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Israel through the Centuries #1

At the Beginning

                  IN SEARCH OF ... THE ORIGIN OF NATIONS

by Craig White

(Do you think you are a "history buff" - maybe you have a degree
in history, even a PhD. Well your about to get another lesson, a
history truth that most "western" nation people who dabble in
history or prophecy of the Bible, just simply have a "mental
block" regarding; that is the question of where did the nations
of North-western Europe, the Anglo-Saxon British Commonweath and
the United States of America, come from? The truth of the matter
is in your Bible, and it is also in recorded history. If you want
to know about the origin of the large well-known nations of the
world, you need to obtain the 471 page book "In search of ... the
Origin of Nations" by Craig White; obtainable from
Keith Hunt

In Search of... The Origin of Nations


     In chapter eleven proofs were offered for the northern
European descent from Arphaxad, but little was mentioned
specifically about the Scandinavians, northern French, northern
Belgians, Holland, Anglo-Saxons and both British and Irish Kelts,
my preference being to leave any mention to the final chapter.
Anthropologically these people belong to the exact same genetic
composition and racial type as the other descendants of Arphaxad,
but which one exactly? All agree that these have inherited the
most productive lands on earth, have the highest standards of
living and blessings far surpassing other nations. Their
achievements have been a source of tremendous service to other
nations. Why is this so?


* From whom the peoples of North-western Europe descend
* Where the 'lost' tribes of Israel are located today
* Why the British Empire was so successful and dominated the     

* The future destiny of the British peoples

     Given that we have been able to trace the various nations
descended from Arphaxad and Abraham with the exception of Israel.
is there a connection between these northern European peoples and
     Whilst a fine chapter could be presented on how many Older
Testament prophecies are or will be fulfilled by the Church, the
concentration of this paper is on physical Israel. For the
physical fulfilment of these prophecies are for Israel although
in a typological sense may also apply to the Church.

What is Israel's origin?

     In chapter eleven we saw that Shem fathered Arphaxad, the
light-bringer. From Arphaxad we are told that he had a son name
Salah, followed by Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah and then
Abram. This is the line that God has worked with both
spiritually/religiously and physically/racially.
     It is a line extending back to Seth - God's covenant people
- a people, for whatever reason, He chose to covenant with.
Protestant commentators in the mid-nineteenth century through to
the early twentieth, wrote of a 'righteous line' from Noah, Shem,
Arphaxad, down to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Israel). God chose
to work through these people due to certain attributes He
instilled within them. As with Arphaxad, so with Israel. As
Arphaxad's descendants represent the first wave of peoples God
used around the earth in regions such as Peru, southern Europe,
the Middle East, central Asia, the Pacific and so on, so Israel,
as we shall see, represents the second wave. In effect, Israel
followed in the footsteps of Arphaxad. In other words, Arphaxad's
descendants were proto-Israelites; and Israelites were

     Arphaxad generated many children, of which the Bible only
tells us about Salah. History attests to his other children
forming ruling classes all over the world as we saw in chapter
11. Many of his descendants fell into apostasy both ethnically
and religiously, and began to disappear as a distinct people in
central Asia, parts of southern Asia, Polynesia, Peru, southern
Europe etc. Having disappeared from history, they left behind
traditions and remnants of mighty empires and some physical
biological evidence (apostasy is both physical and spiritual).
God started His plan in a small way, like the grain of a mustard
seed. Prior to Noah's Flood, there were just a handful of people
he worked with. After the Flood, through Noah, Shem, Arphaxad and
others, this number gradually grew through Israel who were
physically called to a physical salvation and blessings. Amongst
them were people with the Spirit of God within them. Later, this
spiritual dimension grew when the New Testament Church was raised
up and continues to this day. More will be called in the
Millennium - so God is starting small and working up to call all
of mankind, through Israel.

     Scriptures such as Is 42:1; 45:4; 65:9 demonstrate how
important Israel is to God's Plan - here she is called His
"elect". In the Newer Testament we are told that "unless those
days should be shortened, no flesh would be saved. But for the
elect's sake, those days shall be shortened." (Matt 24:22) And
this was prior to the formation of the Church. Whilst the Church
is spiritual Israel and is also called the elect in places such
as Col 3:12 etc, this does not mean that Israel is no longer His
elect which replacement theology attempts to teach. Therefore,
because of the elect (both physical and spiritual Israel), God
will intervene in world affairs to ensure that life is not wiped
off the face of this planet.

     We must seek and find the people of Israel today. Finding
who they are will open our minds to prophecy, how God operates
and is undoubtedly the key to understanding world history.

Why did God call Israel to great blessings?

     The question is answered in the following scriptures:

Deu 7:7 Jehovah did not set His love upon you, nor choose you,
because you were more in number than any people, for you were the
fewest of all people.

Deu 7:8 But because Jehovah loved you, and because He would keep
the oath which He had sworn to your fathers, Jehovah has brought
you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you out of the house of
slaves, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.

Deu 7:9 Therefore, know that Jehovah your God, He is God, the
faithful God who keeps covenant and mercy with them that love Him
and keep His commandments, to a thousand generations.

     God was using a nation which was small in number, yet with
excellent capacities, to confound the other nations. There is
nothing here to suggest that they were inferior which some
speculate to be the case. Rather, they possessed attributes
inherited from Arphaxad, their forefather, which gave them a
capacity to rule, be inventive and be sober and law-abiding more
so than others.
     Following on from Arphaxad, ethnically and religiously,
Israel was to be a special people before God and to thereby bring
light, truth and righteousness to the world. In Ex 19:5-6; Deut
28:1; Is 42:6; 43:1, 10-12,21; 60:3; 61:6; 62:1-7 they are
portrayed as God's witness.
     From the aforementioned scriptures the Israelites were to
function as God's representatives on earth, to administer it
under Him. Following I offer some scriptures as further evidence
of Israel's role under God:

Exo 19:5 And now if you will obey My voice indeed, and keep My
covenant, then you shall be a peculiar treasure to Me above all
the nations; for all the earth is Mine.

Exo 19:6 And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy
nation. These are the words which you shall speak to the sons of

Deu 7:6 For you are a holy people to Jehovah your God. Jehovah
your God has chosen you to be a special people to Himself above
all people that are upon the face of the earth.

Deu 28:1 And it will be, if you shall listen carefully to the
voice of Jehovah your God, to observe and to do all His
commandments which I command you today, Jehovah your God will set
you on high above all nations of the earth.

Deu 32:9 For Jehovah's portion is His people. Jacob is the lot of
His inheritance.

Deu 32:10 He found him in a desert land, and in the deserted.
howling wilderness. He led him about, He cared for him, He kept
him as the pupil of His eye.

Psa 50:2 Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty. God has shone.

Isa 42:6 I Jehovah have called You in righteousness and will hold
Your hand, and will keep You, and give You for a covenant of the
people for a Light of the nations.

Isa 43:20 The beasts of the field shall honor Me, the jackals and
the ostriches; because I give waters in the wilderness, rivers in
the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen.

Isa 43:21 This people that I formed for Myself; they shall
declare My praise.

Isa 45:11 So says Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, and the One
who formed him, Do you ask Me of things to come? Do you give
command to Me about My sons, and about the work of My hands?

Isa 49:3 And said to Me, You are My servant, O Israel, in whom I
will be glorified.

Isa 61:6 But you will be named the priests of Jehovah; it will be
said of you, Ministers of our God; you will eat the riches of the
nations, and you will revel in their glory.

Isa 62:1  For Zion's sake I will not be silent, and for
Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until its righteousness goes
out as brightness, and her salvation as a burning lamp.

Jer 13:11 For as the girdle holds fast to the loins of a man, so
I have caused the whole house of Israel and the whole house of
Judah to cling to Me, says Jehovah; so that they might be to Me
for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for a glory;
but they would not hear.

Jer 51:19 The Portion of Jacob is not like them; for He is the
former of all things, and Israel is the rod of His inheritance.
Jehovah of Hosts is His name.

Jer 51:20 You are My war-club and weapons of war; for with you I
will shatter nations; and with you I will destroy kingdoms. [cp
Rev 2:26-27]

Jer 51:21 And with you I will shatter the horse and his rider;
and with you I will shatter the chariot and his rider.

     Here are people given a great mission by God Almighty.
Israel was to be God's inheritance, a light, God's servant, a
glory, God's weapon of war, a kingdom of priests and kings, the
work of God's hands etc. Notice that Israel was also the apple or
pupil of God's eye.
     Bullinger in the Companion Bible explains: "First occurrence
of Heb. 'ishon,' used of the small round dark pupil of the eye.
Heb. = hole, gate, or door of the eye ... called 'pupil' [in
English] = a little girl." See also references to this in Ps 17:8
and Zech 2:8.

See Kaiser's work "Mission in the Old Testament: Israel as a
Light to the Nations."

     The historical background to the concept of being the 'pupil
of God's eye' is fascinating. In ancient Egypt the Sun god, Aten
is said to be the pupil of the eye and the texts reveal that the
god "dwells in the Eye".

Mal 4:1 For behold, the day is coming, burning like a fire pot;
and all the proud, and every doer of wickedness, shall be chaff.
And the coming day will set them ablaze, says Jehovah of Hosts,
which will not leave root or branches to them.

Mal 4:2 But to you who fear My name, the Sun of Righteousness
shall arise, and healing will be on His wings. And you shall go
out and frisk like calves of the stall.

     The goddess was also called 'eye of Ra' which represented an
orb - the entire world. The unborn hero of the sun god was also
known as the 'pupil'. This is the context of God's love for
Israel - it is so intense and demonstrates God's great interest
in Israel like a father for a son or a husband toward his wife.
Therefore the truth about Israel is extremely important and is
not some little thing - because it is important to God.

     Additionally, Israel is regarded as having been generated by
God Himself! In Ps 48:2 Israel is referred to as the "sides of
the north". The word sides (Strong's #3411) is the feminine of a
related Hebrew word (Strong's #3409) which is a euphemism for
"the generative parts; ... x body, loins, shaft, side, thigh."
     From this we can see that God sees Himself as the Father of
Israelites who are His offspring or children (cp Jer 1:15; Song
of Solomon 8:5; Rom 8:29).

     Israel was also God's bride and wife and He the husband
according to Ex 19; 20; Jer 3:14: Ex 16; Jer 31:32. For God to
court and choose as wife one of the nations, tells us something
about the people He chose. Other relevant scriptures are listed
in the endnotes.

See Deut 9:5; 4:33,37; Ps 44:1-3; 47:4; I Chron 17:20-21.

Deu 7:12 And it shall be, because you listen to these judgments
and keep and do them, Jehovah your God shall keep to you the
covenant and the mercy which He swore to your fathers.
Den 7:13 And He will love you and bless you and multiply you. He
will also bless the fruit of your womb, and the fruit of your
land, your grain, and your wine, and your oil, the increase of
your cattle, and the flocks of your sheep, in the land which He
swore to your fathers to give you.
Deu 7:14 You shall be blessed above all people. There shall not
be male or female barren among you or among your cattle.
Deu 7:15 And Jehovah will take away from you all sickness, and
will put none of the evil diseases of Egypt which you know upon
you. But He will lay them upon all who hate you.
Deu 7:16 And you shall destroy all the people which Jehovah your
God shall deliver you. Your eye shall have no pity upon them,
neither shall you serve their gods, for they will be a snare to
Isa 62:2 And the nations will see your righteousness, and all
kings your glory; and you will be called by a new name, which the
mouth of Jehovah will name.
Isa 62:3 You also will be a crown of glory in the hand of
Jehovah, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God.
Isa 62:4 You will no more be called Forsaken; nor will your land
any more be called Desolate; but you will be called My Delight is
in her, and your land, Married; for Jehovah delights in you, and
your land is married. 
Isa 62:5 For as a young man marries a virgin, so will your sons
marry you; and as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so will
your God rejoice over you.
Isa 62:6 1 have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem, who will
not always be silent all the day nor all the night; you who
remember Jehovah, do not be silent.
Isa 62:7 And give Him no rest until He establishes and makes
Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

     From the above we see that Israel has the primacy, and will
enjoy this privilege again during the Millennium. In a sense
Israel is the firstborn amongst the nations and therefore
inherits the physical birthright of the world. Almost
unbelievable blessings were offered Israel in Gen 29; 30; 49; Lev
26; Num 23; 24; Dent 7; 8; 28; 33; Jud 5.2296
     Recall how Assur was not chosen to inherit the birthright,
but the line of Arphaxad instead. How close the Germans had come
to winning World War One and World War Two. And to having the
Atomic bomb within their grasp during the last World War.
     What of the legend that the United States voted on an
official language a long time ago that could have made German the
official language of the United States, delivering the nation to
domination by Germans? The story goes that it all came down to
the final vote: English won by a single vote because one
German-favouring member of the legislature was absent.
This is not quite true and may be labelled an 'urban legend' -
having a germ of truth, but much has been added to the story. The
US Congress never considered, at any time, replacing English with
German. What happened was that on 13 January 1795, Congress
merely considered a proposal to print the federal laws in German
as well as in English. During the debate, a motion to adjourn
failed by one vote (42-41). Apparently the motion to adjourn was
taken by Congress to mean that the House had indicated no
confidence in the recommendation by a committee.
     A month later, on 16 February, Congress again considered the
issue and the House approved publication of federal laws in the
English language only. In March the Senate approved the bill and
it was signed into law by President Washington.

     Whilst the urban legend is an exaggerated account of what
actually occurred, it does serve to demonstrate that the German
element was quite strong in early America and that if federal
laws were translated into both English and German, this may have
led to a later, more serious attempt to make German the official
language. We shall never know in this life.
     But, if this did occur, then world history would have taken
a dramatically different course with utterly horrific

(Nope, don't believe this story at all. The USA was founded by
Englishmen - the New England States - and German anything never
had any bearing on anything then or now. God made sure the USA
was Anglo-Saxon founded - Keith Hunt)

     Whatever the case, God gave the birthright promises which
included the abundance of North America to the children of
Israel, descendants of Arphaxad, not the children of Assur.
     In previous chapters we saw the following birthright issues:

Some assert that Israel is seldom mentioned in the New Testament
and is not important to God anymore. However, Israel is referred
to in many places - just pick up a Strong's Concordance and see
for yourself. Israel is also referred to in Matt 10:6; James 1:1;
Rev 7; 12; 21. Her tribulation is also referred to in Matt 24;
Mark 13; Luke 21; Rev 18.

However, Israel is mentioned seldom in Job and Proverbs for
instance - yet both are books of the Older Testament. Mentioning
or not mentioning and the amount of mention has no bearing on the
Plan of God. After all, the New Testament enriches the Old and
builds upon its foundation, it does not replace the Older
Testament. Whilst many do not say that it is replaced, by their
theological positions, this is what they are saying in effect.
Notice two key New Testament scriptures:
Mat 10:5 Jesus sent out these twelve, commanding them, saying, Do
not go into the way of the nations, and do not enter into any
city of the Samaritans.
Mat 10:6 But rather go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
Jam 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to
the twelve tribes in the Dispersion, greeting.

* Shem inherited the birthright instead of Japheth 
* Arphaxad instead of Assur
* Isaac instead of Ishmael 
* Keturah's descendants Jacob instead of Edom

     This birthright involved God covenanting with Israel so that
they became His sons. He would shower incredible blessings upon
them and grant them potential and capacities above all other
peoples - yet it was not something they deserved, it was His
privilege and pleasure to do so. They in turn were to obey God,
become a model nation and serve the world.

The Sons of Israel (Jacob)

* Reuban 
* Simeon 
* Levi 
* Judah 
* Zebulun 
* Issachar 
* Dan 
* Gad 
* Asher 
* Naphtali 
* Joseph (fathered Ephraim and Manasseh) 
* Benjamin

Where are the Covenant People of Israel today?

     The scriptures are clear, the House of Israel and Judah will
form very important aspects of God's Kingdom. In the first
century, the term 'Kingdom of God' referred to the time of the
Messiah ruling from Jerusalem, gradually extending his Kingdom
across the earth, through and with Israel:

Act 1:6 They therefore, when they were come together, asked him,
saying, Lord, dost thou at this time restore the kingdom to

     This demonstrates that it was clearly understood that the
Kingdom of God was to be restored to be administered, at least in
part, by Israel.

     So where are these tribes located today? We must find them
if we are to understand God's Plan fully, prophecy and who will
possess global dominance and rulership in the Millennium.

     The story can be traced clear back to Abraham, through whom
God established a single family, which He would choose for
leadership and service for all the various nations and tribes of
the planet (Abraham and both his physical and spiritual
descendants were to be "heir to the world" [Rom 4:13]). Abraham
begat Isaac who in turn begat Jacob. God later called Jacob
Israel which means "overcomer" or "prevailer with God". Jacob
begat 12 sons which became the tribes of Israel. From that time
forward, the Bible concentrates on Israel as a special people
that God is working with throughout the Old Testament and into
the New Testament. In other words, they are the 'chosen people of

     In Exodus 19 God proposed marriage to the Israelites:

Exo 19:3 And Moses went up to God, and Jehovah called to him out
of the mountain, saying, You shall say to the house of Jacob, and
tell the sons of Israel.
Exo 19:4 You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and I bore
you on eagles' wings and brought you to Myself.
Exo 19:5 And now if you will obey My voice indeed, and keep My
covenant, then you shall be a peculiar treasure to Me above all
the nations; for all the earth is Mine. [this implies world
servant leadership granted to Israel]
Exo 19:6 And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy
nation. These are the words which you shall speak to the sons of
Exo 19:7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people,
and laid before their faces all these words which Jehovah
commanded him.
Exo 19:8 And all the people answered together and said. All that
Jehovah has spoken we will do. And Moses returned the words of
the people to Jehovah.
Exo 19:9 And Jehovah said to Moses, Lo, I come to you in a thick
cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and
believe you forever. And Moses told the words of the people to
Exo 19:10 And Jehovah said to Moses, Go to the people and
sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their

     Israel accepted God's proposal and in the following chapter,
the Ten Commandments became their basic law to guide them through
all generations - a kind of Basic Law or Constitution - they
agreed to obey God, their Husband - this became the basis of
their joint Covenant. As such, they were the Covenant People - a
people that God had chosen from a line clear back to Arphaxad,
Shem and Noah.
     God dealing with Israel from the time of the forging of this
Covenant is recorded throughout the Old Testament and a summary
is not necessary here.

     If, however, they proved unfaithful to God, and joined
themselves to foreign gods, then He had the right to separate
from them and send them into captivity.

Deu 8:7 For Jehovah your God brings you into a good land, a land
of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of
valleys and hills ...
Deu 8:11  Beware that you do not forget Jehovah your God, in not
keeping His commandments, and His judgments, and His statutes,
which I command you today ...
Deu 8:18 But you shall remember Jehovah your God, for it is He
who gives you power to get wealth, so that He may confirm His
covenant which He has sworn to your fathers, as it is today.
Deu 8:19 And it shall be if you do at all forget Jehovah your God
and walk after other gods and serve them and worship them, I
testify against you today that you shall surely perish.
Deu 8:20 As the nations whom Jehovah destroys before your face,
so you shall perish because you would not listen to the voice of
Jehovah your God.

     This indeed occurred to Israel and later to Judah as
recorded by the prophets. Yet, Israel was promised great
blessings which were only partially fulfilled in ancient
Palestine (eg Gen 49). Other scriptures which list the immense
blessings of Israel in the end-time include: Lev 26; Deut 28;
Numbers 23 & 24, Deuteronomy 33, Judges 5 and are explained in
many excellent books listed at the end of this chapter.
     These prophecies of national greatness are promised
specifically for the last days (Gen 49:1) and were unconditional
- God would shower them upon Israel whether she obeyed Him or
not. The wealth enjoyed originally by Israel, and especially
during the reign of Solomon, typologically fulfilled Genesis 49.
     For instance the patriarch, Abraham's descendants, were to
become so numerous to be like the dust of the earth (Gen 13:16),
the stars of heaven (Gen 15:5; 22:17) and the sand upon the
seashore (Gen 22:17; 28:14). He was destined to father large and
prosperous nations, above any others in world history.
     The promises were partially fulfilled during the time of the
Kingdom of Israel where they are said to be the dust of the earth
(2 Chron 1:9. See Deut 1:10), but the various promises in the
book of Genesis are to be more fully applied in the "last days"
(Gen 49:1). In other words, the early fulfilment were part of an
ongoing unfurling of proto-types, forerunners or patterns of
later fulfilments of these prophecies in these last days. The
entry of Israel into the Promised Land, successes of Israel and
especially King David and the splendour of Solomon are all
typological of Israel's rise to prominence in the last days and
the Millennium.

Dr Rick Sherrod explains this period of Israel's history very

"Solomon's reign brought a version of the very things which will
come in earnest under Christ's beneficent worldwide rule: peace
(I Kings 4:24-25, Isaiah 2:4, Micah 4:4), happiness and
prosperity (I Kings 4:20,22-23, 10:14-23,27, Amos 9:13, Micah
4:4), wisdom and the availability of spiritual knowledge and
understanding (I Kings 4:29-34, 10:1,4, 6-9, 2 Chronicles 1:12,
the Book of Proverbs, most of which is of Solomonic authorship,
and Isaiah 11:9), world renown (I Kings 4:21, 10:1,6, 23-24, Ps.
72:8-11,19, Isaiah 2:3, Zechariah 9:10), and a massive program of
building and construction (I Kings 6:1; 7:1-2, Isaiah 58:12;
61:4; Ezekiel 36:10,33-36).
Students of the Solomonic period also describe it as an age of
intellectual revival and learning (see Lawrence Boadt, Reading
the Old Testament. p.477, James Pritchard. Solomon and Sheba, 
p.30; and Andre Lemaire's essay in Ancient Israel edited by
Hershel Shanks, p.106)--something which will also be a major
feature of Christ's program to reeducate and elevate the newly
subjugated populations of the world (Zechariah 8:23, 14:16-19,
Revelation 2:27). Indeed, the Solomonic age of glory is a
biblical forerunner of even greater fulfillments of the physical,
material, and national promise made to the descendants of

     In other words, Israel has only partially fulfilled its
purpose and role God has in mind for them - service and
leadership to the entire world. In "The Lost Tribes of Israel -
Found!" by author, Steven Collins, evidence was provided on
Israel's colonies, in many ways a miniature of the British

"Earlier Israelite nations and empires also fulfilled many of the
birthright promises to Abraham. The Phoenician/Israelite Empire
under King Solomon controlled Gibraltar, many land trade routes,
the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and much of the Indian
Ocean. Carthage also controlled Gibraltar, the Western
Mediterranean, and the Atlantic sea routes to North America."

     Eugene Miller, author of "Kingdom of Priests: A History of
Old Testament Israel" notes that even the successes of David, a
man "after God's heart", was, in many ways, quite fragile (and as
such, could not fulfil the prophecies):

"Once a modicum of unity had been achieved, David was able to
centralize government in Jerusalem without sacrificing local
tribal distinctions and interests. At best, however, this was a
loose federation, for up till the last years of his life David
had to struggle with the tendency toward fragmentation,
especially between Judah and the north...
The success of his early wars... attests to his ability to
organize the nation, at least on a temporary basis... By the time
of David's death... the old tribal distinctions still existed,
but with David there had come at least a sense of national unity
in both secular and spiritual affairs.
The United Monarchy disintegrated within one generation following
David's death. That breakup testifies to the tentative character
of this union". 

     In other words, the complete fulfilment is obviously yet
future. Israel's breakup and subsequent captivity by the hand of
Assyria is recorded in 2 Kings 17:18: "Therefore the Lord was
very angry with Israel, and removed them out of his sight: There
was none left but the tribe of Judah only". Later, the tribe of
Judah was taken into captivity by the Babylonians (2 Chron
     God had warned that He would "scatter them into corners ...
[and] make the remembrance of them to cease from among men" (Deut
32:26). Indeed they have been forgotten and lost view of by most
people. Hence they are called, even to this day, the "lost tribes
of Israel".

     The prophet Amos wrote that Joseph, son of Israel, would be
scattered, but still within the view of God - the God Who
covenanted with Abraham and Who still would guide them to their
new homelands. Indeed, Amos said that God would sift Israel
through the nations and as such they would not be destroyed as a
distinct people. (Amos 9:8-9)

     Where did Israel find herself after her captivity by her
Assyrian captors? Extra-Biblical sources tell us that Israel
consisted of a large nation beyond the Euphrates:

"the entire body of the people of Israel remained in that country
[to which the Assyrians deported them]; wherefore there are but
two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the 10
tribes are beyond Euphrates till now, and are an immense
multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers" (Antiquities of
the Jews, by Josephus, Book 11, Chapter V, Section 2). [emphasis
     It may be assumed that Josephus' account represents common
knowledge for his day. The Apocryphal Book of Esdras contains the
following account:

"Then you saw him collecting a different company, a peaceful one.
They are the 10 tribes which were taken off into exile in the
time of King Hoshea, whom Shalmaneser king of Assyria took
prisoner. He deported them beyond the [Euphrates] River, and they
were taken away into a strange country. But then they resolved to
leave the country populated by the Gentiles and go to a distant
land ...
As they passed through the narrow passages of the Euphrates, the
Most High performed miracles for them, stopping up the channels
of the river until they had crossed over.
Their journey through that region, which is called Arzareth, was
long, and took a year and a half. They have lived there ever
since, until this final age. Now they are on their way back, and
once more the Most High will stop the channels of the river
[Isaiah 27:6,12-13] to let them cross" (2 Esdras 13:39-47).

     This fits with the Biblical account of the Assyrian
expulsion of Israelites to Halah and Habor near the Gozan river
and the cities of the Medes (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). This was south
of the Caspian Sea and striking distance to the Caucasus which
has an important pass bearing the name of "gates of Israel". Here
many Israelite tribes moved into the Russia steppes while other
tribes moved in the opposite direction around the Caspian Sea
into central Asia. They were found among the Scythian nations and
also the Cimmerians (you will recall from an earlier chapter that
several nations were known as Scythians and Cimmerians - but the
original peoples under these names were Israelites as will
shortly be demonstrated).

     Prominent Danish linguist, respected in her field, Anne
Kristensen in her work "Who were the Cimmerians, and Where did
they come from?: Sargon II, the Cimmerians, and Rusa I," argues
for identifying them with the Israelites, admitting that at first
she was dubious with this find. This appears to be a unique
position amongst scholars.

"There is scarcely reason, any longer, to doubt the exciting and
verily astonishing assertion propounded by the students of the
Ten Tribes that the Israelites deported from Bit Humria, of the
House of 'Omri,' are identical with the Gimirraja of the Assyrian
sources. Everything indicates that Israelite deportees did not
vanish from the picture but that, abroad, under new conditions,
they continued to leave their mark on history." 2300

     British-Israel scholars have written on the identification
of the Cimmerians (and Scythians) with the 'lost' tribes of
Israel for over 150 years.

     World famous explorer and archaeologist, Thor Heyerdahl,
writing in the Spring 1995 issue of Azerbaijan International,
placed in print his "growing suspicion" that Scandinavians were
descended from peoples who dwelt in the region of Azerbaijan,
situated in the Caucasus. Gradually, as eminent historians and
archaeologists such as Heyerdahl and Kristensen prove the
movements of Israelites and related peoples into northwest
Europe, modern-day historians will be left without excuse as to
who the "lost tribes of Israel" are today.

How the Israelites ended up in Northwest Europe

     So far we have demonstrated that the Israelites were taken
to north-eastern Iran (south of the Caspian Sea), but from thence
they migrated to their new homeland as the prophecies show - but
how did they get they and where exactly is their new homeland?
     The Jewish Encyclopedia presents the following startling
information about the connection between the Nordic-Keltic
peoples of Europe and the House of Israel:

"The identification of the Sacae, or the Scythians [recognised by
most historians as the ancestors of the British peoples] with the
Ten Tribes because they appear in history at the same time and
very nearly in the same place, as the Israelites removed by
Shalmaneser, is one of the chiefs supports of the theory which
identifies the English people, and indeed the whole Teutonic
race, with the Ten Tribes. Dan is identified sometimes with

2300 Kristensen 1988: 126-127. Kaplan in his "The Living Torah"
wrote: "The Cimerians were seen as originally having been a
Nordic people (Odyssey 11:18-19). Some sources identify them with
the Cimbri of Jutland (around Denmark), a nation of Teutonized
Celts." (page 21). See also the critique of Kristensen by Kuhrt
1990: 143-45.


To be continued

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