In Search of... The Origin of Nations
CHAPTER FOURTEEN - SECTION THREE:
THE HITTITE EMPIRE AND THE
What have the Indo-European (Aryan) Hittites to do with the Assyrians? Where are the descendants of the ancient Hittites today and is there a connection with modern Europe? In this chapter, we shall explore their modern identity.
The Ancient Hittites
Early in Scripture, mention is made of the Hittite tribes dwelling in central Palestine (Genesis 15:19-21 23:3-7,10, 16-20; 27:46; Numbers 13:29; Deuteronomy 7:1-5; 20:17; Joshua 3:10). According to the mysterious but incredible Table of Nations, these Hittites were brown descendants of Heth, son of Canaan (Genesis 10:15). But there were "Late-Hittites ... [who are] not included in the Table of Nations", writes historian, Simon.1988
Later, within its chronological framework, the Bible refers to the Hittite Empire, as a major power which arose where many of the descendants of Heth migrated to (I Samuel 26:6; II Samuel 11:2-6; I Kings 10:29; II Kings 7:6). These were white Nordic types who assumed the name 'Hittites' from the original inhabitants.1989 In Wiseman's extremely useful book Peoples of Old Testament Times we find the following important quote:
"Every treatise on the Hittites should begin with a warning to the reader about the pitfalls posed by the term 'Hittite', which often seems to connote something quite different to each scholar. It is possible to identify at least four distinct ethnic groups in antiquity to whom the name 'Hittite' ... has at some time been applied."1990
The same is true for the Scythians and other peoples. Two possible reasons for the Nordics who invaded Asia Minor having been called 'Hittites' may be assumed: Firstly, they occupied the same territory as some of the sons of Heth; and secondly they were a warrior nation like the original Hittites. In addition to the Nordics and the original Hittites we find that a small Mongoloid tribe known as the Khittites also dwelt in Asia Minor. The Armenians were also known as Hittites and all historians refer to their conquest by the Nordics who set themselves up as a ruling class over the other tribes roundabout. Professor Waddell spells the name of the Nordics as Khatti or Catti.1991 Who were these Nordic Hittites? While scholars generally agree that they migrated down from a region north of the Black Sea (where many descendants of Arphaxad had migrated to), some claim they came down from the Caucasus while others dispute this, stating that they came into Asia Minor from south-east Europe, crossing over the Bosphorus.1992 Some even think they came from the south.
No one really knows their original name, yet clues remain which appear to suggest that their original name was Nesites, Nestians, Hestians or Aestians. One of their major cities was Nesa and their language was called Nesian, Nasili or Nesumnili.1993 What historians do know with certainty is that
1988. Simon 1959: 41
1989. Douglas 1972:528
1990. Wiseman 1973:197; see also Keller 1980:89
1991. Waddell 1929:10
1992. Roux 1982:215
1993. Wiseman 1973:199
their migration into Asia Minor was followed by a period of few records. Come 1460 B.C., the Hittite Empire arose to become one of the most amazing empires of ancient times. More on that in the following section. From whom sprang the Nordic Hittites? What of their ethno-genesis? Historians do not tell us, but circumstantial evidence points to the Asshurim peoples. This will become apparent as we progress through this chapter. Another Asshur, father of the Asshurim — sometimes spelled Ashuram1994 — was a descendant of Abraham:
"Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bare him
Zimram, and Jokshan, and Medan and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah.
And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim and
Letushim and Leummim ...
And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac, [that is the birthright was granted to him]
But unto the sons of the concubines, which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent
them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country"
(Genesis 25:1-3, 5-6).
They were sent east of Palestine, not south into Saudi Arabia, as many speculate. From there they would have migrated north of the Caucasus with other descendants of Arphaxad, becoming known as the Aryans while others ended up in far-off north-west India. Given that the birthright was not granted to them would have led to conflict extending down the generations, between them and Jacob (Israel).
The name of Asshur may be due to the following reasons:
1. this particular Asshur had married an Assyrian wife.
2. The Asshurum were destined to later associate with the Assyrians because of their similar
natures (indeed, Hatti means "me of war", as does Car-men or German. In the Hebrew language the closest derivation is "chathath" = to terrorize, break down, as in war, hence a warrior or "man of war").
According to Professor Waddell, the Hittites were also known as the Ari, meaning 'noble'1995 for they were Aryans. Hur, as we have seen, means to be white - oftentimes with blonde hair. A district in Asia Minor where also the Mitanni settled, was known as the "land of Rashu"1996 meaning 'blonde'. Bear also the names Hestians, Aestians, Hur and Rusi in mind as we shall meet them again later in this chapter.
Overview of Hittite History
In terms of human biology and physical anthropology, the Hittites were an Indo-European type people.1997 While dolicocephalicy was dominant,1998 meso- and brachycephalicy were also prevalent. These latter may have been other descendants of Abraham such as Letushim and also the subservient Armenians. To illustrate this point, their most famous king was Suppiluliumas, which means 'he of the golden hair' who destroyed and absorbed the kingdom of the Mitanni (cl360 B.C.). The ruling class elite was definitely a Nordid people1999 who were race conscious, considering themselves to be
1994. Douglas 1972:101
1995. Waddell 1924:6
1996. Orr 1939, art "Rosh"
1997. Bashan 1959:29; Glubb 1969:15; Powell-Rice 1955:9
1998. Coon 1948:136; Childe 1926:161
1999. Gayre 1973:75
superior to the conquered masses. Their art even goes so far as to place emphasis on their head shape differences in comparison to other tribes in Anatolia.2000 Their kings and their gods bore Aryan Vedic names2001 and they worshipped the Aryan god of war and thunder, called Indra by the Aryans of north-west India.
As they began to settle in southern Asia Minor (and eventually northern Syria) they became known as 'White Syrians' (Greek Teucosyri').2002 Pliny, for instance, writes:
"by 'Syrians', however, he [Pylaemenes] means the 'Capadocians', and in fact they are still known today called 'White Syrians'."2003
Earlier he wrote that
"... the Eneti first set forth from the country of the White Syrians."2004
After their empire fell, they migrated out. Those which did not migrate into northwest India or Europe, but remained in Anatolia, mixed with the Semites. Von Luschan writes of them:
"I feel sure that the modem admixture of European blood is in no way responsible for the great number of light-coloured people also in the interior of Asia Minor and Syria."2005
"As in ancient Greece a number of individuals seem to have been fair, with blue
Yes, mixed remnants of Hittites and related tribes may still be witnessed in Asia Minor; of course, their blood constitutes only a small percentage of the mixed peoples of that region.
However, being a tall, fair, dolicocephalic race, they have been closely identified with the Mitanni and Kassites who were within the bounds of their empire for a time and who were of the same basic racial stock. Bashan identifies them directly to the Baltic, early Greek, Teutonic, Celtic and Germanic peoples.2007
Their confederates at one time, the Mitanni,2008 ruled Assyria for a period until being overthrown. This may have facilitated Assyrian/Hittite admixture for in some ways they had a close relationship with the Assyrians. In fact the first historians hear of the Hittites, is from the documents of the old Assyrian trading colonies in Cappadocia2009. These Hittites of whom the Assyrians speak may have been Nordid descendants of Arphaxad ruling over the sons of Heth prior to the invasions of the Nesa
2000. Bray 1982:112
2001. Powell-Rice 1955:10
2002. Hall 1913:337
2003. Pliny 12.3.9
2005. Von Luschan 1971:128
2006. Perrot & Chipiez 1890 (vol 2):272
2007. Bashan 1959:29
2008. Waddell 1924:14; Gayre 1973:23
2009. ”A number of tablets have been found in Cappadocia of the time of the Second Dynasty of Ur which show marked affinities with Assyria ... but whether they witness to a settlement in Cappadocia from Assyria, or vice versa, is not yet clear" (McKenzie 1930: 327). "... the very region where the Hittite empire arose was previously, for many centuries, in the hands of the Assyrians, and the whole country was covered with Assyrian trade-settlements". (Radhakrishanan 1958:141). Another wrote: "In effect then the origins of Hittite history belong to the Assyrian Colony period" (Bryce cl980:18).
en masse. They may have intermarried with the Assyrian commercial colonists in that area.2010 Researchers know too that the Assyrian language largely influenced the Hittite tongue.2011 Even the old Assyrian type of cuneiform writing was, from all the evidence, "taken over by the Hittites for the purpose of economic accounting."2012 They formed a very tightly knit system of government,2013 somewhat similar to that developed by the Assyrians. Interestingly enough, the Romans, who may have realized this, called the Hittite capital city 'Ninus Vetus', meaning 'The Old Nineveh' (Nineveh was the Assyrian capital).2014 So inter-related had the Assyrians and Hittites become, that according to Luckenbill’s Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, one Assyrian document states thus of the Hittites: "As Assyrians I counted them."2015
One of their cities was named Hattusas, after them. Another of their cities was "the city of Kussar"2016 and their earliest kings became known as the "kings of Kussar" or "Kussara", perhaps becoming the origin of, or an origin of, the word "Kaiser".
During the reign of Mursilis II, Cilicia became a Hittite province (Ca. 1339-1306 B.C.).2017 Later, the Assyrian empire stretched into and absorbed the Hittite colonies and cities of Cilicia. One such city was Germanicopolis, which means "city of the Germans." Lempriere's Classical Dictionary refers to this city:
"Germanicopolis, a city of Asia Minor, near the Hellespont ... [but Pliny], says, that it was in Cilicia."2018
He also mentions another city, "Germanicia ... or Germanicea, a city of Comagene, now Adate."2019 Where was Comagene? Lempriere explains:
"Comagene, one of the five districts into which Syria was divided. It was near Cilicia, extending towards the east, as far as the Euphrates."2020
Lempriere refers to yet another city with "German" as part of its name "Germanopolis, a city of Paphlagonia, now Ginopoli."2021
Ammianus Marcellinus tells us that Germanicopolis was in Cilicia.2022 In a note the translators state that "Germanicopolis was the principal city of the free Isaurians."2023 To the north of Cilicia, near Cappadocia, lay a region named Cataonia2024 which may be a derivation of Catti (an alternative spelling of Hatti). Like the Assyrians, the Hittites were great iron-mongers. They discovered a practical technique for iron smelting2025 which placed them ahead of all their neighbors in the industrial use of iron in the 14th century B.C. They are also connected by archaeologists to the
2010. see Bryce ca 1980:8-9
2011. Barton 1933:90; Von Fangecl980:45
2012. Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1985:45
2013. Edwards 1975 (vol 2, pt2):6
2014 Perrot & Chipiez 1890 (vol 2):272
2015. Luckenbill 1926 (vol 2), para 29
2016. Pfeiffer 1966:552
2018. Lempriere 1866:282
2022. Marcellinus XXVII.9.7. The Phoenician Karatepe inscription refers to the Dannium people of Cilicia.
2024. Lempriere 1788:131
2025. Bray 1982:111-2
barrows of the Black Sea and Don which contain iron battle-axes and ornamental vases with cord impressions like those of Thuringia in Germany.2026 The battle-axe/corded culture were possibly early colonists of the Hittites in Germany who had left the fold somewhere around the Caucasus region.
Artifacts of a similar nature found on the northern slopes of the Caucasus are the "counterpart" of those discovered in northern Syria2027 where the Hittites fled when their empire fell apart. Famous historian Gordon Childe states that this type of battle-axe may be traced back from Central Europe to the Nordics of the Caucasus region and from thence to Mesopotamia. These battle-axe Nordics of Europe, he claims, came from the southeast2028 — the Caucasus region. The iron cross2029 and the Swastika sun-cross, both Indo-European emblems, featured very prominently in Hittite art and daily life.2030 The double-headed eagle, another Indo- European or Aryan symbol, featured prominently too as did the extended arm salute.2031 Their double-headed eagle symbol: it is found in several places including on the back of a sphinx at Alaja Huyuk in Turkey, and among the sculptures of Yazilikaya.2032 Later, the Assyrians incorporated this symbol, using it as a sign of their solar god, Ashur, 2033
After being swamped by the Sea Peoples, the Hittites poured into Northern Syria establishing city-states, where their culture became confused or merged with that of the Aramaeans and the Assyrians. The Assyrians then called this area "the land of Hatti." Carchemish then became their most important centre.2034 The area of northern Syria as a result shows a clear stratum of Hittites which displaced the earlier peoples according to Peoples of the Old Testament World.2035
The Assyrians decided to absorb them into their empire; Sargon II finally captured the last neo-Hittite king, Pisiris, and the city of Carchemish (717 B.C. - Isaiah 10:9).2036 They were thus absorbed into the Assyrian Empire and Carchemish became the headquarters of an Assyrian province.2037 To historians, the Hittite race simply "vanished”2038 though how could they have? If they did not simply "vanish", then what became of them?
After the Assyrians conquered the neo-Hittite city-states of northern Syria, they called themselves "Khatti-sars", meaning "Kaisers of Hatti" (or "Shah", "Czar", "Tsar," rulers over the Hittites"), and
2026. Childe 1929:177
2027. ibid: 194
2028. ibid: 188-90
2029. Waddell 1929:455
2030. ibid: plate IVA, opposite p 72; page 156; Sayce 1888:142
2031. Sayce 1888:116; Waddell 1929: plate IVA opposite pp 72, 73, 10. "[one sculpture shows] two men, or gods, raise their arms to a seated deity .. [another ] sculpture shows Assyrian influence, especially in the treatment of the beards and hair" (McMahon 1989:68). "On the front face of the stela is a god wearing a conical cap with his right arm raised above his head and his left arm extended forward at shoulder height (Canby 1989:125). And other inscriptions and sculptures depict double-headed eagles (These quotes are from the Biblical Archaeologist special edition on "Reflections of a Late Bronze Age Empire: The Hittites", June/Sept 1989).
2032. According to H Bay ley in The Lost Language of Symbolism "a two-headed Eagle - the symbol of Omnipotence. The two-headed eagle was worshipped by the Hittites as the emblem of the King of Heaven, and the Hittite Bird of the Sun is said to be the magic Roc of Oriental mythology ... The eagle was identified with Zeus the Thunderer, and the European Sprad-Eagle ... accords very closely with the Red-Indian Thunderbird as illustrated" (pages 75-76).
2033. Wittkower 1977:21
2034. Pfeiffer 1966:167
2035. Pitard, WT 1994: 210 in his chapter "Aramaeans" in Hoerth, AJ (et al) Peoples of the Old Testament.
2036. ibid: 168
2038. McEvedy 1967:9
northern Syria "the land of Hatti".2039 The Greeks distinguished between the Hittites of Northern Syria and the brown peoples of south Syria. They called the Hittites "Leucosyri", meaning "white" -or "blonde" - Syrians. The historian Strabo called them "White Syrians."2040 Gradually, as they became absorbed into the Assyrian Empire, they became regarded as fellow Assyrians, for they had much in common. When the Assyrian Empire fell, the Asshurim Hittites migrated with the Assyrians, but by no means all of them. Where did the rest "disappear" to?
The Hittites Spread Out
The Hittites, or a few of them, intermarried with the dark Amorites. Robert Gayre seems to be one of the few people who has recognized that the Amorites were originally a dark people, some who became blonde due to intermarriage.2041 He makes mention of the Christian Arabs in the hills of Galilee who are Nordic in type.2042 Thus the Egyptians, Beddoe informs us, represented the Amorites with red hair.2043 Fishberg throws further light on the subject:
"We find in Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine at that time many races — the Amorites, who were blondes."2044
Sayce describes these Amorites (he actually means Aramaeans] as being white, with light coloured eyes. For some reason he relates them with the Mitanni.2045 These Amorites probably moved into Persia, where the Persians called them "Germani".2046 Herodotus2047 mentions them along with various Persian tribes: Pasargadae, Maraphians, Maspians, Achaemenidae, Parthialaeans, Derusiaea, Germanians. Daans, Mardians, Dropicans, Sagartians. The region the Germanians dwelt is today called "Kharmania" or "Carmania".2048 Why? Because they are particularly derived from the Hittite "Men of War" — "Car-men" or Germans. Field,2049 quotes from one Lawrence, a brother of Colonel T.E. Lawrence:
"The Germanians were usually called Carmanians; they lived round Kirman which takes its name from them. Although classical authors describe their manner of life and religion as similar to that of the other Persians, they were commonly considered as a distinct people. It is plain that their culture was more primitive; they indulged in head-hunting ... and preserved the rite of blood-brothers."
The Carmanians are known today as the Kermans.2050 Not all Hittites fled south-eastwards. Some moved to the shores of the Black Sea. It was these who may have founded the cities of Prusias (modern Cierus or Uskus), Prusias (Cius or Gemlik) and Pjrusa (Bursa or Brusa. It has been suggested that Prusa may have been founded by a Byzantine king c300 B.C., but no proof has been presented). From there, many may have settled in Thessaly being called the S'Cotussa.2051 The
2039. Wiseman 1973:200
2040. Waddell 1929:72; Waddell 1924:17
2041. Gayre 1973:35
2043. Beddoe 1912:135
2044. Fishberg 1911:181
2045. Sayce 1888:4
2046. Lempriere 1866:282
2047. Bk 1.125
2048. The Khar-men once lived in Anatolia and later migrated out. The ancestors of the Armenians also became known as Khar-men. See History of Armenia by D. M. Kurjian 1959: 46-48 and Peoples of the Hills by C Bumey and D Lang, pages 46-51.
2050. ibid: 131
2051. Pococke 1956:120
Cotussa were also known as the Har, Haro (Hur or Her) tribes "from which the word 'hurrah' may have been derived."2052
The Greeks, both through these contacts with the Hittites, and earlier contacts, received much of their tradition and mythology from them. Their crested war-helmets are an example of this.2053 Other Hittites, rather than be subject to the Assyrians, migrated to northwestern India where many other Aryans had previously settled. Many of the names of the cities from which they migrated from in Northern Syria bore Sanskrit names. For example, Kizzu Wattana (Kishori Vardhana, "place for breeding horses"), Skinakthu (Shanaktu in Vedic), Tuwana (Tungavana, "mountain forrest"), Huvisana (Suvasana, "good for living") and so forth.2054
The Hittite provinces also bore various Sanskrit - type names: Assura. Arsava, Pitassa, Kishori — vardhana, Assi (Ayassi, pertaining to iron).2055 Notice, they named one of their provinces "Assura", after their fore-father, Asshur, from whence sprang the Asshurim or Hittites. It should come as no surprise then to learn how far their fame had spread, for the word "Assura" (master) in Finno-Ugric is a loan word from the Eastern Iranians.2056
In The Makers of Civilization, Professor Waddell traces the Hittites, or part of them, into northwestern India. It was a migration, not an invasion over the insurmountable Hindu Kush with wives, children, cattle and goods, as many historians believe.2057 Pococke reveals that one of the thirty six royal tribes of Rajasthan was called the Catti or Cathei, who were a war-like people.2058 Of all the peoples of Northwestern India,
"The Catti retains most originality; his religion, his manners, and his looks, all are decidedly Scythic ... His size is considerably larger than common, often exceeding six feet. He is sometimes seen with light hair and blue coloured eyes."2059
Notice, mixed remnants of the Hittites may still be observed in Northwest India. However, where did the Hatti go?
Something of the Trojans and the Hittites may have been preserved in the old Nordic traditions concerning the Ae-sir, a race of gods, descended from Odin. The name Ae-sir is connected with Troy.2060 This particular Odin (for there were several Odins, Wotans and Tyrs) had his chiefs and
2052. ibid: 114
2053. Waddell 1929:15
2054. Kalyanaraman 1969 (vol l):163-5
2056. D’lakonov 1985:148
2057. Waddell 1929:40-5; Kalyanaraman (vol 1):5
2058. Pococke 1856:118
2059. ibid: 117
2060. Cottrell 1979:129.
Troy was a great and prosperous seaport on the shores of the Aegean, in Asia Minor. Historians know that it had close ties with the Hittites. In fact the Hittite Empire may have been larger than realized, reaching even to the Aegean Sea. If not, then Troy was an Hittite colony, a part of its Empire (Edwards 1975 (vol 2, Pt 2): 362). Troy fell at the same time as the Hittite Empire, forcing the inhabitants, the Aeneas, an Indo-European people (Waddell 1929: VIII), to flee to Italy (ibid: 509). The Roman traditions preserved this knowledge (Poliakov 1974:18) telling of how Aeneas and his followers arrived as fugitives in Italy, forming a colony at Alba Longa, intermarrying with the local Indo-European princes and forming the inner core of what later became known as the Roman Empire (Virgil in Aenead). Many Roman/Trojans fought for Rome and settled down in their conquered lands in Germany. That is why so many in the Middle Ages claimed that the Germans were originally from the region of Troy, and/or from the Romans who settled inside Germany (Poliakov 1974:75). How right they were. Writes one historian:
law codes patterned after that of Troy. 2061Those associated with him were called the "Aesir". Odin's predecessor was Wotan, whom the Hermundarii and Chatti tribes in Germany sacrificed to. Who is this Wodan, Votan or Wotan? Perhaps Dedan father of Asshur now deified, and confused with other gods.
In Ezekiel 27:19 a mention is made of "Dan" in the service of modern Tyre. The context suggests that it cannot be Dan of the House of Israel. Indeed, the word for "Dan" in that verse is "Vedan" or "Woden" 2062
In conflict with the Aesir, were the Vanir. They were always at war.2063 The Vanir were, or became, 'gods' who were responsible for wealth, fertility and commerce, subordinate to the Aesir. They demanded equality, but were only given it after a war with the Aesir. The Aesir, asserts one researcher were a race of people from between the Black and Caspian Seas.2064
These mythical occurrences, scholars inform us, may reflect historical events.2065 If indeed this be the case, then it may reflect the rivalries of the Hittites (Aesir) with the Urartian Kingdom (centered around Lake Van). The Hittites eventually settled their differences with the peoples of Van, their leaders intermarrying into each others lines, and the cultures were shared. The Vannics in turn absorbed much of the Hittite way of life, culture, sexual taboos and rules of social etiquette.2066 Indeed, there are similarities between the Vanir and Aesir, noticed by historians2067 as they had began to share their culture. Tacitus mentions how the tribe called the Aestii or Aessii wore figures of boars as emblems of their religion, usually masks or helmets.2068 Historians are surprised how the same helmets were worn by the priests of the Vanir,2069 indicating that the Aestii are derived from the Aesir.
Just how did the Aestii arrive at the Baltic? What route did they take to finally reach there?
"It was anciently believed that the Romans, Franks - and others were descended from Aeneas and the Trojans, hence Eneu: 'Europe'." (see footnote in 'Heimskringla', The Ynglinga Saga by Snorri Sturlason. This work chronicles the Kings of Norway and Yngling family from Odin to Halfdan the Black).
The Ynglinga Saga was originally written in Old Norse, approximatley 1225 A.D. by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson, cl 179 -1241. (English translation by Samuel Laing, London, 1844). Researcher Baigent also notes that
"The Merovingians ... claimed descent from ancient Troy — which, whether true or not, would serve to explain the occurrence in France of Trojan names like Troyes and Paris ... The regime of the early Merovingians thus conformed fairly closely to the model of the old Roman Empire." (Baigent 1983: 249, 251).
"Nothing is more widely known than the Trojan descent of which the Franks boasted. All the witness of the Ancients, all the memorials of the Germans, were at one in attributing their origin to those regions where a universal tradition has placed the cradle of the human family".2060
2061. Davidson 1964:25
2062. Bullinger ca 1890:1144
2063. Cottrell 1979:129; Crossley-Holland 1980:7-8
2064. McNair 1963: 185
2065. Motz 1982:211
2066. Lang 1970:79
2067. Davidson 1964:153-154
The Aestii Prussians
The Catti or Cathei (Hittites), as we have seen, ended up in northwestern India. One of their tribes may have been the Casiri whom Pliny refers to as dwelling in or near India.2070
In Northwest India, tradition alleges, the name Asura came to be labelled on a faction of the Aryans who were driven out of India to the west and north.2071 They were a warrior-caste, who had undertaken a change of religion,2072 following Ahura Mazada (or Athura, Asuras), the rebel god, to the north and northwest.2073
Kalyanaraman, in his excellent two volume work Aryatarangini. The Saga of the Indo-Aryans, reveals that the Asura rebels were under the leadership of a certain Yima who settled them in what we call today, Lithuania, on the Baltic.2074 Yama or Yim (son of Surya) had a brother Athtar or Assaracus, resembling the name of Asshur, according to Dr. Pilkey.2075
The Catti are one and the same as the Asura for both were rebels and both were warlike peoples exiled from their Aryan brethren. The next we hear of them is in Scythic Central Asia, known as the Borusi who later named the Volga "Oarus (Rus, if you remember, was a district in Anatolia). Here they met up with other Rusi tribes migrating out of Asia Minor.2076
The Borusi or Borussians, migrated up to the Baltic. Over time the name changed to Brussi. The German equivalent of the Latin "Borusi" is Presussen from where we derive the name "Prussian."2077 The western section of the Baltic peoples is known as the old (or original) Prussians. The Eastern branch are a different, but related people called the Latvians and Lithuanians.2078 The Old Prussians are also known as East Prussians today. What do the Borusi or Prussians have to do with the Aestii (Asuras)? Everything.
For Tacitus, writing in the first century A.D., makes mention of the Aestii (or Aessii) dwelling on the Baltic coast where the Borusi were.2079 They were two different names for the same people, historians unanimously claim. Gothic writer, Jordanes, places the Aestii to the east of the Vistula in Prussia.2080 They were also known as the Haesti (Hesti or Nestians?) or Aistians or Aesty and were also called the Bororussians or Borussians or Bruzi.2081
The Aestii or Borussians resembled the north Germans in both appearance and in customs.2082 They were just another branch of the same peoples being placed in that region next to their fellows, through Divine guidance, after being separated when migrating to India. The Aestii Prussians spread along the coast westwards into northern Poland, naming the Bay of Danzig after themselves. Today
2070. Pliny Bk VI. III. 9
2071. Kalyanaraman 1969 (vol 1):140
2072. Olsen 1981:149
2073. Kalyanaraman 1969 (vol 1):147
2075. Pilkey 1981:218
2076. Kachur 1972:5, 7
2077. Geipel 1969:240
2078. Coon 1948:568
2079. Tacitus Germania, ch 45
2080. Bilmanis 1951:22
2082. Gimbutas 1963:22
a lagoon in that bay is still known as Ais-mares2083 derived from the name Aistii or Aestii. The Daugava River flowing through Latvia, was originally known as the Dan-wina, which, like Danzig, is probably named after the father of the Assuram, Dedan. Note also the Dandi, Lugi Diduni, Danduti of Germany and the Dange River.
One of the Aestii tribes was the Sudva, known also as the Dainava Jotva (derived from Dedan-Joktan?). They were the largest and most important Prussian tribe, known also as Jatvingians, Jotvingai or Jatwiagi.2084 A collection of 36,000 folksongs of the Baltic peoples is called the Daines. The regions in Anatolia, near where the Hittites were, were known as Dardania and Dardanum. These plus the similar names on the Baltic may be derived from Dedan, not the Israelitish tribe of Dan, who were never there.
Finally, why have artifacts resembling those of the Assyrians and Hittites been found in Scandinavia: images of Astarte and Assyrian bronze swords?2085 Because the Assuram, being associated with Assyria, brought them with them on their journey into Europe. Also, I should mention here that it is said that German scholars in the 1930's claimed Hittite origin of the Germans, although I have seen no proof of this at the present time.
Now that we have discovered the true origins of the North Germans, what of the Assyrian and Hittite impact on European history since they put down roots in the heart of Europe? In the following chapter we shall explore the incredible destiny of the German peoples. But we need to keep in mind that it is probably better to say that the Assyro-Hittites settled in modem-day Deutschland as Deutschers as other peoples were also sometimes referred to as "Germani". Further, these Assyro-Hittites knew that they were Germans, but the land did not become known as 'Germany' for some time.
German Physical Types
We have unearthed the incredible true origin of both the Northern and Southern German peoples. God, the originator of all true history, and indeed the first Historian, has made history extremely interesting.
Let us now take a brief look at the physical anthropology and human biology of the Germans to add further spice to our knowledge of true central European history.
Diversities in tribal origins has led to a rich multi-physical human biological complex within the Central European genetic stream, following the model of a cline.
The major differences exist between north and south. At the northern base of the German central mountains one finds a sudden increase in pigmentation and brachycephalicy.2086 In total, Germany is approximately 60% brachycephalic Alpine and the rest dolicocephalic. Of the latter, many are mesocephalic.2087 In Germany, far more so than elsewhere in Europe, the Alpines and Nordics have mixed.2088 This may be due to the fact that some intermarriage occurred between the Hittites and Assyrians.2089
2085. Olsen 1981:17, 65
2086. Lundman 1977:29; Ripley 1899:214
2087. Robertson 1981:562
2088. Stoddard 1924:24
2089. Kuttner 1967:250
A broad line drawn from Breslau (in the east) through Dresden and Hanover to Cologne dividing the uplands and plains, divides the northern and southern Germans - the dolico- and brachy-cephalic respectively. There also appears to be some Alpine (brachycephalic) types in East Germany.2090 Blondism and lighter eyes dominate the north, while brunettes dominate the south. Those in the north are only 5% brunette,2091 but blondism in hair and skin decreases north to south but not west to east.2092 They are also taller than those in the south. Ripley writes:
"To an American the apparent unwillingness of some of the Germans boldly to own up to the radical ethnic differences which exist between the north and the south of the Empire is incomprehensible."2093
Again he mentions it:
"And in Germany on the northern slopes of the main European watershed, we are confronted with a great nation, whose constituent parts are equally divergent in physical origin. With the shifting of scene, new actors participate, although the plot is ever the same. It is not a question of the Alpine and Mediterranean races, as in Italy. The Alpine element remains, but the Teuton replaces the other. Briefly stated, the situation is this: North-western Germany — Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, Westphalia — is distinctly allied to the physical type of the Swedes, Norwegians and Danes. All the remainder of the Empire — no, not even excluding Prussia, east of the Elbe — is Teutonic in type; until finally in the essentially Alpine broad-headed populations of Baden, Wurtemberg and Bavaria in the south the Teutonic races passes from view. The only difference, then, between Germany and France in respect of race is that the northern country has a little more Teutonic blood in it. As for that portion of the Empire which was two generations ago politically distinct from Prussia, the South German Confederation, it is in no wise racially distinguishable from central France."2094
The southern Germans speak High German and are looked upon by their northern neighbors as uncouth and "rough 'n' tumble". They are notorious for their arrogance, rough humor, temperament and vigorous pursuit of fleshly pleasures. However, Bavaria is also the home of Germany's artists, poets and musicians. Kuehnelt-Leddihn relates it thus:
"In Germany there has always been the North/South tension. The Northerners tend to think of the Southerners as brutal, intemperate and backward, while Southerners regard Northerners as dumb, unartistic, without charm or imagination."2095
In addition to the above two dominant physical types, we also find a very weak Slavic element amongst the East Germans, far weaker than previously understood.2096 This element is derived mainly from the Wends who penetrated as far as the Elbe River by the sixth century.2097 The Austrians are largely Alpine with cephalic indices similar to Bohemians and Bavarians,2098 but a Nordic Dolicocephalic element persists in the Northern parts. The former are directly related to the Bavarians being descendants of the Alemanni and Bajuvars, elements of whom settled there.
2090. Lundman 1977:64
2091. Taylor 1947:171
2092. Coon 1948:539-40
2093. Ripley 1899:221
2095. Kuehnelt-Leddihn 1979:1147
2096. Lundman 1977:44
2097. Grant 1923:72
2098. Geipel 1969:552
"Austria" is merely the English variation of Osterreich or Eastern Empire. It was also known as Ostmark, the eastern branch of Bavaria, becoming incorporated into the German Empire at the time of Otto I.2099
In addition to the aforementioned sub-racial types, in the northeastern coastal area of East Germany and along the coast of Poland dwell a few weak Est-Baltique (eastern Baltic) strains.2100 Finally, a Nordic element numbering a mere five or six million occupies North-West Germany and is directly descended, in the main, from Aram. They are the tallest of all German Types. This is no doubt due to the takeover of the Aramaeans' territory by the Assyrians and also the amount of their peoples which migrated into Assyria.2101
Millions of "Germans" from Central Europe have migrated to America and tens of thousands to the British colonies. Indeed, some six million have migrated to America and their descendants number over fifty million today. But are they descendants of the Assyrians? Perhaps some are, but the bulk migrated from the extreme western and northwestern parts of Germany. They are not Assyrians but are related to the Anglo-Saxon-Celts.
South German Tribal Names
The tribes that settled Central Europe were mainly of Assyrian stock and were numerous. Below is a list of the major tribes and where they settled:
The Alemanni: this was one of the major tribes. They settled in southwest Germany (Baden, Bavaria, Wurtenberg), Austria and Alsace (the Spanish still call Germany Alemania and the French Allemagne). The Alemans originate from the Alman district of Assyria (Modern Aleppo in Syria). Hannay writes that the Alemans were "an unsettled people who were once known and dreaded in Central Asia."2102 Central Asia? Sound familiar? Of course. For that is Scythia where dwelt the terrible Scythians, many of whom had blonde hair.2103 This is also the region where pants or trousers came into vogue, being typical clothing of the Scyths and from whom many of the Celts arose who introduced this type of clothing into Western Europe.2104 Ammianus Marcellinus states that two of the tribes of the Alemanni were the Iuthungi and Laeti.
The Boii: later known as Bajuvars or Bavarians, settled in Bavaria. Many settled for a time in North-East Italy after having been driven out by the Marcomanni and Quadi.2105 They had a significant impact on Italian civilization.2106 To this day, tens of thousands of German descent dwell in northeast Italy, having been severed from their Austrian homeland by the annexation of their territory after World War One, by the Italians.
The Quadi: settled Bohemia and Monrovia in western Czechoslovakia. They fled westwards at the end of World War Two before the Soviet advancement. Many also settled in Austria. Ammianus Marcellinus says that the Quadi had much in common with the Sarmatians (a branch of the Scythians):
2100. Coon 1948:539-40
2101. von Soden 1994:22
2102. Hannay 1916:241
2103. Rice 1958:77
2104. Coon 1948:187
2105. Geipel 1969:187
2106. Poliakov 1974:69
"The Sarmatians and the Quadi who were in agreement because they were neighbours and had like customs and armour, had united and were raiding Pannonias ... peoples closely united by the same frontiers and like savagery."2107
This was written c358 A.D. His description of Sarmatia "corresponds to Homer's Scythia, and to the southern half of modern Russia."2108 Interestingly enough, "Quadi" is a Middle Eastern word — "Qua'id" — meaning military exercises or manouvers, drill, evolutions of troops.2109 The Mesopotamian region where the Assyrians anciently settled was known as Akkad. The Assyrians from that district were called the Quadi in Latin; but in English it is Akkadians. (See also the Silesian tribe referred to later in this chapter.)
The Helvetti: settled Switzerland, being later joined by the Alemanni. Both of these tribes may be classified as Alpines sub-racially. They comprise about 60% of the population of Switzerland at the present day. The French-speaking Burgundians in western Switzerland are Nordics and comprise 35% of the population. The Italians make up 4% and the Romanisch only 1%. They may be from the district aaround the city of Helvia in ancient Paphlagonia.
The Thuringians: settled Thuringia and Bohemia. Assur was known as Athur or Arthur in Assyria. His name is preserved in the Thuringian tribe, who though a Hittite people, lived among the southern Germans.
The Marcomanni: settled Bohemiah and Bavaria. Known to be a particularly savage tribe.2110
Suabi: also known as Suevi. Settled Schwabia now known as Wurtemburg. More on them later in this chapter.
Eudusii: this tribe has a remarkable similar rendering to the Eudusianoi tribe on the Black Sea.
Regardless of their various names, the Romans collectively called them Germani — meaning "Men of war". Tacitus labelled all of the tribes which settled in Germany as such (see his Germania). Yet many of the tribes and peoples who settled in northwest Germany migrated to other parts of Europe (such as the Langobardi, Guti, Cheruski, Chalusi) or later to the United States, not being Assyrian or Hittite by race. Those who migrated to the United States could not bear the iron discipline, dictatorship nor the militarism of Bismark. However, the peoples of central, southern and eastern Germany were content with Bismark, well pleased to serve under the brilliant "Iron Chancellor".
Finally, there appears to be a strange fascination amongst the Germans with the ancient land of Assyria: whether it be their pioneering in archaeological excavations there, the Berlin Baghdad railway project, or the proposition put forward just prior to World War One to establish a large colony of settlers there.2111 The Germans have played an important role in exploring and in archaeological digs in those parts, especially at Asshur itself.2112 Indeed, it was they who first excavated Asshur in 1903-14. 2113
2107. Marcellinus xvii. 12.2,12
2108. editor's note in index on p 570, vol 1
2109. Hannay 1916:240
2110. Langer 1968:125
2111. Poliakov 1974:377
2112. Cottrell 1975:194
2113. Bray 1982:25
Significantly, the southern German tribes knew that even though their tribal brethren did not have a common name, they had a common origin in Mannus, son of the god Tuisco. As previously explained, Mannus was Assur. We have now completed our coverage of southern German tribal origins. What of their northern and eastern German (Prussian) brethren?
North German Tribal Names
Like their southern German neighbors, a plethora of tribes settled in northern and eastern Germany. Let us examine their names and see if any link may be found between them and the Hittite peoples of Anatolia and their colonies:
The Cisrhenani: settled in west Germany.2114 They may have come from the Cissa district. A river with that name was found anciently in Pontus.2115
Saxons: settled west Germany, but this name must not be confused with those which settled in Britain. This name may have originated with Sakce, a Hittite city in northern Syria (or one of Sargon's titles of Sakh or Saka).
Sidones: settled west Germany. When the Hittites moved into northern Syria, they stretched part of the way down the coast and probably occupied the area of Sidon for a time. Recent discoveries indicate that the Hittites set up colonies in Trans-Jordan,2116 so why not colonies just a little further down the coast of Syria?
Istiaeones: Pliny refers to this tribe2117 and also to the Issi tribe along or near the Don.2118 They may be descended from the infamous Isaurians who dwelt in southern Asia Minor.2119 Of them Lempriere comments: "Isauria, a country of Asia Minor, near Mount Taurus, whose inhabitants were bold and warlike."2120 In c354 A.D. Marcellinus wrote the following of them:
"For a long time they had been inflaming their warlike spirits by restless outbreaks ... as even wild animals ... so they all, swooping like a whirlwind [blitzkrieg] ... their natural ferocity was fired by greed, they spared no one, even of those who surrendered, but massacred them all.”2121
Perhaps the Kurds and other lighter-skinned peoples in Asia descend from these Isaurians, though now considerably mixed. Those who moved into Europe centuries before-hand may have been the Istiaeones, for of the 13 tribal names mentioned by Pliny, he mentions them as one of the Franci tribes2122 and thus Germans.
The Thuringians: they are Nordics, not Alpines.2123 Marcellinus wrote that one of the tribes of the Franks or Franci was known as the Atthauri, "a restless people."2124 The Franci shall be dealt with in
2114. Lempriere 1788:151
2116. Herr 1983:223-9
2117. Pliny iv. xiv. 100
2118. Pliny vi. vii. 21
2119. translator's note on Marcellinus xiv.2.1
2120. Lempriere 1788:301
2121. Marcellinus xiv.2.1-3
2122. Chadwick 1907:221
2123. Taylor 1947:265
2124. Marcellinus xx.10.2
more detail later. These Atthauri may be traced back to Central Asia according to Professor Hannay who wrote:
"The Asii were simply a branch of the people of Asha, and so were the Attasii whom Rawlinson includes amongst the absent Mas-Sagetai."2125
Further, he wrote:
"The ... Asaei, who dwelt near the mouth of the Don, the Asene near Mount Taurus, mentioned by Pliny2126 and the Asiotes, mentioned by Ptolemy were doubtless straggling bodies of the ancient Asii of Central Asia — perhaps connected with the Aspasiace.”2127
It should be mentioned here that a branch of the Scythians was known as the Assi.2128
The Silesians: settled southwestern Poland.2129 Most, after World War Two, fled into West Germany. The Soviets claimed that Solidarity was part of a conspiracy of the Catholic Church and Germany to force Poland out of the Communist bloc. The reason for this, they claim, was to cut East Germany off from Russia, allowing the two Germanies to reunite and also to regain the lost lands of Pomerania, East Prussia and Silesia. These Silesians probably come from the Cilician region of the Hittite Empire. The battle-axes of ancient Silesia is traced back to Troy by Gordon Childe,2130 which were Hittite axes.2131 It is interesting that the Egyptians called Cilicia Qedii (refer to the Quadi referred to previously in this chapter).
The Lemovii: settled East Germany.
Germani: a specific tribe,2132 the name of which was passed on to cover all Assyrians and Hittites in Germany. Speaking of the Cartagena region, Pliny wrote of "the Oretani tribe surnamed Germani.2133
The Hurmundurri: these are a dolicocephalic tribe like the Hessians and Thuringians.2134 They were also known as the Hermundurri and may descend from the Hur or Her Cotussa tribe which fled for a time into Greece. "Hur" of course means white or blonde and the name may ultimately derive from Asshur.
Sicambri and Sallii: known as German Franks. Alexander the Great made war with the Sigambri and Ambri in North-West India as well as the Silei on the Sillis or Jaxartes River.
2115. Hannay 1916:408-9
2116. Pliny iv,c,17
2117. Hannay 1916:434
2118. McGovern 1939:477, 480
2119. Beddoe 1912:112; Cox 1951:171
2130. Childe 1926:177
2132. Lempriere 1866:282
2133. Natural History III.III.25
2134. Coon 1948:537, 212
True Origins of the Franci
I am surprised to find that Hannay, like myself, connected the city of Prusa or Brusa in Bithynia with the Prussians. He mentions that the name of the city is sometimes spelled Broussa or Boursa.2135 The peoples of Dessau, a very old state in northern Germany claimed their ancestors came from Lake Ascenius in Bithynia.2136 This is the precise area where the two cities of Prusias and Prusa were located. Of Prusa Hannay writes:
"But before arriving at Prusa, the caravans had to pass through the celebrated Iron Gates in Mount Teuthras in Teuthrania."2137
Mount Teuthras seems to have been named after the god Teuton. In Europe we find that the alternative name of the god Mercury was Teutas or Teutates2138 and a tribe in northern Germany was called Teutoni or Teutones2139; nearby dwelt the Teucteri tribe.2140 Where did the Teucteri originate? Lempriere's Classical Dictionary mentions that Teucria was "a name given to Troy"2141 and that Teucri was a name of the Trojans.2142
What has this to do with the Franci? Everything. Marcellinus writes thus of the peoples near the Rhine River:
"Some assert that after the destruction of Troy a few of those who fled from the Greeks and were scattered everywhere occupied those regions."2143
Could anything be plainer? Many of the North Germans came from the Hittite colony of Troy. In addition, the son of Priam, King of Troy was named Paris.2144 The German tribe which settled in North France was the Parisii, after which Paris is named.2145
One admirable researcher wrote of a kingdom in ancient Anatolia called Phrygia, inhabited by a race called Phryges or "Freemen" by the Greeks:2146
"After the Trojan war the region of Phrygia was utterly devastated by Cimmerians — Greek for people of Gomer. The Phrygians gradually migrated into Europe. Because they came from the region ruled by the wild Cimmerian hordes, it was common to speak of the Phrygians also as Cimmerians. The Greek name Phryges was gradually changed to Phraggoi. When the Romans encountered them, they applied the Roman word for Freeman - Franci - Franks in English …” Is it only a coincidence that the name of the capital of their new land is Paris — the name of the famous Trojan or Phrygian hero Paris, son of Priam?
2135 Hannay 1916:408-9
2136Poliakov 1974:332; Cusatance 1975:87
2137. Hannay 408-9
2138. Lempriere 1788:616
2143. Marcellinus xv.9.5
2144. Lempriere 1788:616
2146. Hoeh 1969:1:376
The Great Kings of Hatti were allied with the Phrygians of Wilusa - a name changed in later Greek to Ilion, the plain of Troy ... This union maintained itself even after both Hatti and the Phrygians were defeated at the fall of Troy."2147
"The Romans recognised among the Franks, or Phraggoi, two groups: East and West Franks. The one German, the other French. The German tribe called East Frankish was the Chatti or Hessian tribe."2148
Procopius in History of the Wars similarly relates:
"Now the Vandals dwelling about the Maeotic Lake, since they were pressed by hunger, moved to the country of the Germans who are now called Franks and the river Rhine, associating themselves with Alani, a Gothic people"2149
Marcellinus mentioned that the Franci, with the German Saxons, invaded Gaul (c368 A.D.),2150 but
only a minority settled in northern France 2151 where they established the city of Troves in the northeast. And one writer explains that the "character of the Franks was essentially destructive."2152
One of their tribes in northeastern France, according to Pliny, were the Leuci.2153 In Asia Minor, in
the district of Caria, a town called Leucopolis arose2154 Leucosyrians or White Syrians. Lempriere explains:
Remember, the neo-Hittites were called
"Leucosyrii,a people of Asia Minor, called afterwards Cappadocians ... the same name is given to the inhabitants of Cilicia, where it borders on Cappadocia."2155
One writer mentions how historian, Von Luschan, sees a connection between the Hittites of Asia Minor and certain west Europeans.2156 Of course. For they were the Hatti (Hessians) which entered Germany. However, he does not solve the problem as to whether the Hittites came from Central Europe, or the Alpine race from Western Asia, though he does incline to the latter view.2157
However, historian Zehren in his work The Crescent and the Bull states the following concerning the Hittite language:
“In 1933 Sturtevant supported it with circumstantial detail. But in central Europe [ie Germany], the very region where it might have been expected to make the greatest sensation, the news fell flat in the martial din of columns on the march. ... For the Hittite tongue turned out to be Indo-European! Several Hittite words were closely related to Greek, Latin, German and English ... we do know what [the Hittites] looked like ... and, as Speiser put it, somewhat resembled Westphalians ... Not only their Westphalian faces but also the names, 'Chatti' or 'Cheta' ... For the Chatti ... were one of the Teutonic
2149. Procopious, History of the Wars, Book III. iii. 1
2150. Marcellinus xx. 10.1
2151. Apartian 1961:54
2153. Pliny iv. xvii. 106; Lempriere 1788:328
2154. Lempriere 1788:319
2156. Jochelson 1928:238
tribes between the Rhine and the Weser ... It is not impossible that they had actually made history two thousand years before in Asia Minor".2158
Professor Waddell also claims that the Chatti or Hatti were direct descendants of the Hittites.2159 With the Chatti were the Hattuari and Catlauni tribes. A town in North-Rhine Westphalia, Hattingen, is named after them (similarly Frankfurt is named after the Franks). In Greco-Roman times the province of Cataonia in Asia Minor preserved the Hittites' name.2160
Strabo claims that the Chatti and Chattuori were German tribes2161 and who were the descendants of the Katiari or Catiari mentioned by Herodotus as dwelling in European Scythia.2162 Not surprisingly, many Hittite art forms may be found to be among the Scythians.2163 Further evidence lies in the fact that there are many philological affinities between the languages of ancient Persia and parts of northern India and Germany2164 and that the language spoken by the Scythians (Assyrians and Hittites) was very similar to Persian (Aryan).2165
Of 12,000 primitive Persian words, over 4,000 are pure German.2166 Here we have a clear connection between the Hittite — Mitanni — Mede — Persian — Aryan languages and German. However, as Taylor writes:
"It is a moot point whether the Nordic Prussians learnt German from the Alpine Bavarians or vice versa. They are so racially different that one of the two certainly spoke some entirely different language originally."2167
The southern Germans would have spoken Assyrian, quite different from the Aryan languages such as Hittite originally spoken by the ancestors of the Northern Germans. Sturtevant, author of A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language, states that the language of the Hittites and the Germans have a common origin.2168 Speaking of Old High German Williams wrote that:
"Historians now say that the Hittites ... were a fair, blond people speaking a language so much like early German, that many words were identical. The Hittites, like the Germans ... also knew the secret of working iron."2169
"The root of the race known today as Aryans originated from the Hittite civilization which dominated mesopotamia from C.2000BC to 1200 BC ... In "The History and Geography of Human Genes", Cavalli-Sforza (1994) maps DNA evidence that traces Aryan ancestry to the Near East.
"He agrees with Renfrew (1987) in that Aryan language entered Europe from Anatolia and the Middle East".2170
2158. Zehren 1962:171-72
2159. Waddell 1929:471
2161. Strabo 7.1.3
2162. Herodotus iv.c.8,16
2163. Rice 1958:150, 155, 167
2164. Scrutton 1977:218
2165. Rice 1958:228
2166. Scrutton 1977:228
2167. Taylor 1947:171
2169. Williams ca 1970:8
Gamkrelidze and Ivanov2171 mention the incredible similarity between the historical Anatolian dialects (Hittite) and Balto-Prussian. Trubacev in the esteemed Journal of Indo-European Studies notes the many similarities between and "the correspondence to Baltic names in Asia Minor and in Thracia."2172 He refers to Thracian words which came from Bithynia, one which is actually a name of a city. "A striking example is Thracian Ttpovoa, a city name in Bithynia: Baltic Prus, an ethnic name."
Lehman in his superb work The Hittites, states that the Hittite storm god Tarkhunt was the Hurrian Teship. He rode a bull and carried a thunderbolt with which he struck down his terrified enemies. It is found from Asia Minor in an arch all the way along the Danube and the Rhine to Saxony. Even Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany apparently fervently believed and accepted the Hittite origins of the Germans.2173 Another proof of Hittite settlement in Germany is the similarities between their and Frankish feudalism. According to Wiseman:
"The feudalism of medieval Europe [is] ... In essentials the structure of Hittite society, which antedates Frankish feudalism by 2,000 years, [and] is identical."2174
Schedl in his History of the Old Testament has similar sentiments:
"When we speak of the Hittites today, we generally refer to the Indo-Germanic conquerors [that] gradually overcame all of Asia Minor ... the Hittite language, its structure and vocabulary, places it in relation with the west Indo-Germanic languages ... The concept of king which we discover in the Hittite mentality is something quite different from what we have met with in the rest of the Ancient Near East. There are many similarities with the early German kingship of the Middle Ages. The Hittite king is leader in war and peace, controlled by the nobility as a class. He receives his office from the hands of the Panku, the council of the nobles, not like a god as in Egypt [or] Sumer ... Murshilish I (c 1540-1510) ... In a fantastic campaign reminiscent of the Roman campaigns of the Emperors in the Middle Ages he advanced to Babylon”2175
No wonder, for the Franks were the Hittites. Strangely, like their fascination with Assyria, the Germans are equally fascinated with the Hittites. The Hittite Empire was rediscovered by Hugo Winckler in 1904, a Berlin scholar and fervent pan-German and pan-Babylonianist — a theory which believes that all civilizations and cultures originated in Babylon.
The German Orient Society has done a marvellous job in excavating Boghazkoy, the capital of the Hittites which lies ninety miles east of Ankara and all modern archaeologists can thank them for their early explorations.
What They Said About the Peoples of North Germany
Author Rene Lagrange, concerning the handsome Prussian troops who entered Paris in 1871, wrote:
"The spectacle was grand. Their hair was blond and reddish, their moustaches were strong and bold in outline, their complexion was fair and at the same time ruddy, their eyes clear and sky-blue with a fierce gleam, recalling most convincingly the portrait of those men which was painted in ancient times by the pen of Tacitus."2176
2171. Gamkrelidze & Ivanov 1985:6
2172. Trubacev 1985:215 2173,
2173. Lehman 1977:70
2174. Wiseman 1973:222. See also Los ca 1970
2175. Scheld 1973: 94-96
2176. Lagrange 1882
Adolf Bastian, German anthropologist simply declares: "Prussia is a country of warriors; so it was and so it will remain."2177
What did Tacitus write of these North German warriors?:
"For the Germans have no taste for peace.2178... Wherever they go it is always with their weapons about them."2179
Regarding the Chatti, he wrote that they had a "fierce countenance", 2180 and that
"Every battle is begun by these men. They are always in the front rank, where they present a startling sight: for even in peace-time they will not soften the ferocity of their expression."2181
Ridpath wrote: "The Chatti were among the most fierce and most invincible2182 of the tribes.
Gerhard Marx, previously quoted, had this to say about them: "They would ... charge the enemy with lightning-like speed, something that we in the 20th century know as Blitzkrieg."2183
Professor Hannay writes that:
"the Prussian ideal is force ... Shorn of its theatrical pomp and show, its scientific setting, its vaunted organization, its imperial rhetoric and its ridiculously familiar references to a partial Deity, Hohenzollern ambition is Barbarism pure and simple."2184
To wrap up this section, one final quote from Ernest Renan:
"I have always been struck by the ... diligence of the Germans. It is scarcely surprising that in the art of war, which is after all an inferior though complicated art, they should have attained to superiority."2185
Sheba And Dedan
Also dwelling in West Germany today are other descendants of Abraham through Keturah. Brother of Dedan (of whom descended the Asshurum, who were the Hittites) was Sheba. Sheba stayed with his brethren in their long wanderings into Europe.
Sheba became known as the Swabians or Schwabians which dwell today in Baden- Wurtemburg. Several European tribes were called Suebi,2186 so one has to be discrete in identifying Sheba. The Suebi were also known as the Suabi 2187 an obvious derivation of Sheba.
2177. quoted in Poliakov 1974:263
2178. Tacitus Germania
2179. ibid: hapter 22
2181. ibid: chapter 31
2182. Ridpath 1930:6:680
2183. Marx 1969:11
2184. Hannay 1916:182
2185. quoted in Poliakov 1974:334
2186. Chadwick 1907:216
2187. Hannay 1916:182
In ancient Catalonia a river known as the Subi was once extant and may be connected to the name of Sheba. Pliny in his Natural History2188 mentions the Suebi as dwelling amongst the Scythian hordes north of the Danube. They became known as the Sueves living east of the Vistula River in East Prussia and were regarded as a branch of the Quadi.2189 Lempriere also mentions a tribe called the "Subatrii, a people of Germany, over whom Drusus triumphed."2190
Being Dinaric in type, they are brachycephalic.2191 Their nasal prominence and facial features are similar to those of the peoples of Anatolia.2192 The Schwabians or Suabians are known to be the hardest working, thriftiest, introspected and most self-sufficient people in Germany.
The Rise of Prussia
In the thirteenth century, the Knights of the Teutonic Order conquered and Christianized the original or Old Prussians, known as Borussians, Prusse, Prusians, Preussen or Pruisen.2193 After the Teutonic Knights brutally smashed and slaughtered the Prussians, many colonists from north and central Germany moved eastwards, and were not only of the same race as the Prussians, but the same nation.2194
The Old Prussians were the "holding-forces" left behind as the Germanic tribes hurled themselves upon Rome.2195 They were the same people as those in the West. These eastern Franks (Ripuarian Franks or Hesse) were the successors of the Roman Empire.2196 Harrison, in his chilling book The German Peril, states that "Prussia was the only European state organised on a military basis, as completely as the Roman republic."2197 According to Taylor:
"The noblest destiny of all the barbarian peoples was that reserved for the Franks, who were, indeed, the founders of the Holy Roman Empire, which in a sense replaced the Western Roman Empire ... The best known tribes were the Batavians in the north and the Chatti (i.e. Hesse) in the south. The former belonged to the Salia or seashore Franks, the latter to the Ripuarian Franks.2198 ... The Holy Roman Empire developed from the conquests of Charlemagne, the Great Emperor of the Franks."2199
Although few know it, Charlemagne's real name was Karl der Grosse. He used France and the German Rhineland states as his base with his capital in Aachen, western Germany. What we gauge from this, then, is that the Roman Empire, via the Holy Roman Empire, was continued by the Asshurim Hittites and their Assyrian allies - this also continues the historical "King of the North" system (Daniel 11).
The colonists into East Germany named their land Prussia after the inhabitants of Prussia a little further to the east and south of the Baltic. This territory, the New Prussia, is known as West Prussia. West Prussia grew until it had absorbed all of what we call East Germany as well as various other
2188. Pliny iv. xiii. 80
2189. McGovern 1939:358
2190. Lempriere 1788:598
2191. Coon 1948:544
2193. Encyclopedia Brittannica, 10th ed, article'Trussia"
2194. Cox 1951:118; Beddoe 1912:58,77
2196. Todd 1972:22
2197. Harrison 1915:45
2198. Taylor 1947:171
2199. ibid:266. See Los ca 1970:24
German states in the central zones of West Germany. Later, all of Northern Germany was united under Prussia: in 1866 the war against Austria saw the death blow to the German Confederation of 1815. In its place appeared the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership. In 1871, after the war with France, the other south German states joined the Union.
At last! The United Germany which was sought by Frederick Wilhelm II (1806) and that which Frederick Wilhelm III attempted to organize (1850), was accomplished. In charge was the Iron Chancellor Otto von Bismark. Prussia was destined to consistently play the leading role within the Empire (1871-1918), the Republic (1918-1933) and the Third Reich (1933-1945).
Now that we have been able to clearly identify the true origins of the Germans, let us take a look at what their destiny will be.
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