From the book


by Steven M. Collins

As the Gothic tribes fought native populations (and each other) for living space in Europe, one group of Goths migrated completely across (and out of) Europe when they crossed the Mediterranean to North Africa. This group was the Vandals. In 439 A.D., the Vandals captured the city of Carthage, making it a Vandal stronghold. The Vandals displayed a remarkable aptitude for maritime skills, building a large fleet and dominating the Mediterranean for about 30 years.112 The fact that the Vandals had excellent maritime skills indicates further   that  they  were   not   "barbarians."   Obviously  they  had descended from a nation which had possessed fairly sophisticated technical skills.

In 455 A.D., the Vandals under Gaiseric sailed across the Mediterranean and conquered the city of Rome. Legends about their destruction of Rome have led to our modern term "vandalism." However, let us examine two accounts of the Vandal triumph to see whether they deserve their awful reputation. The description of historian Henry Bradley sounds fearsome enough:

"...The city suffered far more terribly than it had suffered at the hands of Alaric. All the gold and silver and valuable possessions of every kind...were carried away to the ships of Gaiseric. Amongst the spoil taken by the Vandals was the seven-branched candlestick, and the sacred vessels of the temple of Jerusalem, which had fallen into the hands of Titus when he captured the city. Many thousands of prisoners were taken to be sold into slavery at Carthage..."113 

A second account from the Encyclopedia Britannica sounds much milder.

"He [Gaiseric]...for 14 days, in a calm and business-like manner, emptied it [Rome] of all its movable wealth...There does not seem to be in the story of the capture of Rome by the Vandals any justification for the charge of willful and objectless destruction of public buildings which is implied by the word 'vandalism.' It is probable that the charge grew out of the fierce persecution which was carried out by Gaiseric ...against the Catholic Christians. The bishops were almost universally banished, and the congregations were forbidden to elect their successors."114

While this occupation of Rome by the Vandals was more hostile than that of Alaric and his Goths, no massacre was involved, and the city was not destroyed. The Vandals were recorded as being Arian Christians, and had some religious restraints on them (the term "Arian" Christian identified the Vandals as followers of Bishop Arius: there is no connection between the terms "Arian" and "Aryan.") Also, their banishing of Catholic bishops was a very mild form of "persecution." Many non-Catholic Christians and Jews during the Inquisition of the Middle Ages would have considered themselves lucky to have been "persecuted" so mildly.

Additionally, no tears need be wept for Rome. Much of what the Vandals took from Rome, was in fact, wealth that Rome had stolen from other nations during Roman conquests in preceding centuries. It was also "poetic justice" that the Vandals conquered Rome from their base in Carthage. Punic Carthage had fought Rome for generations, but the prize of occupying the city of Rome had evaded them. However, while under Vandal control, an army from Carthage finally conquered Rome.

Bradley's account states that a seven-branched candlestick and other sacred items from the Jerusalem Temple were taken by the Vandals. Rome had taken these vessels from the Temple of God when its armies conquered Jerusalem in 70 A.D. Since the Vandals were Christians, it is likely that they regarded these dedicated temple objects from the old Jerusalem Temple as highly sacred objects worthy of protection.

The Vandals ruled Carthage for almost a century, and they clearly saw themselves as punishing instruments in the hands of God. Gaiseric, the Vandal leader, reportedly declared that the Vandals attacked "the dwellings of the men with whom God is angry."115

We have now discussed three Gothic and one Vandal King: Alaric, Ermanaric, Theodoric and Gaiseric. Notice that all four names conclude with "ric," recognizable as the Gothic/Germanic root word for the modern German word "reich." Since "reich" means "empire" or "kingdom," this root word in the names of these kings is appropriate.

The name "Erman-aric" appears to combine the terms "Kerman" and "ric," indicating a "Kerman empire" or (in modern terms) "German Reich." The name "Al-aric" appears to combine the old Semitic/ Hebrew name for God ("El") with the Gothic word "ric." Young's Analytic Concordance to the Bible notes that the Hebrew word "Al" is translated as the "Most High [God]" in Hosea 7:16 and 11:7.116 Alaric's name could then literally mean the "Most High's kingdom" or "God's kingdom." The use of a Semitic term for God in a Gothic king's name further argues for an Israelite origin for the Goths. The name Theodoric is a combination of the Greek word for God (Theos), and the Gothic word "ric." His name, therefore, also can literally mean "God's kingdom." This is particularly appropriate when we realize that both of these Gothic kings were Christians whose rule was gentle and benign.

In about 533 A.D. the Vandals were defeated and their dominance in the Mediterranean came to an end. While some were taken captive, the Encyclopaedia Britannica says of them: "the Vandals disappeared from history."117

Obviously, these Vandals no more "disappeared" from the earth than did the Israelites in 721 B.C., or the Parthian/Sacae in 227 A.D. The fact that the Vandals "disappeared from history" indicates that they simply migrated so far away from the Mediterranean region that they were lost to the historians of their day. What follows is an educated guess regarding their destination.

The Vandals occupied Carthage for almost a century, possessed remarkable maritime skills, and travelled via large fleets of ships, dominating the Mediterranean for decades. When the Vandals migrated from Europe to Africa, they (and their families) had travelled on a fleet of ships.118 When they conquered Rome, they arrived in a fleet of ships. Clearly, the Vandals had an established pattern of travelling and migrating via ships.

When their new homeland in North Africa was conquered, it is logical that the Vandals again fled via the sea. The fact that they already had substantial fleets supports the likelihood that they chose a maritime escape route to elude their enemies. The fact that they "disappeared" from Old World annals argues that they migrated to a location far from Old World nations.

There is clear evidence that Old World nations at that time knew the route to the New World. Roman coins from the second and fourth centuries A.D. have been found in Georgia, Texas and Massachusetts of the United States, while a third century Roman coin was found in North Carolina.119. A British Celtic coin was found in Illinois which, according to Dr. Fell, was "struck in Britain near the end of the Roman occupation or just after the Roman occupation." 12° Roman occupation of Briton ended around 400 A.D., so this coin could date to mere decades prior to the Vandal occupation of Rome.

In Saga America, Dr. Barry Fell describes and translates as:

"fifth century inscription in Libyan Arabic at Figuig Oasis, east Morocco, recording the flight to find refuge in North America of Christian monks persecuted by the Vandals."121 

The inscription states that this group of refugees sailed from the coast of Africa to a land "where the sun sets in the evening" which is "far away," and it describes the flight of Catholic North African Christians who were specifically fleeing from the Vandals. Sailing westward from the latitude of Morocco to a distant land will result in a landfall in North America. The inscription includes these words:

"We were struck by total ruin in the shape of the Vandals, a contemptible race of no consequence...They [the enemies of the Vandals] decided to sail away to Asqa-Samal to seek a livelihood where the sun sets in the evening...They journeyed on...far away to that land...They reached their destination and into the wilderness ventured. The void of surging waves they had overcome by adhering to their plan. Pray for our friends, each one. Bless them O Jesus!"122

This inscription claims the knowledge that their friends had arrived safely in the New World after a long maritime voyage. This indicates that there were return and/or follow-up voyages as well. It was cited above that the Vandals (who were Arian Christians) had banished Catholic bishops from their territory. Therefore, it is not surprising that Catholic monks would have fled as well (either from banishment or fear). The arrival in North America of Catholics fleeing the Vandals offers a further explanation of how the cross and other Christian symbols came to be present in the ancient Americas many centuries before the Spaniards arrived (as discussed in chapter nine). Interestingly, this account indicates that North America was called "Asqa-Samal" in the fifth century A.D.

Indeed, Christian inscriptions in this same North African script have been found in Nova Scotia and California, confirming the arrival of Catholic Christians from North African Christians in early America. Dr. Fell translated the California inscription as specifically describing the elements of a Catholic Mass Service.123 Furthermore, a "prayer stick" with an engraved inscription was found among the Kickapoon Algonquins of Wisconsin. Dr. Fell describes it in these words:

"...the inscription proves to be the Kyrie eleison of the ancient North African Christian mass, rendered in dextral script of the late Punic language of Carthage ...the presence of Carthaginian coins  in American soil at widely separated localities, and some Punic inscriptions cut on rock, make it virtually certain the Kyrie was imparted to the Kikapu tribe by Carthaginian Christians in ancient times...the persecutions under Diocletian (284-304 [A.D.]) witnessed Christians being thrown to lions in Leptis Magna where Punic inscriptions are now to be seen. Perhaps refugees from North Africa at this date came to find peace among the Kickapu people of Wisconsin."124

Since North African Christians knew the sailing routes to the New World in both the third and fifth centuries A.D., it does not stretch the imagination to infer that the maritime Vandals of the sixth centuries A.D. also could have made the same voyage from North Africa to the New World when it was their turn to flee from

Carthaginian North Afraica.

The   dogma   that   "Columbus   discovered   America"   has   so permeated American education that ancient American inscriptions and artifacts are routinely classified as "Indian" with little or no critical evaluation, as if the ancestors of American Indian tribes were homogeneous. In fact, the American Indian tribes manifested a diversity in physical appearance, language and customs which confirm that their ancestors also had diverse origins. While the following commentary on the cultural linkage of specific Indian tribes to Old World nations is a diversion for this book, it should prove especially interesting for American readers.

The abundant physical evidence demonstrating the presence of Phoenicians, Hebrews and Carthaginians (i.e. "Israelites") and others in ancient North America has been officially "ignored" by academia. Indeed, some of these ancient Old World Semitic colonies were quite extensive, as earlier chapters demonstrated.

For example, an ancient inscription from the first century A.D., found on a stone in Tennessee, was assumed to be "Cherokee" in origin until it was properly identified as Hebrew.125 Regarding the "Ten Commandments inscription" found in New Mexico, it was easily identified as ancient Hebrew by a "member of the Hebrew and Middle Eastern Studies" of Harvard University, who added that "a number of Hebrew inscriptions have been found in America, chiefly in  thesoutheast, in Indian graves."126 The fact that "Hebrew inscriptions" are found in ancient American graves indicates that they were actually Israelite graves in ancient America which are incorrectly identified as "Indian." In chapter eight it was noted that ancient historians referred to many of the Asiatic "Sacae Scythians" as the Yue-chi. Interestingly, the name Yuchi was attached to an Indian tribe   of the  American   Southeast   who   reportedly   had   retained "Hebrew religious ceremonies".127

The case of the Christian prayer stick with a North African Punic inscription on it indicates a linkage between the Algonquin Kickapoos and Semites from Punic North Africa in the Christian era. Supporting this linkage is a photograph of a "Kickapoo Indian of a tribe of Algonquins occupying northern Illinois" reproduced in Collier's Encyclopedia which shows a Kickapoo Indian with distinctively Semitic ("White") features.128

The Kickapoos were a division of the Sac or Sauk Indians, who lived in the American Great Lakes Region. Notice the perfect match of consonants between the Old World Israelites known as the Sac-ae (or Saka) and the New World Sac (or Sauk) Indians. Is it only coincidence that some American Indian tribes bore the name of Isaac, the name borne by Israelite tribes in the Old World? Their name survives in such modern American place names as Sauk County, Wisconsin; Sac County, Iowa; Sauk City and Saukville, Wisconsin; Sauk Center and Sauk Rapids, Minnesota; and Sac City, Iowa. Significantly, the Kickapoo Indians (who possessed a prayer stick with an Old World language and had tribal members with Semitic features) were originally a part of the Sauk Indian grouping. It seems apparent that Old World Sacae had at some point migrated to the American Midwest, most likely as refugees. Also, Lewis and Clark's famous Indian guide, Saca-jawea, bore the name of Isaac. She was born a Shoshone, but was raised by a rival tribe, the Minnetarres, who had captured her and given her the name: Tsakakawias."129 

The Mandan Indians of North Dakota also deserve comment. Their name, "Mandan," includes the name of one of the ten tribes of Israel (the tribe of Dan). The Danites had a habit of naming things after their tribal name, both in biblical times (Joshua 19:47) and during their sojourn in Scythian territory (i.e. the Dniepr, the Don, the Dniestr and Danube Rivers). Their tribal name in the American Midwest could be dismissed as coincidental if it were not for the residual presence of other distinctly Israelite names in the Midwest (Sac, Sauk, etc.). As Israelites, the Danites would also have been Sacae.

The tribe of Dan possessed considerable maritime skills and was known for its seafaring ways (Judges 5:17). One part of the tribe, the Tuatha De Danaan, fled to Ireland via ships when the kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria. Another part of the tribe, which went into Scythia, named four rivers after their tribal name. When the Scythians migrated into Europe with the Parthians, and became known as Goths, Saxons, Germans, Vandals, etc., it was the Vandals who possessed maritime skills, dominating the Mediterranean for decades with their fleets (indicating that they may have been Danites). When the Vandals "disappeared" from North Africa and the Old World, they likely sailed to the New World in their ships. If the Vandals were (or included) Danites, they would have brought their tribal name with them into North America. The Mandan Indians may have been a remnant of Danites among the maritime Vandals who "disiappeared" from the Old World in the sixth century A.D.

However, the Mandan Indians may have originated from an expedition of the Danites who settled in Ireland. Hakluyt, a writer of the sixteenth century A.D., related the saga of a Welch prince, Madoc, who sailed to the New World in a fleet of ships from Ireland in 1170 A.D., returned to the British Isles, and took a second fleet to the New World to reinforce the colony.130 Madoc's colonists may have been Danites or members of other Israelite tribes who then inhabited the British Isles. At any rate, Madoc's voyages tell us that Old World colonists voyaged to the new World not only in ancient times, but also during the Middle Ages a few centimes prior to the arrival of Columbus. According to a report published by the Secretary of State of Kentucky in the early nineteenth century, there was a tribe living northward on the Missouri River (reportedly, the Mandans) which was described as being:

"an Indian nation which was white, or of light complexion, and spoke Welsh...whom they took to be white men in Indian dress."131 (Emphasis added.) This report indicates that the Mandan were descended from the twelfth century expeditions of Prince Madoc of Wales, who apparently had descendants of the Irish Tuatha de Danaan with him as his ships departed Ireland to the New World.

Unfortunately, the Mandan were exposed to smallpox in 1837, which (according to the Encyclopedia Americana) "caused the death of 95% of the tribe."132 Interestingly, the Mandan were highly susceptible to a "white man's disease" when they were first exposed to it. The Encyclopedia Americana account even mentions the possible connection between the Mandan Indians and Welch Prince Madoc, but dubs it a "myth." Such is the strength of the "Columbus discovered America" dogma that any evidence which asserts otherwise is routinely labelled as "myth." [Another possible link to the twelfth century Welch colony of Prince Madoc was the presence in Oregon of an Indian tribe named the "Modoc."]

Whatever the Mandan's origin, their "Caucasian" origin is clearly apparent. Additionally, the plethora of "Sac" and "Sauk" names in the upper Midwest indicates that some of the descendants of the ten tribes of Israel found refuge in this area in past migrations. Since Israelite names (Saka, Sac, and Dan) are associated with tribes who manifested Caucasian (Semitic) features, an Israelite role in the origin for these tribes is clearly indicated.

Other Indian tribes exhibited evidence of past contact with (and perhaps partial descent from) other non-Israelite nations of the Old World. Dr. Barry Fell wrote that the traditional chants of the Pima Indians of the American southwest include recognizable archaic forms of Arabic. For example, the Pima "rain-chant" tells the story of Noah and the Deluge (in a very archaic form of Arabic) as told in the Koran...not the Bible.133 While modern Pima no longer understood the archaic Arabic, the chant's content had been so faithfully transmitted from generation to generation that Arabic scholars from North Africa "have no difficulty in recognizing the Arabic origin of these remarkable  chants."134  Further  documenting  ancient  Old  World contacts with the Pima are the existence of two other Pima chants which preserve versions of the Greek myth of Persephone, a story of the Creation, and Aesop's fable of "The Fox and the Crow."135

Also, the syllabary of the Algonquin Cree and Ojibwa Indians is traceable to the Basque language of ancient Spain and Portugal.136 Dr. Fell's translation based on this transatlantic connection was supported by Imanol Agire, a Basque epigrapher and lexicographer.137 However, American archaeologists (blindly devoted to the "Columbus discovered America" dogma) have dismissed recognizable Old World inscriptions found in the New World as "marks made by roots and plowshares."138

In the 1990 edition of the Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers, an article by Dr. E. Morgan Kelley of William and Mary College analyzed the linguistic origins and groupings of the North American Indian tribes. He notes "the degree to which the phenomenon of referring to one's tribe as 'the people' occurs among North American Indian tribes," [and] "that the Teutonic tribes of Europe, namely the Germanic and Celtic tribes, referred to themselves as...'the people' in various fashions."139 Is there a link between the Teutonic/Germanic tribes of the Old World and some North American Indian tribes? If so, the Vandals (a seafaring Teutonic/Germanic tribe which "vanished" from the Old World) are the most likely link.

Dr. Kelley's article also identified morphemes in the names of the various Indian tribes (names given by the Indians to themselves) in order to classify them linguistically. [A "morpheme" is essentially a lowest common denominator in word structure.] One common morpheme identified in American Indian tribal names is the syllable "DAN,"140 the name of the tribe of Israel which habitually carried its name wherever it went. Another common morpheme is the Hebrew/Semitic word "ISH," which Dr. Kelley identifies as "the Semitic morpheme for 'human being.'"141 Indeed, his article notes that the North Dakota Indian tribe known as the Ankara, combined the two morphemes "DAN" and "ISH" in their own tribal name, which was "Tanish."142 His article identifies Hebrew origins in the names of the Alibamu, Pawnee and Pequot Indians, a Libyan origin for the Pima people (who called themselves the "Aatam" with "Atum" being the Libyan sungod), and a Semitic origin for the Chumash Indians (Shamash or Chemosh being a Semitic name for the sun-god).143 Too many Indian tribes' names had the morphemes "Dan" and "Ish" to mention here, but the Twana tribe of the Salishan Indian group (the Flatheads) of the Northwest called itself the "Tuadhu," which Dr. Kelley traces to the Celtic word "Tuatha."144 This is worth noting as the "Tuatha de Danaan"(the Israelite tribe of Dan) sailed to Ireland circa  720  B.C.  and  Prince  Madoc's  voyages  to  the  New World originated in Ireland. Dr. Kelley adds this comment:

"...a subtribe of the Salishan family, the Twana, called themselves the Tuadhu...which is precisely the same as the general proper name for Franks and other Teutonic tribes, all of these names meaning approximately 'the people.' "145

There is an explanation for how Frankish/Teutonic names arrived in ancient America. The Vandals were a Teutonic nation which "vanished" from the Old World in the sixth century A.D. Given their well-developed nautical skills and their precedent of migrating via a fleet of ships, the above words could be the result of the Vandals arriving in ancient America about a millennium before the Pilgrims.

There are even reports that a few native Indians could speak Old World tongues at the time early English colonists arrived. Dr. Kelley adds:

"Early reports from North America include reference to Samoset, the Wampanoag chief who...greetfed] the Pilgrims in English, and testimony from Gaelic and Hebrew speakers who claimed to be able to communicate with the natives..."146

Some Old World explorers apparently were present in North America long before any Hebrews, Phoenicians or Carthaginians arrived. Two cuneiform tablets with ancient Sumerian inscriptions were found in Georgia and Montana. Since the cuneiform tablet found in Georgia refers to a historically-known "king of Ur" while the Montana cuneiform tablet refers to a historically-known. "high priestess of Nanna," they can be dated to 2042-2040 B.C.147 The cuneiform tablet from Montana was in the possession of the great Nez Perce Chief Joseph when he surrendered to the U.S. army in 1877.148

The above accounts document many contacts between Old World and New World civilizations over a period of millennia. They demonstrate that if the Vandals fled to ancient America, they were simply one of many Old World groups who sought refuge in the New World. Their identity would have been lost as their descendants were gradually merged into various American Indian tribes. However, it is clear that ancient America was known to many Old World civilizations. When Columbus "rediscovered" America in 1492, he was making an initial step in rebuilding the transatlantic sailing routes that were mostly abandoned and lost during the "Dark Ages."

The above digression is not meant to assert or imply that all American Indian tribes are the descendants of the ten tribes of Israel. The Israelite migrations to the Old World happened so long ago that Israelite genes among the Indians would be thoroughly diluted by now. Racial characteristics indicate beyond doubt that many Indian tribes have a Mongoloid ancestry in common with the Orientals of Asia. However, there is ample evidence that some Amerindian tribes once had extensive interactions with Semitic people of the Old World.

With this our discussion of the Saxon/German/Gothic migrations largely concludes. It is well-known that these tribes eventually settled much of Europe, and their descendants formed the population base of many modern European nations. Their descendants undertook waves of migrations to the New World when the English, French, Dutch and Spanish founded colonies in North and South America. In North America, these colonies eventually developed into the modern nations of the United States of America and Canada.

What is worth reviewing about the Gothic, Saxon and Germanic nations in the Middle Ages is that they exhibited a governmental structure known as feudalism, a system of government which reestablished (and descended from) the old Parthian system of government.

Parthia's feudal system featured a "king of kings" who ruled over lesser royalty and nobles who were autonomous within their local jurisdictions. The same system prevailed in post-Roman, medieval Europe with central kings being supported by lesser, but locally autonomous nobles, dukes, etc. The Parthian king could, in time of war, summon all his vassal rulers to assemble their armies and subjects to support his cause. Medieval Europe possessed a similar system with the armies of subordinate rulers being called upon to rally around a central king in time of warfare.

In Parthia, the nobles, priests, and influential Parthians acted as a check on the king's power. This is similar to the feudal structure of Europe which enabled subordinate rulers and nobles to exert some influence over the decisions of the central king. A notable revival of this Parthian trait was the adoption of the Magna Carta in England wherein the nobles formally limited the king's power. The similarity between the Parthian Empire and post-Roman Europe has been noted by prominent historians.

Gibbon's Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire, noted that the Parthian system "exhibited under other names, a lively image of the feudal system, which has since prevailed in Europe."149 George Rawlinson observed that the similarities between the Parthian and European feudal systems were: "very main points, not few in number, and striking."150

The Parthian cavalry included armored horses and armored riders with long lances. The armored, lance-equipped Parthian cavalryman were the forerunners of the jousting knights of feudal Europe. It is likely that the migrating Parthians brought jousting to Europe, as one historian notes that Parthian motifs included "single combat between horsemen."151 The mounted Lancers and Hussars of Medieval Europe parallel the cavalries of ancient Parthia. Parthians were famous for their archery skills, a trait continued by the English in Europe. Rawlinson notes this parallel as follows:

"They [the Parthians] acquired by their use of the bow a fame like that which the English archers obtained for the employment of the same weapon at Crecy and Agincourt."152

Another cultural trait brought by the Scythian/Parthians to Europe was their artwork. Scythian artwork has been identified as having a major impact on the artwork styles of the modern European nations in the book The Scythians, by Tamara Talbot Rice. She documents that Scythians were settled in eastern Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Balkans as early as 600-300 B.C.153 When the Scythians (and Parthians) later migrated toward Europe, they were simply migrating in the direction of fellow-tribesmen who had preceded them into Europe.

She also notes that "All traces of Scythians disappear" in South Russia in the time frame 200-300 A.D.154 This directly coincides with the Parthian Empire's fall in 226 A.D., and the subsequent mass migrations of Parthian and Scythian tribes out of Asia into Europe. She also documents that at the same time the Scythians disappeared from Asia, "the fleeing Goths spread the Scytho-Sarmatian style through Central and South Europe."155 The migrating Scythians came to be known as "Goths" as they migrated into Europe. That these Goths spread a "Scytho-Sarmatian style" into Europe confirms that they were bringing their traditional Scythian culture with them.

Rice comments that after the Goths were pushed from South Russia into Europe by the Huns in 300-400 A.D., that during 400-700 A.D:

"Scytho-Sarmatian style reflected in art of the Migration period in Central Europe and Gaul. It also influences the Viking art of Scandinavia...[and] the art of medieval Ireland and England."156

She also states that:

"Scythians...eventually affected the art of much of western Europe, permanently marking it with their own individual stamp."157

Since the Parthians and Scythians were related tribes, the word "Scythian" would also identify Parthians fleeing into Europe with their Scythian kinsmen. That Europe became the new homeland of Scythian artwork forms is most important. This cultural bond confirms the linkage between (A) the Scythians and Parthians who "disappeared" from Asia and South Russia, and (B) the Goths, Germans and Saxons who migrated into Europe from Asia and South Russia, bringing Scythian artforms with them. It is known that Scythian influence affected much of the European continent:

"It [Scythian influence] can be seen in a flagon dating from the fourth or third century B.C., Lorraine...the bronze handle in the form of a wolf is essentially Scythian in character...Somewhat similar Scytho-Sarmatian trends penetrated as far as Britain. The style was...carried to her shores by the Vikings the more circuitous route across Germany. Once again southern Russia served as the starting point, for when the Goths attack and overrun much of southwestern Europe, they carried with them...their Scytho-Sarmatian elements...throughout many outlying regions. In this way the animal style was revived first in Romania, then in Austria, then in the Rhineland, whence it England. The Scytho-Sarmatian style was particularly marked in central Europe..."159

Numerous examples of Scythian influence on the artwork of post-Roman Europe exist, a few of which are listed below.

"The Balkan burials...provide a link between Scythian Kerch and Merovingian France...The Goths' fondness for birds of prey played its part in preserving this large beaked, round-eyed Scythian bird motif...Thus a very early Scythian version...reappears in the Frankish world many years later almost unaltered...One of the latest...comes from... England, on the purse lid from the treasure of Sutton Hoo in Suffolk. The treasure is dated to A.D. 655-656, and the bird-adheres remarkably closely to the Scythian originals...A resemblance to Scythian art can [be found] on the Scythian-looking beasts decorating the clay flask found at Matzhausen, now in Berlin...but the likeness appears at its most striking in a group of eleventh-century Saxon stone slabs. One of these, originally in St. Paul's churchyard...shows a stag of wholly Scythian character. Its pose had not greatly altered in the fifteen hundred years which had elapsed since the Scythians first made the motif their own."159 

None of the above is surprising once it is realized that the Goths, Saxons, Germans, Jutes and other tribes who settled post-Roman Europe were the descendants of the Gauthei, Sacae, Kermans, Jats and other related tribes from Scythia and Parthia who migrated into Europe from Asia. That these Caucasian tribes brought Scythian artforms with them further confirms that they were the descendants of the Scythians (and their Parthian kinsmen).

It is very unusual that a single dynasty, the Arsacids, ruled over Parthia's empire from beginning to end. This striking continuity occurred because God was faithfully implementing his promise about David's descendants. When Parthia fell, history records the Arsacids fled northwest (toward Europe) along with the rest of Parthia's refugees. As Parthia's refugees dispersed into Europe, it is likely that they followed Arsacid princes, dispersing the Arsacid bloodline throughout Europe. Over the centuries intermarriage among the rulers and nobility of Europe's kingdoms would have resulted in the Arsacid bloodline being preserved in many of Europe's dynasties. In this manner God has kept his promise into modern times that David's descendants would serve as kings over the ten tribes descendants. While the role of European royalty is now largely ceremonial, their presence in a few nations still fulfills the promise of God that King David's descendants would remain in royal positions in Israelite nations until the Messianic kingdom is established on earth (Genesis 49:10). As discussed in chapter nine, Revelation 19:16 prophesies that Jesus Christ will inherit the Arsacid throne (i.e. become "King of Kings") at his second coming.

Discussed in chapter four was the migration of a band of Jews to Ireland after Judah fell in the sixth century B.C. Led by Jeremiah, this band of Jews did not go into eastern captivity, but travelled westward into Egypt. It included the prophet Jeremiah, his scribe, Baruch, and "the king's daughters," direct descendants of King David (Jeremiah 43:5-7). At least one of King Zedekiah's daughters accompanied Jeremiah and Baruch to ancient Ireland where she married an Irish king, continuing David's bloodline over Israelites in Ireland. Jeremiah reportedly brought a number of prominent artifacts from ancient Israel with him, including David's Harp, which became prominent in the emblems and heraldry of Ireland.160 The offspring of this union included dynastic lines in Ireland, Scotland and Great Britain, and Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain is a direct descendant of this dynastic line. A chronological listing of all the Davidic kings from King Zedekiah to Queen Elizabeth of Great Britain is found in the book, Jacob's Pillar,161 by E. Raymond Capt.

Therefore, when Judah fell, God's promise that David's descendants would rule over the descendants of the ten tribes of Israel was kept in both Europe and Asia. When the descendants of the ten tribes of Israel migrated into Europe (led by descendants of Arsacid rulers), and the royal houses of the British Isles and mainland Europe intermarried, the two royal bloodlines of hang David were reunited. The fact that God has, over three millennia, kept his promise about maintaining David's dynasty over the tribes of Israel until Jesus Christ returns, confirms that God has guided human events into modern times to fulfill his promises. It also follows that one can locate the ten tribes of Israel throughout history by locating those nations which had David's descendants as rulers!

When the Celtic people of Europe were displaced, and absorbed by Saxons, Germans, and Goths, this event actually resulted in a merger of the two bodies of Israelites who had been separated for a millennium. The Israelites who migrated to Europe after the fall of Parthia were accompanied by other Semitic people (Assyrians, Elamites, etc.) who had formerly lived as their subjects in the Parthian Empire. Therefore, the Caucasians who settled post-Roman Europe were a mixture of Israelite and non-Israelite people. This fulfilled another prophecy in Hosea 8:8 which stated:

"Israel is swallowed up: now shall they be among the Gentiles..."

Hosea prophesied that the tribes of Israel would be "among the Gentiles" as well as greatly multiplied in population (Hosea 1:10) after their captivity. This was fulfilled in Parthian/Scythian times as well as during their migrations into Europe since the descendants of the ten tribes of Israel were dwelling with and among non-Israelite nations. Indeed, the Israelites (even though they retained Israelite names and customs) were reckoned by many to actually be "Gentiles."

Chapter eleven will identify the tribes of Israel in the modern world, using both biblical and secular evidence. The Bible has specific prophetic clues about the characteristics of each of the twelve tribes of Israel in a period called the "latter days." In some cases, these prophecies have been precisely fulfilled in our modern world. These dramatic fulfillments affirm that there is a Living God who has actually guided the migrations and affairs of nations in order to fulfill biblical prophecies.









Keith Hunt