clean leg. In cats: short vs. "Angora" hair. In dogs: harlequin spotted vs. plain color. In cattle: polled (hornless) vs. horned. In horses: trotting gait vs. pacing gait. The first in the pairs - is the dominant.
Fig. 36. The formation of new varieties within species according to Mendel's Law when three pairs of alternating characters are involved. In the above illustration the male has the three dominant genes: shortness, color, and roughness of hair. The female has the three recessive genes: length, no-color, and smoothness of hair. All or a part of the dominant genes could as well be in the female and the recessive genes in the male. In any case the first generation of offspring would all reveal only the dominant characters. In the second generation eight different varieties appear, the result of that many combinations of the genes contained in the grand-parents. Still nothing new in the evolutionary sense is added. The proportion of the varieties will always be 27:9:9:9:3:3:3:1.
species takes place is now well understood and the descriptions of them constitute what are known as Mendel's Laws. Certain general conclusions which bear upon the matter of the evolution or non-evolution of species in the light of Menders discoveries should be stated:
(1). Only those physical characteristics which are due to factors (genes) are inherited. Variations in plants and animals are of two types: (1a) those which are due to the influence of the environment, such as bleached hair and a tanned skin, and (1b) those which are due to the existence of genes. The first types mentioned are not inherited. The second are temporary, lasting only for the life of the individual, and are not passed on to the offspring. The second (genie) types are inherited, and are the only ones therefore of any importance in the matter of evolution. Darwin ignorantly recognized no distinction in the types of variations in living organisms in his argument for evolution.
(2) Wide and numerous inheritable variations are latent in natural species. The Creator has given to living oganisms, especially to the higher forms of life, a large number of the things called genes. The number He has given to the different species varies, but it is known that in most species, even in those of small importance in the eyes of men, there are known to be very many. In the tiny fruit-fly, Drosophik, for example, well over five hundred definite characteristics, known to be the productions of genes, have been discovered. The largest number of genes in any species, and consequently the greatest possibility of manifesting physical differences, is found, doubtless, in man.
(NOW THE GENO FOR MAN HAS BEEN DISCOVERED AND IT WAS A SURPRISE - 30,000 [THIRTY THOUSAND] ONLY; THE FRUIT FLY HAS ABOIUT AS MANY; BUT A FRUIT FLY WILL NEVER EVOLVE OR MUTATE INTO A HUMAN - Keith Hunt)
(3) No visible variation outside the combination of existing genes can occur. As a musician may combine the notes of his instrument in many different ways into the making of many different harmonies, so nature, by making different combinations of the factors existing in natural species, may produce many varieties in the species. Yet, just as the number of possible harmonies which the musician can make on his instrument is limited by the number of notes the instrument has, so the number of possible varieties which nature can produce in species is limited by the number of genes in them which can be combined.
By new combinations of old materials new forms may arise, many of them such as have never been in existence previously. A certain evolution, if one would care to call it so, takes place. Such evolution, however, occurs within a closed system, and does not destroy, but merely enlarges the Biblical concept of the creation of fixed types.
(4) No genuinely new, inheritable characteristic ever appears in species. Whatever appears was already contained in its ancestors in the form of hidden genes.
(IT'S LIKE I ONCE HAD A GUITAR STUDENT WHO HAD PARENTS WHO WERE NOT OVER 5' 4" TALL, BUT THE BROTHER OF MY STUDENT AT AGE 16, WAS ALREADY 6' 8" TALL - THE STAR BASKETBALL PLAYER ON HIS TEAM - Keith Hunt)
In order for evolution to take place, new forms must come into existence. This is a sine qua non of evolution. These new forms must be new not in any relative sense, but in a real sense. They must be of the nature of new creations. Organs or organisms must come into existence which had no existence before. Since the rediscovery of Mendel's work attention has been fastened upon the apparently new forms which have been known to arise spontaneously in recent times in numerous species of plants and animals, e.g., sweet peas, poppies, wheat, corn, cattle, flies, moths and others. These "mutations" as they are called, have been said by evolutionists to be genuinely new creations, the materials with which the evolution process, builds. De Vries, for example, considered the apparently new forms of the primrose, Oenothera, which appeared more or less regularly in his garden in Holland to be such new creations.
But mutations are not new things or new creations. Mutations are nothing but the revelation of the different effects of genes, or the revelation of the effects of different states of the same gene (some genes can have only one effect while other genes can have several and variable effects) which have been in existence in species as long as the species themselves have been in existence. As well call mutant forms "new" as call fish that appear periodically on the surface of the sea or of a lake "new" merely because they can not be seen at all times. For, variations in species which were thought to be new when they first appeared have later been seen to arise many times elsewhere, and variations which have been seen for awhile, and then have disappeared and seem to have become lost for good have unexpectedly come back again.
Fig. 37. Varieties of fruit-flies produced according to Mendel's Law from grand-parents containing four pairs of alternating genes. The pairs are (1) long wing vs. so-called "vestigial" wing. (2) bar-eye vs. round eye. (3) small (normal) body vs. "giant" body (body twice the normal size), (4) gray (sooty) color vs. black (ebony) color. The vestigial wing here pictured is capable of expanding when the air gets warm.
There are now known to be many different types or causes of mutations and most of the types are fully understood—so much so that whereas evolutionists (like de Vries) were at one time greatly excited when they saw a strange form arising, because they thought they were seeing evolution going on, have now calmed down to almost complete silence. One of the simplest types, of mutation is illustrated in Fig. 38. Other types are illustrated and explained in the appendix called MUTATION at the end of this book.
(5) The seat of all heredity is in the germ or "seed." The conclusion which Weismann came to in his search for the reason acquired characters are not inherited, namely, that the basis of all heredity is in the germ, has been reached by students of Mendelism in an entirely different way. The seed of each kind is in itself, says the Bible, as if in the seed were to be contained the machinery upon which the eternal unchangeableness of species was to rest. All genes are passed on within the "seed." or germ, in what are called the chromosomes. Under powerful microscopes these genes can be seen inside the chromosomes, arranged somewhat like beads on a string (Fig. 60.) An unconscious tribute to the statement in Genesis that the "seed is in itself" is found in the presidential address of Bateson as President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in which Mendelism was his theme, when he said. "Descent used to be described in terms of blood. Truer notions of genetic physiology are given by the Hebrew expression 'seed.' If we say he is, 'of the seed of Abraham' we feel something of the permanence and indestructibility of that germ which can ran be divided and scattered among the nations, but remains recognizable in type and characteristic after 4,000 years." 115
Mendelian research has thrown remarkable light on certain problems at one time puzzling to the creationist. The "blind-fish" argument for evolution has been evaporated. Until recent times it was said by evolutionists
115 Nature, August 20, 1914.
Fig. 38. Evolution means producing new forms. The above illustration shows how "new" forms may be nothing but old forms which, concealed for many generations, are revealed by an accidental mating. In actual practice a single combed fowl crossed with a rose combed fowl would produce rose combed chicks. The single combed characteristic has disappeared in the offspring. One of these rose combed offspring crossed with a pure rose combed bird would produce only rose combed fowl. After as many generations as the breeder might desire, during all of which the single combed feature would be hid, he could mate one of the rose combed offspring with a pea combed fowl. The products would be walnut combed. Two of these mated would produce offspring one of every sixteen of which would be a single combed bird.
that the blind fish of certain caves became blind because of the evolutional influence of their environment. Their once perfect eyes evolved into sightlessness, it was said, because the creatures had been confined for so many countless generations in the darkness. Here, it seemed, the evolutionist had a definite example of the inheritance of an acquired character. While carrying on experimentation in search of knowledge of Mendelian principles, Prof. Morgan of Columbia discovered among the fruit-flies which he had produced in glass milk-bottles in the sunlight "blind" flies. (See Fig. 56.) They appeared in definite Mendelian proportions, they crossed back readily with parent forms, and could again and again be reproduced in the same fashion as at first, and thus demonstrated that they were merely one of the many varieties in which this species of fruit-fly can appear. Morgan therefore concluded, and all students of heredity have accepted his conclusion, that "eyeless" fish did not become eyeless because they had lived so long in caves, but that they were produced by their parents outside of caves and drifted or swam into them accidentally, and there, in a suitable, protected environment, continued to live. Morgan says, "Formerly we were taught that eyeless animals arose in caves. But they may arise in glass milk-bottles by a change in a single factor." 116 And Prof. Castle of Harvard, another prominent student of heredity, has said, "As regards the vision of cave animals, the Lamarckians hold that the eyes have degenerated because no longer used, whereas the selectionist holds that the animals which have taken to living in caves have been driven to this course."
Light has been thrown upon the whole problem of animal distribution and adaptation-—or what may be called "a true evolution." After …. each species began to "mutate" and new forms began to arise. Among the cattle varieties were produced having short hair, such as is found in the Zebu of India or the Red Africander. Such a coat being better adapted to a hot climate, these varieties migrated to warm, equatorial regions. Other varieties were produced having long, warm coverings of hair, such as the
116 Critique of the Theory of Evolution, page 67.
West Highlander and Galloway, or the prehistoric wild ox of northern Europe called the "auroch." These varieties migrated northward. Natural selection, working—upon Mendelian or "genie" variations, produced all the evolution there is. Such evolution is strictly in accordance with what is taught in all Scripture.
An interesting side-light is cast by Mendelism upon the geographical distribution of mankind. The different shades and colors of the human skin, as well as all other features of his body, are now known to be due to factor that follow Mendel's Laws. The presence of the dark-skinned members of our race in the hot climates is not, therefore, to be explained on the evolutionary basis of inheritance of acquired characters, as due to the effects through many generations of burning sunlight upon the skin, but as due to the fact that…. dark-skinned specimens of humanity drifted south into the lands of the burning sun, while light-skinned variations of humanity drifted north into climates more suitable for them. Africans are not dark because they came to Africa. They came to Africa because they were dark. "The darkest races of mankind are those which live where the sunlight is strongest and the skies-clear; the fairest races live where the sun's rays are less intense and the skies are often overcast. This signifies to the Lamarckian that the effects of the sun's rays on the human skin are inherited; but to the selectionist it means only that men vary in depth of pigmentation and that each race has migrated to the climate which it is best fitted to endure." 117
(MAYBE PARTLY TRUE BUT NOT FULLY SO. THE ESKIMOS WENT WAY NORTH, AND DID NOT DEVELOP A HAIRY BODY TO EVOLVE INTO LIVING WITH THE BITTER COLD; THEY JUST DRESSED IN THE FUR-SKINS OF ANIMALS. GOD PLACED THE RACES OF PEOPLE WHERE HE WANTED THEM. THE WHITE MAN LIVES QUITE WELL IN THE HEAT AND SUN OF AUSTRALIA, AND IF NOT PROTECTED BY CLOTHES AND A HAT, WILL GET SUN-TANNED; BUT MANY AUSTRALIANS ARE QUITE WHITE, AS THEY DELIBERATELY DO NOT SUN-TAN - Keith Hunt)
Knowledge of Mendelian laws of heredity was made use of to prove the non-inheritance of acquired characters. As was pointed out a few pages back, when two white guinea-pigs are crossed the offspring are all white, but when a white and a pure black are mated the progeny are all black, since black dominates white. Prof. Castle operated surgically upon a white guinea-pig "so as" to "remove that part of the inner reproductive organs called the ovaries and put in their places the ovaries from a black guinea-pig.
117 Castle,. Genetics and Eugenics, page 40.—It is significant that "Ham," the name of one of the sons of Noah who was the progenitor of the negroes, means "black" or "dark."
When the white guinea-pig with the ovaries from the black animal was perfectly well, it was mated to another white guinea-pig. The question was: will the offspring be white, as from a cross, of two white animals, or will they be black, as from a black and white? Will the eggs in the ovaries from the black animal be affected by their residence
Fig. 3 9. Illustraticn of Castle's experiment. No. 1 represents an ordinary white guinea-pig. No. 2 represents a white guinea-pig whose ovaries have been removed by operation and the ovaries of a black guinea-pig grafted into their places. No. 3 represents the black offspring which came from the crossing of No. 1 and No. 2. See discussion in the text.
in a white animal so as to cause a black offspring, if such is born, to be lighter colored? The offspring-were all pure black, showing that the germ-plasm and the embryo in development were not affected by their environment. It is doubtful if any evidence can more clearly show the unchangeable nature of the germ or "seed," and how therefore species must bring forth "after their kind."
Mendel's discovery has done great damage to the theory of evolution.
Mendelism says: After its kind.
The chief facts bearing on evolution Mendel brought to light are (1) descent from generation to generation is orderly rather than disorderly. (2) variation takes place within natural species as a result of different combinations of materials already contained in the species, (3) nothing new is ever added. "New" forms are merely old forms come to light.
Certain old, important evidences of evolution have been destroyed.
Light is cast on the nature of the pairs…., and the repopulation of the earth with many varieties of animals from a comparatively few forms … is made clear and simple.
DO WE SEE, HAVE WE EVER SEEN, SAY A HORSE MUTATE INTO SOME ENTIRELY DIFFERENT ANIMAL; THE SAME CAN BE SAID FOR THE DOG, THE CAT, THE MOUSE, THE RABBIT, THE COW, AND ETC.
ANOTHER IRON CLAD LAW [SO WHO PUT IT THERE] IS THAT A HORSE NEVER TRIES TO BREED TO A COW; A JIRAF NEVER TRIES TO BREED TO AN ELEPHANT; A DOG NEVER TRIES TO BREED TO A CAT; A GOAT NEVER TRIES TO BREED TO A SHEEP; A HIPPOPOTAMUS NEVER TRIES TO BREED TO A RHINOCEROS, A BEATLE NEVER TRIES TO BREED TO A SPIDER; AND SO FORTH.
THERE ARE MANY LAWS IN NATURE. WHO PUT THEM THERE? JUST BLIND CHANCE? I DO NOT THINK SO. THERE ARE WAY TOO MANY LAWS IN THE UNIVERSE TO SAY IT ALL HAPPENED BY CHANCE.
DESIGN AND LAWS REQUIRE A DESIGNER AND LAW-MAKER.
TO BE CONTINUED