In Search of... The Origin of Nations
HAM TODAY #2
by Craig White
CHAPTER FOUR: MEDITERRANEAN, NORTH AFRICAN AND BLACK
It is now time to explore the true origins of the Canaanites. Canaan was the youngest son of Ham and in time, had eleven sons.
Perhaps more so than any of the other great grandsons of Noah, Canaan's descendants are more difficult to trace. They did not stick together as a composite unit, but mutated out into various types or married wives of different nations. They scattered around the globe, or as the Bible says, "the Canaanites spread abroad" (Gen 10:18) and were cursed (Gen 9:20-27).171
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* who has descended from Canaan
* who the Egyptians and other North Africans descend from
* that the Black Africans descend from a specific son of Ham
* where they are mentioned in prophecy
That ancient historian, Herodotus, claims that the Phoenicians arrived from the Persian Gulf region, in the vicinity of the original Red Sea.172 He claims that they had their own tradition of this origin.173 In ancient times the Red Sea as we know it was not called by that name. The original Red Sea according to Rohl and others is the Persian or Arabian Gulf 174 and this would also indicate that they originated in Babylon and were close allies of the Cushites. Driver states that the "Canaanites came from the Red Sea coast and were really related to the Cushites" 175
171 Aalders in Bible Student's Commentary. Genesis (vol 1) states: "Although the curse of Canaan can be explained by the fact that he demonstrated the same weaknesses of character as his father, Ham himself is also affected by this curse upon his son. Just as Noah is grieved by his son Ham, so Ham, in turn, is punished in his son. Now we come to the actual meaning of the curse. The focal point of the curse lies in that Ham would become the 'lowest of slaves' or a 'servant of servants'... The intent would be that Canaan would be oppressed by and subjected to his brothers" (page 206)
Unger's Bible Dictionary quotes Keil and Delitzsch: "To understand the words of Noah with reference to his sons we must bear in mind, on the one hand, that as the moral nature of the patriarch was transmitted by generation to his descendants, so the diversities of character in the sons of Noah foreshadowed diversities in the moral inclinations of the tribes of which they were the heads; and, on the other hand, that Noah, through the Spirit and power of that God with whom he walked, discerned in the moral nature of his sons, and the different tendencies which they already displayed, the germinal commencement of the future course of their posterity, and uttered words of blessing and of curse, which were prophetic of the history of the tribes that descended from them"
Another reason why they are so difficult to trace is that they left no distinguishing features after themselves (Wiseman: 1973: 29).
172 Douglas: 1972: 992. See Donald Harden's The Phoenicians agrees (page 21).
173 Herodotus l.i; 7.xxxxxxxxix. See Baldwin 1869 :130-31
174 Rohl 1998:253
175 Driver 1930: 193
"Thus the Phoenicians of the eastern Mediterranean believed that they originated from the sacred paradise isle of Sumerian legend".176
They called themselves Kna' or Kinahni (Hebrew Kena yari) after their forefather, Canaan177 and did not form a single unified state. Rather, they founded independent, and often-times competing city-kingdoms and instead of speaking of themselves collectively as Phoenicians, they would call themselves after their particular city they lived in: viz. Sidonians, Byblians or Tyrians. Some of these cities still exist: Beruit (Berot), Jubayl (Gebal), Saida (Zidon or Sidon), Tsor (Tyre, Tyros or Sur).178 Not all Canaanites however were known as Phoenicians as we shall see.179
The name "Phoenician" derives from the Greek "Phoinike" which means "purple dye" or "red-purple"180 and was attributed to the olive-complexioned peoples dwelling in the narrow stretch of Lebanese-Syrian coastline on the Mediterranean. Interestingly, Erithrus who was king of Spain in the fourteenth century BC, was probably a Phoenician and his name means "red".
One branch in Tyre, c830 BC, had an internal problem which led to some breaking away and forming Carthage on the North African coast (modern Tunisia) where they called themselves Puoni or Phoenicians. The famous Augustine of Hippo in North Africa, called himself a Canaanite and stated that the inhabitants of Carthage called themselves Canaanites even in the 5th century AD 181
Originally the Latin name for Africa, Afer (in Arabic it is "Afir", meaning "red"), was applied to the inhabitants of Carthage. Only later was the name applied to the descendants of Phut.182 Carthage numbered approximately 100,000 Phoenicians and 500,000 Berbers at the time of its fall into the hands of the Romans in 146 BC.
The Canaanites were crafty and when a power invaded their lands, they were clever enough to submit to them (e.g. Assyrians, Egyptians and Hittites) and under the protection of these powers constructed huge centres of trade which made them a great economic power, rather than a political power.184 This craftiness gave them the freedom to sail all over the Mediterranean, to Ophir and, on Egyptian orders, around Africa. Today they dwell around the edges of the Mediterranean:
"As the Phoenicians and Carthaginians formerly, so now the Syrian populated with their colonies all the shores of the Mediterranean. In the Hellenic epoch they had established themselves in the commercial centers of Greece ... Rome ... Italy ... Spain ... Dalmatia ... Rhone [in France] ... They literally filled the Roman world".185
These Babylonian-Canaanites brought their Mystery religions with them which later fused with Christianity to produce the Babylonian Mystery Religion. You can read about this in books such as
176 Rohl 1998:253
177 Alexand: 1973:661.
178 Stump: 1982 "Lebanon's Future". See also Gen 10:15-18.
179 Douglas: 1973: 183. San chuniation transmitted the Phoenician traditions that they descend from Kna'. Fortunately Philo of Byblos has also preserved these traditions so that we, today, may know their true origin.
180 Alexand: 1973: 661; Douglas: 1972: 994.
181 Aubet 1996: 10
182 Peters: 1899: 67.
183 McEvedy: 1978: 219.
184 ”Phoenicians seldom fought invaders, preferring instead to pay tribute and go on about their business" according to Bikai 1989: 206.
185 Cumont 1903: 61-2.
The Mysteries of Mithra by Franz Cumont and also The People that History Forgot. The Mysterious People who Originated the World's Religions by Ernest Martin.
One of their centres of trade was the wealthy city of Carthage - that is why the Hebrew cana'ani or kina 'nu may also mean merchant. Instead of rehashing what has already been published, the reader may care to read such books as The Phoenician and the West by Maria Aubet which details the settlement of the Canaanites all over the Mediterranean region, including parts of Spain, north Africa, southern Italy and the isles of the Meditteranean Sea.186 In pursuit of tin, silver and copper, they journeyed to Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, North Africa, to the coasts of Spain and even to the British Isles. As such they formed a chain of trading posts as many of these sites, throughout the Mediterranean, enabling their ships to take on very long journeys to strange lands. Some of their descendants remain around the Mediterranean to this day.
They were driven from Tyre about 815BC according to classical author and at this time Elissa, the Phoenician queen, established a colony at Carthage in Tunisia (Pompus Trogus has it at 825BC and this event is confirmed in the Annals of Tyre, as reported by Josephus). Archaeological digs at the ruins of Carthage have shown that the Phoenicians maintained international relations for 800 years. The pottery pieces included amphorae (vases with two handles) from the south of Spain, central Italy and Lebanon.
Sardinia itself holds abundant clues to the migrations of some of these people. It is a huge island found to the west of Italy, south of Corsica and north of Tunisia. Remnants of the Canaanite culture includes hundreds of figurines or bronzetti, sacrificial burials, pottery and inscriptions of Semitic letters in Phoenician style. For instance, one inscription at Sardinia makes mention of a certain Phoenician general Milkaton who was apparently a general of the Phoenician king Pummay who ruled in Tyre 831-785BC. Evidence for child sacrifice may be found in both Sardinia and Carthage.
Many of their pagan customs and Mystery religious beliefs were a grave affront to the God of the Bible Who condemned their evil practices. Amongst these many practices were some which are today creeping into Western culture, such as abortion. They also happily sacrificed terrified children to their gods. Note what Halley’s Bible Handbook has to say on this subject:
"Baal was their principal god; Ashtoreth, Baal's wife, their principal goddess ... Ishtar was her Babylonian Atie; Astarte her Greek and Roman name ... Priestesses were temple prostitutes. Sodomites were male temple prostitutes. The worship of Baal, Ashtoreth, and other Caanite gods consisted in the most extravagant orgies; their temples were centers of vice” 187
No wonder God ordered Israel to wipe out these demonic religions and to have nothing to do with
them. 188 Following is what Dr James Dobson has to say on this topic:
"Dr. John Currid, associate professor of Old Testament at Reformed Theological Seminary, describes an area in ancient Phoenicia, now Lebanon, where this practice occurred for several hundred years. (Jezebel came from that region and brought Baal
186 See also "Searching for the Phoenicians in Sardinia" by Joan Scheuer, Biblical Archaeology Review, Jan-Feb: 53-60.
187 Halley 1965:166.
188 Albright (1936: 29) wrote: "Comparison of the cult objects and mythological texts of the Canaanites with those of the Egyptians and Mesopotamians forces one conclusion, that Canaanite religion was much more completely centred on sex and its manifestations. In no country has so relatively great a number of figurines of the naked goddess of fertility, some distinctly obscene, been found. Nowhere does the cult of serpents appear so strongly. The two goddesses Astarte (Ashtaroth) and Anath are called the Great Goddesses, which conceive but do not bear! Sacred courtesans and eunuch priests were excessively common. Human sacrifice was well known."
worship to Israel when she married Ahab). Dr. Currid says archaeologists have unearthed one sacrificial cemetery measuring 60,000 square feet and containing the remains of 20,000 burned children. The practice of sacrificing infants was described by the Greek author Kleitarchos 300 years before Christ: 'Out of reverence for Kronos (Baal), the Phoenicians, and especially the Carthaginians, whenever they seek to obtain some great favor, vow one of their children, burning it as a sacrifice to the deity, if they are especially eager to gain success. There stands in their midst a bronze statue of Kronos (Baal), its hands extended over a bronze brazier, the flames fall on the body, the limbs contract and the open mouth seems almost to be laughing, until the contracted body slips quietly into the brazier' ... According to Dr. Currid, this ritual burning of children was called "the act of laughing." One can only imagine the terrors it held for boys and girls being sacrificed, especially those who were old enough to understand what was happening. Incredibly, God's chosen people fell into this abominable practice and the idolatry that accompanied it."189
Jeremiah cries loudly about this exceedingly cruel and mindless religious practice in Jer 7:29-34. It is such a morbid and depraved practice (along with their other beliefs and practices) that discussion of it will not be pursued any longer in this work. This filthy religion was possibly the very worst that man, under the influence of Satan, has ever devised.
A Scattered People
The Canaanites established some famous cities, among them were Byblos, Sidon and Tyre. When Tyre fell (572 BC) (Ezek 26:1-11; Isa 23:6-11), the remaining Canaanite inhabitants moved to Spain, Southern Italy, Malta and Sicily, although there would always have been a remnant left behind. The Tyrrhenian Sea off Italy and the Tyrrhenian Mountains are named after them.191 The original Hebrew word for "Canaanite" in Zechariah 14:21 is "trafficker" because they were great bankers and merchants of old, being the middle men trading goods. This tendency still exists today with those associated with the Mafia - which springs originally from Sicily. (Matt 21:12; Zeph 1:11 contains a prophecy of the future calamity of these Canaanites).
Many of the Canaanites have scattered across the oceans. Some scattered into nearby India and became known as the "Syrian Christians" or Knanaya. This community claims in their historical traditions to have been founded by Knayi Thoma, a rich merchant from the land of Canaan. He brought a colony of 400 Canaanite Syrian Christians with him and their Bishop Mar Joseph of Urfa. They settled in Kerala in 345AD and many remain there to this day, although others live on other continents. They regard themselves as Syrian Pilgrims and live as an endogamous group with their own distinct traditions and customs.
In Old Testament times the Phoenician seacoast by Palestine was called "merchant" or "Canaanite". (Isa 23:11) In the time of Christ and the New Testament the same area was called "the coasts of Tyre and Sidon" (Matt 15:21-22; Luke 6:17) and "Syro-Phoenicia"(Mark 8:26).
189 Dobson 1993, Focus on the Family, July
190 Indeed, in parts of southern Ireland there are some persons who, apparently have descended from the Spanish Canaanite traders. See Heron's The Celtic Church in Ireland (pages 4-7).
191 Waddell: 1924: 159.
Many Canaanites are still there in Lebanon mixed with the Arabs, but what of the others, where did they go? We shall discover that they generally scattered across the globe and have developed into various races, possibly because each of Canaan's sons married women from different nations or races.
Sidon or Zidon, according to Herodotus, was the first city founded by the Phoenicians.192 God prophesied of them: "O thou, oppressed virgin daughter of Zidon: Arise, pass over to Chittim; there also shall thou have no rest" (Isa 23:12). Where is Kittim?
Josephus says that Cyprus was called Kition by the Greeks. Its inhabitants were called Kitieis and Kittiaeans.193 The Phoenicians called it Kt or Kty. That is where many Sidonians are today, caught up in the continual bickering between the Greeks and Turks, with "no rest". Others scattered to Mysia, Sicily and North Africa. The Akkadians rendered the Sidonians as Sidunu and the Armana tablets as Sa 'idunu.
Hamathite originally settled in Syria on the banks of the Orontes, calling their city Hamath. Later they migrated to the region of northern Greece/Macedonia, becoming known as the Emathius in history. The territory they settled became known as Emathia. Josephus wrote:
"Amathus inhabited in Amathine, which is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, although the Macedonians named it Epiphania from one of his posterity".194
Epiphanea was a town of Cilicia in Asia Minor, later called Urzin. This may represent the intermediate stage of the Hamathite migration toward Greece.
Arvadite, or a part of that tribe, may have founded the kingdom of Arva or Ava in Southeast Asia (Burma - modern Myanmar which consisted of the Kingdoms of Ava and Pegu prior to annexation by the British in the nineteenth century). If so, they probably would have travelled to that region with or alongside the sons of Elishah.195
Zemarite appears to be impossible to trace196 but may have been the Simirra known to the Assyrians and the Sumur to the Egyptians. A city of Sumra is found north of Tripoli in Libya which may indicate that they settled there given that many of Canaan's descendants settled the Mediterranean shores and Carthage was established by Phoenicians. They could be there or in south-east Asia amongst the peoples residing in that locality.
Arkite founded a city in Lebanon which is known today as Tell'Arqua.197 They may today be in Arcadia, Greece (which is particularly full of Egyptian and Semitic influence198) and as such there is a Canaanite, Mizraimite and Cushitic influence in Greece to this day. Alternatively, perhaps they are among the Arikana or Arkokira Indian tribes of North America.
192 Herodotus: LI; VII. 87 quoted in Douglas: 1972: 992.
193 Josephus: Antiquities: 1:6: 1. Of course, many may have migrated to China with Sinite.
194 Antiquities: 1.6.2. Lempriere states: "Emathia, a name given of old, and particularly by the poets, to the countries which formed the empires of Macedonia and Thessaly" (page 223). This may also be a reason for the Greeks adopting many Egyptian pagan ideas and claiming that their gods were dark (Moonwoman 1994: 53).
195 The Ava kings claim descent from the dynasty of Tagaung (Naung Aung, Burmese History Before 1287, page 5). Some descendants of Canaan may well be found in south-east Asia for a brown-skinned semi-Caucasoid type is observed among the other Mongoloid peoples. They appear almost southern European (Origin of the Far Eastern Civilization by C W Bishop, page 6).
196 It may be that they were in Liguria (Italy), but are now located amongst the Malaysians and the Philippinos.
197 Douglas: 1972: 82.
198 Bernal: 1991: vol 1:81.
Although the Girgashites were with their brethren around Palestine, a tribe known as the Karkisa were later mentioned in the Hittite Annals, as existing in Asia Minor.199 Another rendering of that tribe is Qarqisha.200 Perhaps they migrated to the steppes near the Caspian Sea which was known as "Sea of the Girgashites" anciently and thence on to South-east Europe giving rise to the Albanian Ghegs which we shall meet in a later chapter.201 One tribe which is difficult to trace is Jebus and further research needs to be undertaken on this tribe. They may be among the Jibu tribe of eastern Nigeria and among the Ijebu and Ijaw of southern Nigeria.202
Amorite - Father of the Moors
The fourth son of Canaan was Amorite. They were a wild people, not concerned with the things of civilization, be they houses, towns, grain or government.203
In the Akkadian language, the name "Amorite" was used to refer to Syria - Palestine, before being superseded by the name "Hittite".204
The Amorites are thought to be called Amurru in the ancient Middle East205 although this term properly refers to the Aramaeans in the majority of cases. In Babylon they were called Martu and further east Canaanites. On the Egyptian monuments they were called Amar, Amarru or Amaor.
After the Indo-European Hittites from Anatolia invaded their land, many of the Amorites moved westwards into North Africa, becoming known as "Moors" named after Amor. The Moors' tradition have them descending from a certain Tidrarin which means "man of the mountain".208 Others stayed behind in the Middle East, intermarrying with some of the Hittites. As Robert Gayre says, indications are that the Amorites split into two sections.209
The Romans called the Moors 'Mauri' (there is no connection here with the Mauri of the South Pacific, just a similar word) from where we get the name of the country Mauritania.
Although Berbers are sometimes called Moors, the "true" Moor lives in Mauretania (comprising three quarters of the population) and some in Mali and Rio De Oro, south of the River Senegal and along the 15° North Latitude to Niger.210
Many Moors have blurred their original racial character through intermarriage with Berbers and Africans. Thus some Moors claim descent from the Berbers who came to Mauretania from Morocco and Algeria in the 12th and 13th centuries AD while many other Moors descend from the Arabs.211
199 See ibid: 471; Cassuto 1953: 210
200 Simon 1959: 38.
201 Some of them might have migrated eastwards for a tribe known as the Orang Gergasi (=giants) dwell among the Sakai-Semang tribes of Malaysia (Skeat and Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula).
202 Pilkey 1984: 32.
203 Douglas: 1972: 82.
205 Gayre: 1973: 31.
207 Ibid: 43.
208 Briggs 1967: 210
210 Baker: 1974: 22.
211 Cox: 1951: 250.
What of those Amorites who stayed behind and were conquered by the Hittites? What became of them?
As they were conquered by the Hittites, a Nordid people, it becomes difficult in history, archaeology or anthropology to distinguish the two races.212 Sayce, for example, confuses these Amorites with the invading Hittites, claiming that the Hittites were dark-skinned, but the Amorites blond or light-skinned.213 He means the Aramaeans who lived in Syria who were also a light-skinned people.214
Fishberg wrote that the Amorites were blonde215 and Professor Sayce wrote:
"it is plain that the Amorite belonged to the blond race. His blue eyes and light hair prove this incontestably".216
As we have seen, the Amurru became confused with the Hittites217 when their Kingdom became a vassal of the Hittites.218
The Amorites became known as the Kur-Amurra.219 Kur was a district in southern Anatolia extending into Northern Syria. Could some of the Nordic-looking Kurds be descended form the Mixed Hittite-Amorite remnants in the Middle East?
The Hittites were a warrior people, or Car-men. Central Persia was known as Carmania, or Kerman or Kirman by the time of Alexander the Great.220 The Persians called the people there "Germani" or "men of war".221 They are a partly Nordic people and many blondes abound within this stock. They are famous for the Kerman rugs. Do they, like the warrior Moors, descend in part from the Amorites?
The Descendants of Heth
Where are the sons of Heth today? As we shall see, he probably married a descendant of the father of the American Indians. The Ancestors of Heth became known as the Hittites.222 In time they migrated from Palestine to Dardania in Asia Minor. The Indo-Europeans who settled in the territory of these Hittites took their name and applied it to themselves because they were such famous warriors. In the Middle East, three or even four racial groups may be identified as Hittites. Many historians still do not yet understand this:
"Biblical references to Hittites in southern Palestine - Esau marries two Hittite women, for example - remain a puzzle to scholars."225
212 Gayre: 1973: 32.
213 Sayce: 1928: 167.
214 Gayre: 1973: 33.
215 Fishberg: 1911: 181.
216 Sayce: 1928: 167.
217 Wiseman: 1973:121.
218 Ibid: 124.
219 Ibid: 520.
220 Rapson: 1914: 78-79.
221 Herodotus: 1:12:5.
223 Douglas: 1972: 528.
225 Wiseman: 1973:197.
225 "Expeditions", Biblical Archaeological Review 1998: 77
The Hittites that are referred to in the previous section are the invaders of Asia Minor, not the original group whom I wish now to discuss briefly.
Some confuse the Hittites with the Khittites, another group who inhabited Asia Minor. The original
Hittites were a dark-skinned people who had a yellow/brown skin. They were related to the Minoans,228 probably through intermarriage. The Minoans will be touched upon later in this book.
In Egyptian monuments the original Hittite people were depicted with prominent noses, straight or hawked who were
"somewhat proud, with lips full, the cheek-bones high, the eyebrows fairly prominent, the forehead receding like the chin, and the face hairless ... The hair is black, the eyes dark brown". 229
"The skin colour varied from brown to yellowish and reddish [because of the racial stocks being confused by writers?]. Greek tradition insists the people were warlike, rude people, known for their frenzied dances and music."230
The only dark people anywhere on the face of this planet bearing the name Hatti or Chatti (that is, Hittites) are amongst the American Indians. The white man first encountered them in New England and in the plains of America. The inter-tribal name of the plains confederation of the Indians was "Chatti". The main tribe was the Sioux, living in both North and South Dakota. They were an exception to the rule that most American Indians are Mongoloid.231 Their features are quite different.
Further, the name "Heth"(whence "Hittite" is derived), means "Warrior". The Sioux were commonly called "braves" which means "warriors".
Writing in the 1840's, Goodrich had this to say about the Sioux who are different, he says, to the other tribes:
"No Indian tribe, except the Sioux, has shown such daring intrepidity and such implacable hatred towards other tribes. Their enmity, when once excited, was never known to be appeased till the arrow or tomahawk had for ever prostrated their foes. For centuries, the prairies of Illinois and Iowa were the theatre of their exterminating prowess; and to them is to be attributed the almost entire destruction of the Missouris, the Illinois, Cahakias, Kaskaskias, and Borias."232
We know that some of the Hittites mixed with their Indo-European conquerors.233 Is this the reason why some of the Indians of North Dakota had blonde hair?234
226 Koestler: 1976: 164.
227 Sayce: 1928: 42.
228 McEvedy: 1962: 28.
229 Sayce: 1973: 133.
230 Hoeh: 1969: 2: 360.
231 Unlike the overwhelming majority of Indians, the Sioux (or Dakotas) are dolicocephalic. (Brinton: 1891: 99.) Their features are also quite different, especially their nose.
232 Goodrich: 1844: 246-7. Brinton 1891: 99 writes: "Their frames are powerful, and the warriors of the Sioux have long enjoyed a celebrity for their hardihood and daring. The massacre of General Custer's command, which they executed in 1876, was the severest blow the army of the United States ever experienced at the hands of the red men."
233Gayre: 1973: 34.
234 Coon: 1956: plate 23.
A final point to mention is that the line of descent of the Canaanitish tribes were always counted through women (i.e. they possessed a matriarchy). The Mohawk, Mohican or Iroquois Indians had old women as ruling chiefs. Sometimes of course they had men rulers because they went to war, but women figure very prominently.
Is all this mere "coincidence"? Or is "fact stranger than fiction"?
The Hivites inhabited Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, from the Hermon Range to Hamath.235 But they are not there today. Then where are they?
The Hivites were driven out of the Middle East by the Philistines according to Peter Tompkins.236 Many readers would be familiar with Peter Tompkins' stimulating work Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids. In it, Tompkins uses Ordoez, Naez and native Mexican sources. Part of the Hivite tribe fled to Tyre from whence they set sail to America.237
On page 79 he quotes from an Indian document signed 28th September 1554, which reads:
“We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us, who came from the other part of the sea, from Given - Tulan, bordering on Babylonia”.238
One Indian tradition recorded in The Annals of the Cakchiquels - lords of Totonicapen mentions that their ancestors came from the east, from the rising of the sun, across the ocean from a place called "Civan - Tula", which means in Indian, "place of caves".239
Writes one researcher:
"The people led by Odin or Wotan across the Atlantic to the New World were not exclusively the sons of Tiras from Thrace; some tribes were called Chivim, reports Ordoez the early Spanish writer. It is the very Hebrew spelling used for the English word Hivites, some of whom once lived in Mt. Seir, the land of caves near Babylonia! So the Mexican Indians were a mixed people."240
There we have it. The Hivites are today absorbed into the general population of Mexico and Guatemala.
Some Hivites may have settled in the land of the Tatars, called Khiva,241 for a time, before migrating to Pannonia in Hungary where a minority brown people live. Some may still be found there to this day.
235 Douglas: 1972: 329.
236 Tompkins: 1974: 79.
239Goetz: 1953: 169-70.
240 Hoeh: 1969: 2: 93-94.
241 Pococke: 1856: 217.
The final son of Canaan is Sinite, a name connected with "Sinim" which may be applied to the regions both east and south242 of the Holy Land. The name may survive in Nahr-as-Sinn, Sinn-Adarb. It may also be the Phoenician Usnu, the Assyrian Usanu or Sianu and the Ugaritic 'sn. Assyrian dictator, Tiglath-pileser III mentions in his annals the Siannu "on the shore of the [Mediterranean] sea". In any event, the name is certainly connected with the Sinai, sometimes spelt as Thinai.243
The name may be connected with the Sinai or Sin (Pelhusium in Egypt) (Ezek 30:15) or Syene (Aswan) (Ezek 29:10; 30:6). Also of interest is the prophecy in Isaiah which refers to exiles who:
"shall come from afar: and, lo, these from the North and from the West; and these from the land of Sinim". (Isa 49:12)
Here Sinim, in its context is speaking of a land both south and east, or southeast of Palestine. Wherever Sinite is today, they are in the land of Sinim. But where is Sinim? Some may have migrated to just north of the Colchis region on the shores of the Black Sea which had a settlement of the Sinope according to Pliny.244 Even the Don River was known as the Sinus for a time245. Some may have migrated into Thrace for a people known as the Singaei dwelt there and on the confines of Macedonia. Another people known as the Sintii dwelt in Thrace. There was also the Sindi people of European Scythia.246 These were very small tribes and nothing can be proven about their origin with Sinite at this time.
They probably journeyed with the Cushites giving their name to the Sindhu River, Sind Sagar district and the Desert of Sind in North West India by the Asikni River. Sindhu eventually became Hindhu and eventually Indu due to the gradual dropping of the h's from the name.247 Hence the name India and the Indus River.248
Gesenius identifies Sinim with China.249 Others, too, identify it with Sinae (China).250 Further, the Greeks and Arabs at one time referred to China as Sin.251 In fact, at one stage southern China was actually known as Sinai according to Ancient India as described by Ptolmey252 which had some tribes of Ikhthyophagi Aithiopes - that is black fish eaters.253
242 Douglas: 1972: 1194.
243 McCrindle 1885: 82.
244 ”Some of them [the Colchians] were called Sindi, and Sindones; and they had an harbour named Sindicus Portus" (Bryant 1775: 453). Ammianus Marcellinus wrote of "the Tauri, divided into various kingdoms, among whom the Arichi, the Sinchi and the Napaei are terrible for their ruthless cruelty, and since long continued license has increased their savageness, they have given the sea the name of Inhospitable" (XXII.8.33).
245 Pliny VI.ii.6-7; VI.vii.20.
246 Lempriere 1788: 585.
247 McCrindle 1885: 82.
248 “… the river Sinthus ... which is the largest river of any, that run in the Erythrean Sea;... I need not mention that what he calls the Sinthus is the same as the Sindus, of Indus" (Bryant 1775: 194)
249 See Gesenius's Hebrew and English Lexicon, art. "Sinim.
250 Douglas: 1972: 1194.
251 Jones The Works, vol 1: 146
252 McCrindle 1885: 82
253 ibid: 224. On page 245 he writes about similar tribes in Sinai: "Around the Gulf of the Sinai dwell the fish-eating Aithiopians ... the Ikhthyophagoi Sinai". "Senai (China) ... Sinai, or Thenai, metropolis of China, Nankin ... Ikthyophagoi, a Chinese people of the mountain" (pages 464, 468). Lempriere writes about the "Sinae, a people called by Ptolemy the most eastern nation in the world; probably the Chinese" (page 585).
Many of the early traders with the Scythians were known as the Sinae with a capital at Thinae (modern Thsin) in Shensi Province.254 From here we get the dynasty of Tsin, called by the Malays "Tchina", and so it remains today: China. Today, we still speak in terms of Sino - Soviet relations and so forth.
Of further interest is that the Chinese regard Siang-fu (Father Sin), capital of Shensi Province as the origin of their civilization.255 Undoubtedly the Sinites spent some time in China anciently, lending their name to that country. But where did they move to afterwards?
The Vulgate translation of the aforementioned prophecy in Isaiah is "Australis"- Australia. "Australis" means "south", and Australia was known to the Arabs before the white man came as "Terra Australis". The Aboriginals were once in southern China,256 or at least a branch of them was, with various other black people. A black people who could possibly be, at least in part, Sinites are the Murrayian Aboriginals living in southern Australia.
There is a noticeable (but by no means striking) variation between the Carpentarian Aboriginals farther north and those in the south, which has led to the suggestion that they are two sub-races257, that is divisions of the same race with slight physical differences.
The Murrayians are lighter-skinned than the Carpentarians, have straighter hair and in certain respects are like the eastern Polynesians258 and Ainu,259 both who were anciently in China.
Could it be true that the Sinites not only gave their name to China, but later migrated into Australia, forming the Murrayian Aboriginal peoples?
Mizraim and Egypt
The descendants of Mizraim are not easy to trace. Where are the descendants of Mizraim today? Did they simply disappear off the face of the earth; or have they left so little traces behind that we find it difficult to follow them to the destinations? We shall shortly see.
The name Mizraim means "the two Mazors" or wells of fortifications. On the border with Asia Egypt had a chain of these forts. It was the Canaanites who called them "Shar" or the wall.260
The Arabs called Egypt "Mizr". While the Assyrians and Babylonians called it "Misri", "Muscri" or "Musri"261 and "Misr" in Arabic. But it was the Greeks who called it "Aigyptos" (Latin "Aegyptus").262
It is possible that the name Egypt, where Mizraim first dwelt, is derived from the ancient name of Memphis, which was "Hi-ku-Ptah"or "House of the spirit of Ptah".263 The Greeks would have added
254 Custance: 1975:105.
255 Perry: 1937: 125.
256 Coon: 1948: 185.
257 Wallis: 1977: 33.
258 Tindale: 1974: 92.
259 Birdsell: 1967: 153.
260 See Sayce: 1928: 82.
261 Waddell: 1929: 270; Oded 1979: map opposite p 142.
262 Douglas: 1972: 337.
I263 bid: Pfeiffer: 1966:207, 209.
"Ae" ("black") to the front of ku-Ptah to give it the spelling of Ae-ku-Ptah, or Aigyptos, later Aegyptus.
The Egyptians are mixed with the Arabs who descend from Ishmael.264 In an article, "Were the Ancient Egyptians Black or White?" in the Biblical Archaeology Review by Frank Yurco, he examined this question and found that
"The ancient Egyptians, like their modem descendants, were of varying complexions of color, from the light Mediterranean type (like Nefertiti), to the light brown of Middle Egypt, to the darker brown of Upper Egypt, to the darkest shade around Aswan and the First Cataract region, where even today, the population shifts to Nubian".265
Yurco then discusses hair type, facial features and so on based on the evidence from litertature, anthropology, mummies, sculptures, paintings and inscriptions. One might add that DNA sampling of Egyptian mummies has been succesful.266 In one work, Evidence Embalmed, the authors show that preliminary work on mummies' blood groups indicate a markedly similar distribution type to modern Egyptians which are 33% A, 24% B, 7% AB and 36% O. 267
Origin of the Gypsies
Many of the Gypsies, although very mixed with Indians and others
"will tell you that they descend from a part of the ancient Egyptians ... The letters 'Gyp' in their name are indicative of this. Their ancestors were taken from Egypt in the days of the Babylonian and Persian Empires, and brought to India. From there they migrated all over the world."268
The Gypsies in Spain, for example, have been known as "Gitanos" or Egyptians.269 They came to Spain via Germany from Romany. They detest the name "Gitanos", preferring to call themselves, "Zincals", "Romano", "Chai" or "Cales". The latter is plural of the compound word "Zincals" and means "the black men". "Chai" is a modification of the word "Chal", referring to Egypt.270
Because the Assyrians took some Egyptians into captivity, they may have settled just south of Lake Van, about 170km north of Assur, in a district which became known as Musri.
To this day the Gypsy language abounds with Persian and Hindi words.271 Their blood group is also identical to northwest Indians272 as they mixed with the Indians when living there and represent a bloodline more Indian than Egyptian. From genetic data, it seems that the Indian component of Gypsy ancestory is basically southern Indian (Dravidian) rather than northern Indian.273 They number about 10 million throughout Europe and are known variously as Gitanos, Manush or Sinti in southern Europe; Rom in eastern Europe.
264 Baker: 1886: 519.
265 Yurco 1989: 24-25
266 Zias 1991: 148
267 David & Tapp 1984: 99
268 ”Answers to Your Questions" in Tomorrow's World, Aug. 1971: 66. See Broca: 1864: 150. They were originally in Upper Egypt, being a dark, Non-Negroid people. (Burton: 1898: 237)
269 Borrows: 1841:41.
271 Ibid: 325; Fugler 1997:14
272 Lundman: 1977: 22.
273 Fernandez-Armestol994: 394
The Sons of Mizraim
The Ludim (plural for Lud) appears to be very scattered. Josephus mentions that the Lydians were his ancestors; and Herodotus' account of them allies them to the Semites. The Neo-Babylonian annals also make mention of the Ludu (Lydians). The New Bible Dictionary mentions that they may be a people in Africa as certain scholars amend Ludim to Lubim (Libya).274
Robert Gayre locates them in Egypt, near the border with Libya.275 They are the lightest of the dark-skinned Egyptians.
Quite possibly a branch of them migrated into southern Anatolia (southern Asia Minor), for this region was known as Lydia in times of old.
The Anamim may be in Heliopolis or On.276 Others speculate that they were once in Pamphylia and then migrated to Greece, being the very dark element there.
Indeed! Unbeknown to most, here are also Egyptian remnants in Macedonia which seek recognition according a recent report in the Middle East Times:
"In the heart of the Balkans the remnant of an ancient community struggles to have its culture acknowledged. This small community in Macedonia claims it descends from ancient Egyptians sent to Europe more than 3,000 years ago as miners. The first mention of Egyptians in the Balkans comes from the The Histories written by the Greek traveler Herodotus around 440BC. The Egyptians of Macedonia, according to official estimates, number a little more than 3,000, although community leaders claim the real figure is around 15,000. The discovery of an ethnic grouping which still considers itself Egyptian, despite the passage of two millennia and the geographic distance of hundreds of miles, begs the question, what does it mean to be Egyptian? Ramez Zamil, a blacksmith, attempts to keep the Pharaonic traditions of his ancestors alive. Like the Albanians of Macedonia, the Egyptians are also hoping for more official recognition from the authorities. But, Zamil and his people have shunned the idea of resorting to arms to achieve their goals. Zamil is hoping to build an Egyptian consciousness among his people. He is pushing for his community to register themselves as a separate ethnic group on census forms rather than ticking "Muslim" or "Christian." The whole world has forgotten us, maybe even the Egyptians in Egypt," said Zamil. Indeed they have. But exactly how Egyptian can those who claim such an old link to their homeland be? Over the last 3,000 years Egypt has seen many changes, including the end of the rule of the Pharaohs, the start and end of Persian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine rule as well as the adoption of Christianity and then Islam. And this is not to mention the more recent experiences of colonization and revolution. Asked about the vestiges of Egyptian culture, Zamil pointed out the culinary offerings of his people, which were not Mahshi or Mulukhiyya but pyramid-shaped baklavas. Leila Drar, a half Egyptian, half Swedish student in Britain, who is writing a paper about the traces of Pharaonic culture on modern Egyptians, told the Middle East Times, ‘I haven't heard of these people before, it's very interesting. I guess you can't refer to them as Egyptians in the modem sense.’ She goes on to add, ‘An Egyptian is someone who knows the customs, the language, the culture, it's more than just about where your blood is from. There are also the changes the country and the people have been through.’ ‘However’, she adds, ‘If they have customs and traditions that date back to the ancient Egyptians you could call them the 'original' Egyptians."277
274 Douglas: 1977: 755.
275 Gayre: 1973: 40.
Naphtuhim, descendants of Naphtuh would be in southern Egypt today. They were originally in the Nile Delta (or lower Egypt) giving their name to it.278 It is they who were the Memphites - "the people of the god Ptah or Path".279 Memphis was originally known as Naph,280 and in more modem times as Abu Sir. Later they migrated southwards founding the city of Napata in southern Egypt. Peoples known as 'Nobatai' (Oasis Dwellers) were observed in antiquity in Libya, Nubia and Arabia.281
Pathruism gave their name to upper or central Egypt. "Pathros", p't'-rs(y) means "southland" in Egyptian, being the territory between Cairo and the Aswan,282 or central Egypt. The Assyrians called the area Paturisi.
Interestingly, the terms Mizraim (for Egypt, especially lower or northern Egypt), Pathros (for upper or southern Egypt) and Ethiopia (for Sudan) occur in this remarkable geographical order in an inscription of Esarhadden, King of Assyria. He boasts that he is "king of Musur, Paturisi and Cush" 283
In a prophecy of Isaiah, we have the same order:
"And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people ... from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush." (Isa. 11:11; Jer. 44:1, 15; Ezek. 29:14; 30:14)
Ethnologists and anthropologists are puzzled as to the origin of the Fulbe but they acknowledge that they are traceable back to the Sudan. The arguments for their origin range from southern Tripoli, Arabia, Persia or Egypt (as the dispersed army of Cambyses c500 BC).284 In common with the pastoral East Africans and their many taboos and rituals concerning cattle, some of these have found their way into the culture of the Fulbe. Fulbe is the German term for them, but they call themselves Pullo, the French Peuls, to the peoples of Chad as Felaata and to the Gambians as Fw/a.285
It is very likely that the Lehabim (shortened to "Lubim" in Biblical times - 2 Chron. 12:3; 16:8; Neh. 3:9) were their ancestors and the name eventually evolved into Lebu, then Fulbe. Many of them still
277 Amil Khan, "Remnant of ancient Egyptians seeks recognition in Macedonia", Middle East Times, issue 16, 2001.
278 Douglas: 1972: 865.
279 Gay re: 1973: 41. While others feel that they may be in Phrygia, Asia Minor.
280 Bullinger: c. 1890: 1079.
281 Bernal 1991, vol 2: 96-7
282 Douglas: 1972: 938.
284 Taylor: 1937: 135; Encyc. Brittanica: 1974: 15th edition: "Nigeria".
285 Stenning 1965: 363-64
live in Libya today; from them the name "Libya" is derived. The 22nd dynasty of Egypt was of Libyan origin.
At one time they were associated with the Sukkiim (2 Chron. 12:3); and not surprisingly their capital was at Sokoto in Nigeria.
They have a brown-reddish skin; the name "Fulbe" means "reddish". Their anthropological classification is "Northern Hamite" in similitude to the other sons of Mizraim, not "Negroid", nor "Eastern Hamite" (Cushite).
The Fulbe are scattered across Northern Africa, from the western Sudan into West Africa. Most of them are today in Nigeria, numbering some six million.
The Berbers are also classified with the "Northern Hamites", and are scattered throughout northwest Africa. They number approximately ten million. The majority live in Morocco and Algeria; others may be found in northern Niger, northern Mali and Tunisia. Most are very dark. Some have mixed to a degree with the black Africans.
They may be derived from the Philistines. Certain African histories describe Goliath, a Philistine, as "Goliath the Berber" because many of these tribes claim descent from Jalut (the Goliath of the Bible).286 However, they resent being called Berber, preferring the appellation of Alamazigh or Chleuhs - ‘The Free People’. The name of Berber is derived from the Latin Barbari and the French Berbere which is associated with the way they speak - a collection of unintelligible cries to the ears of foreigners.287 Another theory states that the name of Berber refers to their common ancestry through Brobor or Barbar, their ancestor. They are a fighting people that were the last to withstand the French in West Africa and were still fighting after World War One officially ended.
From what can be gathered, the Berbers are derived from both the Casluhim and the Caphtorim. Let me explain this hypothesis. Genesis chapter ten has this to say:
"Mizraim begat... Casluhim (out of whom came Philistim) and Caphtorim". (Gen 10:13-14)
It is debatable whether the parenthesis should come after Casluhim or Caphtorim.288 Several other scriptures read thus:
"the Caphtorims, which came forth out of Caphtor". (Deut 2:23)
"the Lord will spoil the Philistines, the remnant of the country of Caphtor." (Jer 47:4)
"Have I not brought up ... the Philistines from Caphtor?" (Amos 9:7)
Crete was originally known as Caphtor,289 called Kaptara in the Babylonian texts.290 They destroyed the Canaanites in southern Palestine and lived there in their place, founding the cities of Gaza,
286 See Tribe and Society in Rural Morocco which discusses the role of Goliath in Moroccan Berber genealogies.
287 Wysner 1945:19
289 Douglas: 1972: 199.
Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gath which were on the confines of Egypt. The name "Palestine" is derived from "Philistine" (the Assyrians called them the "Palastu"291).
Huxley informs us that the Berbers were originally in the Middle East. The Senhaja tribe, for example, claims to have come from the Yemen292 while one tradition traces them to Palestine where they were expelled by a certain Persian King and that they were a part of the people descended from Goliath (Djalout).293
There are many lighter skinned, even Nordic looking peoples amongst the Berbers, although only a small minority.294 If you had to dress some of these in Scottish or Irish outfits, they could possibly pass for Europeans.295 These do not, however, descend from the Nordic Vandals who were expelled from North Africa to Sicily. There are occurrences on the Egyptian tombs of the New Kingdoms of green-eyed, light-skinned, and in some cases, fair-haired Libyans.296 The three groups of blondish Berbers are the Kabyles, Shawia and Riffians. It is perhaps these who mixed with the Moors whom we have already met.
Whether or not the Philistines are descended from the Caphtorim or Casluhim is still open to question. Some still feel that although they arrived from Caphtor (Crete), their ancestor was actually Casluh.297
And if they are related to the Palestinians of the Gaza Strip is uncertain (Gen 21:34; Zech 9:5-7). Also whether a few found their way into Italy some time ago one cannot be certain, but given that a mouth of the Po was known as the Fossae Philistinae, may give us a clue.298
As we have seen, the "Northern Hamites" (southern Egyptians, Copts, Berbers, Tibu, Fulbe and others) derive from Mizraim. Many "Egyptians" were sent to India with the Cushites. Anciently, a city in southern India, called Muziris, once stood.299 I doubt if many or for that matter any Mizraimites are left today in southern India. Probably they have intermingled and become submerged into the Dravidian and Pre-Dravidian stocks.
Finally, how true are the prophecies of God, for he foretold how the original Egyptians would be brought low, never to recover, and that they would be driven into southern Egypt:
"And it will bring again the captivity of Egypt, and will cause them to return into the land of Pathros [southern or upper Egypt], into the land of their habitation; and they shall be there a base kingdom. It shall be the basest of kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself anymore above the nations: for I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations." (Ezek 29:14-15)
"...I will also destroy the idols, and I will cause their images to cease out of Noph [northern or lower Egypt]; and there shall no more be a prince in the land of Egypt [Arabs have ruled since 152 BC]: and I will put a fear in the land of Egypt." (Ezek 30:13)
292 Huxley: 1976:134.
294 Seligman: 1930; 851.
295 Ibid: 82.
296 Ibid: 85.
297 Wiseman: 1973: 53. See also Dothan 1990:26-36.
298 Lempriere 1788: 245.
299 Grant: 1971: 56.
God's word stands. Prophecy has been fulfilled. Who can change the future destiny of nations? I can think of no better description than "prophecy is proof of the Bible".
Who is "King of the South"?
Prophecy reveals a certain "King of the South" which vexes the "King of the North" (a German-led United Europe - modern Babylon or Tyre) leading to the latter's invasion of northern Africa:
"And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind ..... the land of Egypt shall not escape …. and the Libyans [Hebrew ‘Phut’] and the Ethiopians [Hebrew ‘Cush’ = East Africa and also perhaps India] shall be at his steps. (Dan 11:40,43).
According to this scripture the "King of the South" is Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia and perhaps Libya. Historically, the Ptolemaic Kingdom (King of the South) was confined to Egypt, Libya, Northern Ethiopia or Sudan and Sinai. It never included Jordan, Syria, Iraq or Saudi Arabia. A future "King of the South", then, will most likely be comprised of an alliance, albeit loose, of the nations of north and east Africa.300 It may be of interest that the earliest leader after the Flood of Noah who ruled the Cushites in the south of Mesopotamia was Lugalzaggessi, the son of Ukush. This may have been Nimrod, son of Cush. Later Lugalzaggessi was conquered by Sargon of Akkad from the north who was possibly Assur himself (this is discussed in more detail in chapter 14). This commenced the king of the north versus king of the south tensions which continues into the last days.
Further prophecies on Egypt may be found in the footnote section.
Phut - Father of the African Blacks
Hundreds of millions of black peoples are classified by modern anthropologists as "Afrid". From whom do they originate? Surely God would not have simply forgotten about them and left them out of the table of nations? Almost all Bible dictionaries and commentaries state that Phut is "obscure". This is because they did not leave written records or traditions of their origins. This has led some to assume that "the survey of Gn. 10 excludes the true negroes".301 Of course not - all peoples are recorded there.302
Let us turn once again to Josephus for some assistance in our quest for understanding the origin of the Black African variety of mankind:
300 Prophecies on Egypt and ‘king of the South’ are: Isa 20:1-6; Ezek 29:1-12; 30:1-5, 6-26; 31:2-3, 10-12; 32:1-16; Jer 46:1-24; Neh 3:8-10.
Prophecies on Egypt: Isa 19:1-25; Jer 25:19; Hos 7:16; 9:6; 12:1; Josel 3:19; Amos 2:10; 3:1; Nan 3:9; Zech 10:11. Other scriptures dealing with the sons of Mizraim are: Ps 68:31; Jer 44:1; Ezek 29:14; Deut 2:43; Amos 9:7.
301 Driver 1930: 192
302 In November 1998 I came across a book written by Black American scholar, Rev Walter Arthur McCray The Black Presence in the Bible and the Table of Nations Genesis 10:1-32. I found that the book complements much of my findings, although major proofs were not employed. Certain errors such as assuming that all of Ham's descendants were Black (as against Brown or even olive-skinned) were contained in the book, although that is understandeable. The book is interesting and I personally found it satisfying to know that many African peoples recognise their true roots.
"Phut, also was the founder of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites, after himself: there is also a river in the country of the Moors which bears that name, [the River Phut]; Whence it is that we see the greatest part of the Grecian historio-graphers mention that river and the adjoining country by the appellation of Phut: but the name it has not has been by change given it from one of the sons of Misraim, who was called Lybyos ... it has been called Africa also"303.
The black peoples west of the Nile were known as the Lebu by the invading Sea Peoples and Libya has been historically associated with the black African peoples.304 It seems that Libya was originally known as Phut or Putaya, but the Egyptians renamed it Libya after the Lehabim, a dark people with whom they had closer contact. All one can say with certainty is that "Libya" is an Egyptian name.305 Everywhere you see the word "Libya" in scripture, the Hebrew is "Phut". Later, the Latin writers called these people the "Afri". Originally the name "Africa" (Land of the "Afri") was applied to that Roman Province which was created as a result of the conquest of Carthaginian Territory (146 BC).306
Professor Sayce informs us that:
"Since the days of Josephus it has been the fashion to identify Phut with the Libyans; but this cannot be correct, since the Lehabim or Libyans are included among the sons of Mizraim."307
Professor Sayce is absolutely correct, for the descendants of Phut did not remain in Libya. Dr. William Smith in his Concise Dictionary of the Bible wrote that:
"The name Libya is applied by the Greek and Roman writers to the African continent generally, however excluding Egypt."308
And Richard Watson in his Dictionary of the Bible wrote that the name of Libya "in its largest sense, was used by the Greeks to denote the whole of Africa".309 Rawlinson informs us that Phut was the ‘Pef’of the hieroglyphic inscriptions and a people originally dwelling in the misty past of Nubia.310 The Egyptians called the area south of Egypt "Pet", the Babylonians "Puta" or "Petu" and the Persians "Putiyan" after black peoples dwelling there.
For a time a branch of Phut dwelt in Somalia311 lending his name to that area. Its ancient name was, not surprisingly, "Pw(n)t" or "Pu(n)t".312 This means that either that Phut migrated out of East Africa into Libya and West Africa, or a branch resided there.
Pickering, writing in 1851 states thus:
"The children of Phut, and the Lubim ... of a very dark dye, are considered to have been more especially the fathers of the Negro race - settled Africa".313
303 Josephus: Antiquities'. 1:6:2. Pliny also called Libya "Phut".
305 Douglas: 1972: 1066.
307 Sayce: 1928:86.
308 Smith: 1865: "Phut"
309 Watson: 1846 "Phut". See Pliny v.I.l: "The Greeks give to Africa the name of Libya". One of these tribes was the Nigritae in interior Africa.
310 Rawlinson: 1878: 196.
311 Graves: 1964: 122.
312 Douglas: 1972: 1066.
And Wordsworth (1872) noted:
“ Phut... connected in the Bible with Cush ... In the Coptic dialect Libya is called Phaiat
... Phut was still given to a river of Mauritania and all the region around it in the fourth
century (S. Jerome):”314
The black descendants of Phut were renowned as a warrior people: the very name itself means "foreign bowman" or "warrior". His descendants served in various armies in the ancient world: Tyre (Ezek. 30;5), Egypt (Jer. 48:8-10; Ezek. 30:5; Nah. 3:9), and Greece.315 According to history in the 37th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign, he defeated the Pharaoh, as well as the troops of the city "Phut-Javan", the Greek or Ionian Phut.316
In the book of Ezekiel, Phut is associated with the people of "Chub". (Ezek. 30:5) Who can these be? In ancient Mauritania there were a people anciently called the "Cuba"and in Ethiopia the "Cobe".317 What this information reveals then, is the very close relationship of Phut to Africa. Phut, then, must be the Black African Negroids.
The Bafut (also alternatively known as Fu, Fut, Fufe) language in the Niger-Congo region may be a derivation of Phut.
The Book of Jasher lists four sons of Phut: Gebul, Hadan, Benah, Adan. These may have given rise to such place-names as: Gebul - Gilgal in Kenya, Gulu in Uganda, Gulwe and Ugulla river in Tanzania and the name of Angola. Other place names include Gule, Gula, Bon Gula.
Benah - Benue rive in Nigeria, city of Benin, Buna in Kenya, Bangui in the Central African Republic and Beni and Bena in the Congo.
Hadan and Adan- Kaduna, Idon and Idu in Nigeria.318
The Butwa is one of the principle population groups in Zimbabwe which seems to be corruption of Put. Other similar names are Botswana and the two tribes of the Tswana, the Batwana and Batalokwo. Place-names such as Butari in Rwanda, Butiaba in Uganda, Utembo in Angola, Bitam in the Gabon, Bata in Equitorial Guinea and the Putu range in Liberia similarly derive from Phut.
The Black racial sub-divisions
Seligman who is noted for his book Races of Africa, is regarded as "the foremost ethnologist of his day" by the Cambridge History of Africa.319 He divides the races of Africa broadly into six major sub-races:
1. Nilo-Hamites (Cushites)
2. Semites (Arabs)
313 Pickering 1851: xli
314 Wordsworth 1872 (vol 1): 55
317 Bullingenc. 1890:1148.
318 Thanks to David Skelly for identifying many of these names with Phut.
319 Fage: 1978:2:375.
7. Negrillos (Pygmies).
Let us briefly discuss the Negroids, Khoisan and the Negrillos.
The Negrillos (Pygmies) are a dwarf variety of Negroid who were forced into the forest of Central Africa by the advancing Negroids.
The Negroids extended out of West Africa into central Africa; another branch migrated down the east coast into North-eastern Southern Africa. The so-called "true" Negro inhabits West Africa, Chad, Central African Republic and the northern extreme of Zaire.
A branch of Phut's descendants marched southwards and are known to ethnologists as the "Bantu". The word "Bantu" is derived from the word "Abantu", meaning "people". Three basic types of Bantu are recognisable:
1. Western Bantu: (Congoids or palaenegrids) who occupy Gabon, southern Cameroon, Zaire, Angola, Zambia.
2. Eastern Bantu: These may be found in southern Uganda, Ruwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, northern Mozambique.
3. Southern Bantu: Today they occupy Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Southern Mozambique and parts of South Africa.
The southern and eastern Bantu are distinguished from those of the western branch by ethnologists. The former are termed "Kafrids" from the Arabic word "kaffir" meaning "unbeliever".
Dr. Hofmeyer, a foremost specialist on the anthropology of the Bantu tribes writes that:
"It is assumed that the Bantu originated mainly by the hybridization of Negroes with brown or Hamitic races which show affinity to the Mediterranean racial type ... This is apparent from the physical traits expressed".320
A further expert, Dart, states that: "the physical affinities between the Nilotic Negroes and our Southern Bantu attest their common origin".321
Although the southern Bantu are overwhelmingly descended from Phut322, many of the tribes have Hamitic (Cushite) blood as well as Bushman blood.323
The Persians had significant influence off the east coast of Africa centuries ago. Kilwa was founded by Ali, the son of Sultan Hassan of Shiraz. By the 10th century they and the Omani Arabs had all the coastal trade in their grip.325 Further, Darius in 510-512 BC sent Sataspes, the Greek mercenary to explore the route along East Africa.326 He later had Sataspes executed for failing to circumnavigate the dark continent.327 This may "reveal why, amongst the Ambo and Merero tribes in South-West Africa, individuals are found today indistinguishable facially from Indians and Persians".328
320 Hofmeyer: 1967: 78.
321 Dart: 1966: 7, see too p. 26.
322 Tobias 1974: 31, 44 states that their closest relatives are the Negroes of West Africa.
323 Hofmeyer: 1967: 78; Dart: 1966: 18.
324 Dart: 1966: 4.
326 Ibid: 14.
The Semitic traits are common among the Venda of North-eastern Transvaal province, the Shona of southern Zimbabwe, the Rotse of the Zambesi headwaters, as well as the Herero and the Ambo. Their Semitic characteristics include hooked noses and hairy bodies.329
Allow me to explain here that it is quite apparent that the Africans, like all races, are not an homogenous people. Those of the southern Bantu group, for example, are divided into many smaller nations, each speaking its own language, having their own customs and cultures. In South Africa, for example, there are nine Bantu nations: Zulu (a warrior people), the Xhosas, Tswana, North Sotha, Shangaan, Swazi, Ndbele, Venda and South Sotho.330 These may be sub-divided further. The Xhosa nation for instance, is composed of twelve tribes, each in turn composed of various clans. They are a people of remarkable variety and diversity. The name of the Sotha tribe may possibly derive from Sabta or similar.
A small tribe living among the Venda is the Lemba, who have kept themselves separate and do not intermarry with any other black tribes, calling them all "pagans".
"Their faces, although black, show Semitic features. The Semitic factor is further stressed by the fact that they do not eat pork, nor any animals which are not kosher - killed by slitting the throat. They also practice circumcision …”331
In addition, strangers are not permitted to attend their religious ceremonies332, they wear skull caps, have slightly lighter skins than the other Bantu. They consist of 13 clans, 6 of which clearly comprise Arabic names333 numbering only about 250,000 in South Africa, but a few others may be found in Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Malawi. Some of the Bantu peoples have traditions very similar to the story of Esau and Jacob, the ark of the covenant and a god who protects a chosen people on the move. Many words in their vocabularies are very similar to Indian and Arabic.334 Their tradition has them migrating to the Yemen, crossing the Red Sea, they left the Falashas behind in East Africa as they migrated southwards.335
For some excellent photographs depicting the nations of Africa, I highly recommend to the reader The Face of Africa by the eminent German anthropologist Hans Jiirgen.
Slavery in Africa
The East African branch of the Afroids is known as the Nilotes. They dwell in eastern and northern Uganda, as well as southern Sudan. Racially they are Afroids, culturally they are Eastern Hamite (Cushitic).
330 The Peoples of South Africa: 1976: 1.
331 Hofmeyer: 1967: 82. See "Indiana Jones and the Lost Tribes of Israel" by Douglas Davis.
332 Itzkoff 1988: 121
333Warmelo 1974: 82.
334 Warmelo 1974: 58-59.
335 Wade: 9 May 1999 "Group in Africa as Jewish Roots, DNA Indicates", New York Times. It should be emphasised that the amount of Jewish or Semitic DNA is tiny, and shows that there was contact many generations ago. In 2001, a documentary was shown on Foxtel cable television on the subject with the misnomer Sons of Abraham: the Lemba.
If the reader wishes to do some research himself, following is a list of the Nilote tribes to investigate: The Mittu, Abukaya, Luba (mixed with Lehabim?), Wira, Lendu, Mora, Shilluk, Anuok, Beir, Jur, Belanda, Acholi, Lango, Atura, Jaho, Dinka and the Nuer (a language of the Dinka is Ngok-Sobat). A specific prophecy concerning the Nilotes may be found in the book of Isaiah:
"Woe to the land of shadowing [Heb. = "rustling"] with wings, which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia:
"That sendeth ambassadors by the sea [ie the Nile], even in vessels of bulrushes [reeds] upon the waters, saying, 'Go, ye swift messengers, to a people terrible from their beginning hitherto; a nation meted out and trodden [slavery] whose land the rivers have spoilt'" [i.e. the sudd or swamps, hence the name Sudan, which means "black people of the Swamps"].336 (Isa 18:1-2. Verse 7 shows them serving God in the millennium)
This prophecy is referring to the Dinka and Shilluk Negroids who live on the floating cakes of sudd. "Beyond the rivers of Ethiopia" also refers to Negroes much further south as those rivers were connected ultimately to the Zambesi:
"In former times, before the advent of the White man, these rivers [Ethiopia and Lambesi] were joined by swamp lands ... Evidences of this are still to be seen and the Okavango swamp remains".337
Many black Africans have been a very beaten-down and enslaved people. Yet few realize that the Whites who came to Africa did not originate slavery. Samuel Baker, who had led an expedition to crush the slave trade in the Sudan, had this to say:
"The institution of slavery ... is indigenous to the soil of Africa, and it has not been taught to the African by the white man, as is currently reported, but ... has ever been the peculiarity of African tribes ... It was in vain that I attempted to reason with them against the principles of slavery".338
Unfortunately the Dutch and others from the northern states of the USA bought slaves from the African chieftains, beginning the cruel slave trade to America.
The Yoruba, amongst the darkest if not the darkest people in the world,339 appear to claim descent from Nimrod340 and that they came from Arabia originally341 having been driven out by Yar-rooba, son of Khatan, to the coast between Egypt and Ethiopia, prior to moving westwards. Huxley reports that the Yoruba brought the technique of casting bronze from Egypt.342 Johnson in his The History of the Yoruba mentions that this 'Nimrod' they claim descent from was Lamuruda or Namurudu, which is a modification of the name Nimrod:
"Who this Nimrod was, whether Nimrod surnamed 'the strong' the son of Hasoul, or Nimrod the 'mighty hunter' of the Bible ... we cannot tell".343
336 Bullinger: c. 1890:953.
337 Finlay: 1962: 6. See Zeph 3:10.
338 Hofmeyer: 1967: 82.
339 Coon: 230.
340 Numay: 76.
341 Davidson 1980: 209
342 Huxley: 1974: 149.
343 Johnson, page 6. "That the Yorubas came originally from the East there cannot be the slightest doubt, as their habits, manners and customs, etc., all go to prove" (page 5).
As we shall see, Nimrod's descendants were Cushitic, not Negroids and this tradition may have something to do with Nimrod ruling them and other peoples in southern Mesopotamia or Sumeria. Due to historical facts becoming twisted with the passage of time, this tradition may have more to do with their service under him, rather than their descent from him (similarly, the Hungarians seem to claim descent from him too and this is not possible as we shall see in a later chapter). The Yoruba are most definitely Negroid, rather similar to the other tribes roundabout.344 They number several millions and are centred in southwest Nigeria. They are the largest tribe in Nigeria today.
It would be appropriate to mention here the Rehoboth tribe in Namibia. Are they named after the city of Rehoboth which Nimrod built?345
The Pygmies, Bushmen And Hottentots
A dwarf Afroid people are the pygmies:
"There is no doubt that Egyptians had a considerable knowledge about Central Africa. Not only are there the Deir el Bahri reliefs, but there is the fact that 12th-Dynasty eye paints have been shown to come from Busumbi in Uganda ... Pygme (pygmy or boxer) has been derived from pyx (fist), the origin of which is itself completely obscure. The possible illustration of African boxers in the Thera murals and the certain later associations between Africans and the sport, together with the undoubted ancient location of the pygmies in Ethiopia, would make it likely that the Greek word came from Egyptian or a language from further south".346
The Bushmen and Hottentots (termed Khoisanids or Capoids by Anthropologists) are traced to North Africa by Professor Coon and others.347 Who are they and why are they so different to the Negroids?
In many legends along the fringes of the Sahara desert, mention is made of a non-Caucasoid race whose ancestors were originally in the mountains, but moved down to the Dades Valley and found the area occupied by a yellow-skinned race. These they conquered and they soon mixed with the Negro slaves, producing the Haratin serfs. These Haratin look surprisingly like the Hottentots.348 To support his claim, Professor Coon produces a photograph of these Haratin.349 Of further evidence of their origins is that of the Hottentot's cattle. Their cattle is of the long-horned variety, originating in Northeast Africa, and are quite different to the small-horned variety of the nearby Bantu tribes350
Gradually, the Hottentots moved eastward. A stone in the wall of Deir-el-Bahari, close to Thebes, mentions an expedition of Queen Hatshepsut (c 1493 BC). In this inscription, the Queen of Punt is shown to be of undoubtedly the Hottentot race.351 They moved down the coast, being pushed further and further south by the advancing Negroids. The nearest surviving representative to them is the Nama tribe in Namibia numbering 100,000 persons.352
344 Seligman: 1930; 47.
345 Gen 10:11. The Rehoboths are an mixed people today consisting of Hottentot/Bantu hybrid mix and even some White genes.
346 Berna 1991:vol 2
347 Coon: 1963: 649.
348 Coon: 1956: 117.
349 Ibid: plate 160.
350 Taylor: 1937: 125.
351 Toussaint: 1966: 13-14. See also Rohl 1998: 298.
352 Peoples of South Africa: 1976: 23.
They are clearly a mixed people. Topinard writes that they have "a yellow-brown or grey skin ... Their thick, broad, and prominent cheek-bones, and their small and oblique palpobral apertures ... remind one of the Chinese races".353 Dr. Winchell states that "the only people to whom the Hottentot has been thought to bear a resemblance are the Chinese or Malays".354 Their cephalic index is 74, in between that of the Bushmen and the Afroids355 In summary, one must conclude that the "Hottentots are hybrids between the Bushmen and the Bantu".356
But what of the Bushmen themselves? What is their origin? They originated in North Africa too. Traces of them may still be witnessed in North Africa amongst certain Berbers. Professor Coon once again presents a photograph to prove his point.357 They, like the Hottentots, also moved into East Africa. Researchers have found that their language is similar to that of the East African Cushites. One states that "... the Bush-Hottentot languages are so intimately related to the Hamitic group of languages".358
Taylor refers to Artemidorus (c270 BC) who makes mention of a group of troglodytes in the eastern desert, who were nomads. They were virtually naked, running around in nothing but a small skin, carrying with them clubs and bows359 like the Bushmen. They buried their dead under a heap of stones which were surmounted by a goat's horn. This is a Bushmen custom. Even female types of the Bushmen and statuettes have been found in Egyptian tombs.360
The Duwwud in Libya and others in Tanzania are the remnants of these people.361 And small bushman-like midgets are still extant in East Africa (the Dorobs) and South Ethiopia (the Doko).362 The majority of Bushmen however dwell today in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa and Namibia.
Their anatomy is quite different to that of the Africans, which means that they cannot be simply another Negroid type. Their skull, vertebrae and even their feet are quite different363 because they are a mixed people,364 being a mix of Africans and Mongoloids. Perhaps they are those referred to as the "mingled" peoples in North Africa referred to in certain scriptures, being associated with Phut, Cush, Libya and Chub. (Jer. 25:20, 24; Ezek 30:5)
Many commentators make mention of the "riddle" of the Bushmen.365 They have eye-folds and slanting eyes like that of the Mongoloids. And their skin is a yellow-brown colour.366 There has been a discovery "at Outenique (Eastern Cape Province) of ancient skulls with a Mongoloid (Asiatic) faces in the midst of a Bush-Boskopoid population".367 Dart claims that even:
353 Topinard: 1878: 493.
354 Winchell: 1880: 313-4.
355 Taylor: 1937: 125.
356 Dart: 1966: 16: See too, Fage: 1978: 2: 375.
357 Coon: 1956: Plate 154.
358 Dart: 1966: 22.
359Taylor: 1947: 138.
361 Coon: 1963: 648.
362 Taylor: 1937: 124.
363 Coon: 1963: 647.
364 Taylor: 1937: 123.
365 Broek and Weber: 1968: 80.
366 Peoples of South Africa: 1976: 23.
367 Dart: 1966: 2.
"the old Dutch colonists detected the Mongolian appearance of the Eastern Bush and Pygmy peoples and in the negroes of South Africa, the Sudan and the West Coast".368
Was there at one time a Mongoloid tribe in Northern Africa cut off from the rest of their race due to the scattering at the tower of Babel? Did they mix with the Bantu there producing the Bushmen? And did further mixing, some time later, of the Bushmen with the Negroids produce the Hottentots? DNA studies may need to be undertaken to prove this beyond doubt.
The pygmies themselves are a smaller version of the taller Africans. They number a mere few hundred today in central Africa. They generally live among the trees, hunting monkeys with bow and poison-tipped arrows, gathering beans and berries and sleeping in temporary shelters made from banana leaves. Meanwhile some are learning to raise chickens, vowing to leave the dampness and sicknesses of the forests behind. Resettlement projects have been established to save them from extinction, but may be too late. Some are dying of AIDS, while others have turned to drugs and alcohol. The high death rate has all but wiped them out in their traditional habitat in the jungles of Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire. The vast Ituri forest straddling the Zaire-Uganda border once hosted 5,000 pygmies. Today there are only about 300-400 in the forest. We may witness the end of these people in our lifetime, unless the various projects established to save them are successful.
Some pygmies are noted to have a yellowish, brick-red or copper coloured skin. A few even have very dark grey-blue eyes and even auburn to blonde hair indicating that there must have been admixtures with some of them centuries ago.369
One writer notes correctly how the pygmy should be viewed:
"The Pygmy constitutes a totally distinctive race, strikingly different from the Negro. The Pygmy is not a degenerate Negro. The Negro is not a Pygmy grown larger ... Medically speaking, the Pygmy is not a dwarf (degenerate, sterile). In brief, the Pygmies are not abnormal people. They constitute a race of normally small stature, a strongly individualized race that is entirely distinct from Negroes .. .".370
An Asiatic Phut?
Could there have been an Asiatic Phut, being a mutation of Phut? Rawlinson writes:
"Phut. - This term is obscure ... In most [scriptures] Phut is joined with tribes which are distinctively African; but in two of them (Ezek xxvi. 10, and xxxviii.5), the accompanying nations seem to be Asiatic. The explanation of this may possibly be, that, as there were two Cushes, so there were two Phuts, one Asiatic, and the other African". 371
They may have migrated from the east Mediterranean region as this is where anthropologists trace the northern Indians back to.372 All one can say is that large parts of India were known as Raiputna373 (modern Rajasthan state). Rajputna was a group of princely states ruled over by a warrior-caste called the Rajputs (meaning "chief of Put" or "chief over Put").
368 Ibid: 12.
369 Hallett 1973:5
370 Ibid: 6
371 Rawlinson: 1878: 195.
372 Lundman: 1967: 12.
373 New Cambridge Modern History Atlas, map
In northern India, near Bhutan, we find the town called Panta, later Patali-putra,374 the capital city of Maghada State. The Rajputs and others drove the Dravidian Cushites into Central and Southern India. Those Phutites which settled in central India mixed with the Dravidians. In the east some mixed with the Mongoloids, while others in the North-West mixed with some of the Nordid invaders.
Finally, although the "experts" still do not know from where the Black Africans originate (some say
India, others Persia or even Mesopotamia, 375 or from Canaanites or even hominids), Gods Word is clear - they descend from Phut.376
Egypt and Bible History. From Earliest Times to 1000 BC. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids.
Aubet, M E (1987)
The Phoenicians and the West. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Baines, J (1985)
Atlas of Ancient Egypt. Phaidon, Oxford.
Malek, J (1973)
Pygmy Kitabu. Souvenir Press.
Hammond-Toole, W (1974) The Bantu-speaking Peoples of Southern Africa. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
Hindson, E E (1971)
The Philistines and the Old Testament. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids.
Jurgens, H K (cl986)
The Face of Africa. The Cliveden Press, USA.
Martin, E L (1993)
The People that History Forgot. ASK Publications, Portland, Oregon.
Perrot, G (1885)
History of Art in Phoenicia and its Dependencies. Chapman & Hall.
[Chipiez, C London.
Rohl, D (1995)
A Test of Time. The Bible - From Myth to History. Random House,
Seligman, C G (1966)
The Races of Africa. Oxford University Press, London.
Yurco, F J (1989)
"Were the Ancient Egyptians Black or White?", Biblical Archaeology Review,
Sept-Oct: 24-29, 58.
374 Grant : 1971:39
375 Cottrell: 1975: 269
376 Prophecies of Phut: Ezek. 27:10; 30:5; 38:5; Dan. 11:43; Jer. 46:9.
END OF PART TWO
NEXT IS: THE DESCENDANTS OF CUSH