In Search of... The Origin of Nations by Craig White
INTRODUCTION TO SECTION ON HAM
To which people is Ham a forefather? Is it true that the peoples of Africa descend from him? And if so how can we prove it?
The peoples to be discussed, are, for the purposes of this section, the Arabic peoples spread across the Arabian Peninsula, the Turks of Asia Minor and Turkics of Central Asia, the Iranians and to some degree, the Armenians. The latter appear to be a mixture of a branch of Togarmah and the Turks. As we shall see, historians and anthropologists mistakenly call the Middle Eastern peoples 'Semites' due to the theological belief in the previous two centuries that the Arabic peoples descend from Shem.
This chapter will dispel for all time this notion. Shem was father of the Europeans, but Ham and Japheth fathered various other peoples. The Middle Eastern and Central Asiatic nations do not descend from Shem, except in limited mixtures as we shall see.
Then we shall explore the truth concerning the identity of the peoples living around the Mediterranean, North Africa, the Black Africans and the descendants of Cush.
This is followed by surprises galore as we investigate the amazing Australian Aboriginals (the native inhabitants of this dry continent). Can we trace their footsteps from the ancient Middle East to Australia or are the evolutionists correct in their assertion that the Aboriginal and American Indian history may be traced back 40,000 years or more? Some of their traditions have surprising similarities to Biblical creation and flood accounts. Did Egyptians visit Australia anciently and leave behind evidence of contact with the Aboriginals? The story is fascinating and reads like a detailed detective story full of intrigue and mystery.
Who is Ham anyhow? Driver in The Book of Genesis notes:
"As a Heb. Word it might mean 'hot' (Jos.9:12, Jb 37:17): hence it has been taken to denote the hot lands of the south ... it has been plausibly connected with the native kerne or chemi ='black'.".98
Kemet (Black Land) is the name that the ancient Egyptians referred to their homeland.99
Plutarch himself recorded that Egypt was called Chemia or 'the country of Ham'.100 The very name of Ham itself seems to give us some indication that his descendants would not only live in the hot climates, but that they would be dark peoples adding yet another dimension to mankind's glorious, God-given diversity. Indeed, from the Mohammedan annals, Ham was the common founder of the southern tribes and peoples in Saudi Arabia, the Indians, Africans and Moors.101
As with all of Noah's descendants, Ham inherited wonderful blessings and a beautiful portion of the earth. For instance, the wildlife reserves of Africa exhibit the greatest array and complexity of animal
98 Driver 1930: 195. Waddell notes that the old Egyptian name of Kami or Kam means "dark-coloured or black" (1929: 272)
99 Rohl 1995: 13
100 Pickering 1851: xxxix
101 Pickering 1851: xxxvi
species for enjoyment of man and glory of God. The jungles, forests, seashores, variety of both flora and fauna represent extensive blessings.
In fact, some of his descendants found their way to the Americas shortly after the flood and were known as Olmecs or Mande. This is clearly shown to be the case in ancient engravings and skeletal remains.102 They, like all peoples, have enjoyed great accomplishments and possess tremendous gifts which God has showered upon them.
Let us now examine his descendants more fully.
CHART 7: Descendants of Ham
102 Wiercinski: 1972: "Inter-and Intrapopulational Racial Differentiation of Tlatilco, Cerro de Las Mesas, Teothuacan, Monte Alban and Yucatan Maya", XXXIX Consreso Intern, de Americanistas. Lima 1970,Vol.1, 231-252.
1. West Africa
Where they may be found....Nigeria; Central and Southern Africa; Sudan
4. Eastern Hamites (Cushites)
6. Northern Hamites
Where they may be found....S.Sudan; Somalia; Ethiopia; Egypt; Sudan; North Niger
C. Capoids and Pygmies
7. Bushman (Sanids)
8. Hottentots (Khoids)
9. Pygmies (Negrillos)
Where they may be found....Mamibia; Congo
D. Asian Blacks
11. Pygmies (Negritos)
12. Australian Aboriginals and Pre-davidians; Micronesians; Melanesians; Papuans
Where they may be found....South India; North Cylon; Malaysia, scattered; Australia; S. India; S. Cylon; Papua New Guinea; West Pasific
E. The Brown Races
14. Armenoid (Assyroid)
15. Southeast Mediterranean (Semites or Near eastern)
17. North-West Indians
Where they may be found....Armenia; Turkey; Suadi Arabia; Iran; Afghanistan; East Turkey; N.W. Indians; E. Pakistan
THE ROOTS OF THE TURKIC AND ARABIC TRIBES
Let us now turn our attention to the origin and destiny of the peoples of Central Asia and the Arabs who are largely Islamic, and also related, as we shall see.
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* and understand the origin and destiny of the Turkic (Turanid) peoples of Central Asia,
* who the peoples of Turkey are in prophecy,
* whom the mysterious Biblical figure Gog is,
* and have come to see specifically who has descended from the sons of Ishmael,
* what part the Arabs play in prophecy.
The Turkish Peoples
The story of the peoples of Turkey originates in Genesis Chapter twenty-five with the birth of Edom (Esau), son of Isaac. Edom inherited a great number of descendants and blessings (Genesis 36), but due to his rejection of the birthright (Gen 25:23-24), his birthright was passed over to Jacob - this has led to ongoing antagonism between the two lines.103
Edom married two Ishmaelitesses: Mahalath, a daughter of Ishmael (Gen 28:9) and Bashemath (Gen 36:17). Ishmael was himself half Egyptian, and having married an Egyptianitess, his offspring were three-quarters Egyptian. Edom also married three Hittites and one Hivite (Gen 26:34; 36:2,12,14 -unless the Bashemath of Gen 26:34 is the same as Adah of Gen 36:2,12). This meant that Edom's offspring were part White, Canaanite and Ishmaelite.
The Bible clearly shows that some of the Edomites inhabited the region of Petra and Mount Seir (Gen 32:3) and contains the first recorded history of Petra104. The Egyptian Execration Texts (c 1800BC) mention the Edomites as chiefs of clans and itinerant pastoralists, but overall what is recorded of them may be found in a very few texts. The pattern of tent-dwelling nomadic lifestyle appears to have continued to about the 7th century BC.
Some of them moved westwards and became Hellenised and Judaized. As a result they became known as Idumaeans. Herod the Great was an Idumaean. Probably in the 7th century BC, the
103 The International Bible Encyclopedia, article "Esau" states:
"The birth narrative that mentioned the second child grasping the heel of the first foreshadowed the subordinate relationship of the Edomites to the offspring of Jacob (cf. Jer 49:8; Ob. 6; Rom 9:10-13)...
Archaeological discoveries from Nuzi have shown that disposing of the birthright among members of the same family was not unknown.
Esau's apparent indifference to such valued possessions as the birthright was reflected in his marriage to two local women who were not of Abrahamic stock. This was a matter of great regret to Isaac and Rebekah (Gen. 26:35), and doubtless prompted the latter to instruct Jacob in ways of obtaining the patriarchal blessing that properly belonged to Esau (ch. 27)."
104 Whiting 1935:129
Nabataeans, a nomadic Arabic tribe appear in the land of the Edomites, replacing them or displacing in some, yet unspecified way. Historians claim that the sedentary state of the Edomites had practically ceased under the lax rule of the Persians and the Edomites must have migrated out of southern Jordan: "of these early migrations we know nothing"105.
The Sons of Edom
These Arabic tribes may have either intermarried with some of the Edomites and pushed the rest of them out of their homeland and into Hebron106. When Nebuchadnezzar invaded the region he took them into captivity with the result that most of them disappeared from history for hundreds of years. Where did they go to? What became of a whole nation of people? Did they simple 'disappear' from view permanently, or may they be found as a nation or nations today?
The Descendants of Teman
Each specific son of Edom is virtually impossible to trace, but Teman a grandson via Eliphaz (whose mother was Adah, the Hittite) became pre-eminent among his brethren, the leading tribe. The region of Persia and Turkestan became known as the "Land of Temani" after him.
One of the kings of Temani was Husham. He is the King Hushan or Hushang of ancient history. His native land was in Persia, indicating that even at such an early date the Edomites were migrating out of Palestine and surrounding districts. Many of the Edomites dwelt in northern Persia at this time. This is the culture which historians refer to as Sialk I and Sialk II (Chashmah Aly) which is connected to Turkestan according to studies in pottery.107
A descendant of Husham was Alphidun who had two sons, firstly Tur, who ruled over the Edomites in Central Asia. This may be the origin of the name Turkestan, Turk or Turanian. The second son was Irege. Irege's son Manougher was surnamed Phirouz, the "Perses" of Greek legend. Persia may
105 Parr 1994:32
106 Pfeiffer 1966:299
107 Childe 1952: 193
be named after him108. It is interesting that some of the Turks claim descent from an individual named Turk, but some 19th century historians suppose him to be a grandson of Japheth or Togarmah109. Another clue may be the Hor Turks which recalls the name of the Horites who were associated with the Edomites in Genesis 36. Historians often mistake these Horites for the Hurrians.
The Edomites named the rocky Persian and Turkestan plateaus the ‘land of Teman.’ Historians pick up the story tracing the Turkic peoples. Many of them, known as the Oghuz or Uighurs, poured out of Central Asia and Turkestan and into Asia Minor in the 11th century (prior to them were the Hunnish hordes led by Attila in the 5th century, the Avars in the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries; the Bulgars in the 7th century, the Magyars in the 9th century The Golden Hordes or Mongols did not invade until the 13th century). Their tribal ancestors, known as the Ertoghrul110, carved out the Seljuk and Ottoman empires. Many of their tribe remain in Turkestan or Turkmenia to this day111. The indelible stamp of the name Teman was carried into modern history in the form of the Ottoman Empire112 (note “O Teman"or O-Thman in Obadiah 9 - Ottoman). Here dwell most of Tertian's descendants. Prophecy predicted that they would control the Dardanelles (Ob 14). The Khazars even called the Byzantian Emperor, "King of Edom"! Some may have found their way into southern Europe where Rabbinic tradition associates Rome with Edom. According to researcher Yair Davidy:
"Alexander the Great ... claimed descent from the Temenidae, descendants of Temenus ... king of Greece. The Temenidae came to Macedon in ca. 650 BC. Amongst the Thracian and Anatolian peoples were the Edoni and Odomants".113
Now, it is to modern Turkey that the Central Asian Turks look to for leadership and as an example for modernisation114. WOE to the West should these people ever unite under a strong leader ever again and confederate as a Gog in collusion with Meshech, Tubal and Magog! In World War One, had the Central Powers together with Turkey been successful, their intentions for Central Asia were as follows:
"Thirty to forty millions of Turks will become independent, and together with the ten millions of Ottoman Turks, will form a nation of fifty millions, which may perhaps be compared with that of Germany in that it will have the strength and energy to rise even higher"115.
Historians admit that the origin of the Turks is shrouded in mystery116. The Chinese called them T'u-chueh, apparently derived from the name Turket, which means to be strong or forceful, i.e. a warrior people. The Chinese annals reveal that the Turks were originally a branch of the Hsiungnu (Huns) and indeed, the T'u-chueh claimed descent from the Huns. Their homeland was in the Altai mountains in Outer Mongolia, but whether they came circuitously via the Zagros Mountains, where a tribe was known as the Turukkaeans, cannot be ascertained at this stage117.
108 Hoeh 1969: vol 2 : 159
109 The Ottoman Empire cl850:2
110 Lane-Poole 1900:6
111 Caroe 1967:37
112 Hoeh 1957: 5
113 Davidy 1995: 184
114 Church 1992:48-53
115 Czaplicka 1918:15-16. Will the modem-day descendants of Edom ally themselves, at least temporarily, with the Assyrians (Germans) and their European allies? See Daniel 11:41 and Ps 83:1-8.
116 Kwanten 1979:29
117 Wilhelm 1989:14
Many of them were known as Huns (Hsiungnu of the Chinese annals) which included other peoples in a confederation, but were primarily Turkics. They were more mobile than earlier nomads, having given up cattle breeding and were skilful archers, mounted on horseback, slaying their opponents quickly, giving them speedy consecutive victories. Their attacks upon northern China stimulated the building of the Great Wall in the third century BC by the Ch'in (or Qin) Dynasty. They were eventually defeated and the eastern part absorbed and placed under the control of China. The western hordes invaded Europe, overcoming the Alans in 370AD, followed by the Ostrogoths, Visigoths and extended their influence into Germany and the Balkans. Under Attila the Hun they invaded Italy and when he died and after a major defeat, they disappear from history.
In any event, the Turks were subject for many years to the Juan-Juan (possibly descendants of Javan) until 552AD when they overthrew their yoke - from this time forth they grew in stature and strength until they forged their own empire. But when they were overthrown by their Mongol neighbours in 744AD, they migrated again to the west and south coming into contact with the Islamics. The Ottoman Turks came over to Islam in the 10th century. This religion was very attractive for a number of reasons: it was intrinsically suitable to a warrior people; and it had wonderful rewards, particularly for fighting-men who die in war 'in the Path of Allah'118. The Turks have remained overwhelmingly Islamic ever since. Also, all the Central Asian republics are Islamic. The national composition of these Turkic states are as follows:
Kazakhstan -17 million population - 42% Kazakhs, 38% Russian, 4.5% Ukrainian
Kirghizia - 4.6 million population - 52.5% Kirghiz, 21.5% Russian, 13% Uzbeks
Tadjikistan - 5.3 million population - 59% Tadjiks, Uzbeks 23%, 10.5% Russian
Turkmenia - 3.8 million population - 68.5% Turkmen, 12.5% Russian, 8.5% Uzbeks
Uzbekistan - 20.4 million population- 68.8% Uzbeks, 10.8% Russian, 4.2% Tatars
Thus the vast majority of the tribes of Central Asia are Turkic by language and Islamic by religion. Still many others, though in the minority, dwell within Xinjiang province in China (the Uygur - 6 or 7 millions)119, northern Afghanistan, parts of north-west Iran and are basically pastoralists (14 millions), Russia, Mongolia and even Armenia. The majority of Azerbaijanis are racial Turks. Some show a mixture with Caucasoids or Mongoloids. Others appear to have fair hair which reflects admixture with the Kurds120. Only the Tatar, alone of all the Turkic groups, is not provided with a homeland, although their numbers almost equal that of the Khirgiz121; they are scattered across all of the Central Asian republics and Russia.
Hundreds of thousands of Turks dwell in south-east Europe to this day, remnants of the hordes which invaded Europe centuries ago. They approached Europe from the south of the Caspian Sea and crossed the Euphrates in 1063AD and occupied Asia minor 21 years later; Jerusalem itself was conquered in 107IAD. After two centuries, the Ottoman Turks advanced into Phrygia and into the Balkan Peninsula: Macedonia was overrun in 1373, Sophia in 1385, Constantinople in 1453 and Hungary from 1552 to 1687. To this day, the memories of invading Huns, Turks and Mongols have seared deeply the consciousness of Europe and they have great fears of invasions from the East.
The Kazakhs, Turkmenians and Uzbeks are Turks by race, but many of the latter group have an admixture of Mongoloid and Tadjik blood122. The Uzbeks and a close relative, the Nogai tribe,
118 Lewis 1965:21
119 Sindair 1987:157
120 Huxley 1975:157
121 Allworth 1967:65
122 Cavendish 1981:183
descend from the ancient Kipchak and Kazak clans123. The Kazaks often rebelled against authority and preferred a rover's life to submission. Kazak is an old Turkish word which means vagabond. Some white Russians who were later also applied this name, were so called as they also wished to live a similar life (i.e. Cossacks). The Tadzhiks or Tajiks are not Turks by race, but are culturally and religiously identified with them124. However, they claim to be of Arab descent via Persia and border on that country. Many of their ethnic group dwell across the border in Afghanistan. Historians and anthropologists classify them as Persians ethnically. Some believe that the name derives from the Arabic Taz or Taj, which was the general label given to mixed descendants of Arabs who conquered much of southern Persia.
One should digress slightly here to briefly make mention of the ethnic diversity of Afghanistan. The country is made up of some twenty distinct ethnic peoples, the most prominent being the Pashtuns in the south, and the Turkoman, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Nuristanis, Aimaqs and Hazaras in the northern, western and central regions. The Pathans are considered to be true Afghans. Upon scientific analysis of their physical characteristics given modern anthropological and human biological methodologies, they are of the Turko-Iranian type with a considerable mixture of Indian within their eastern clans. One story ascribes them to Israelitish origin, the Beni Israel, descended via Qais from King Saul. But, except for some minor aspects such as a number of Biblical names and certain facial features to bolster such a story, there is nothing substantial to support the theory. Also, their language has not the remotest generic relationship to Hebrew or Aramaic. Like other cultural, religious and linguistic similarities amongst certain African tribes, American Indians, Japanese and Maoris, some have gone outside genetic reality and ascribed Israelitish origins to these people - based on trading and cultural contacts and not on genetics.
"The Afghans adopted the literary traditions of the Israelites and adjusted it to their own folklore" writes one historian.125
Some few Pathans (who dominate the northern alliance of tribes that fought the Taliban) reflect clear Nordic, Dinaric and even a little Mongoloid influences. Researcher Fraser-Tytler feels that the Pathans were originally descended from the Indo-Europeans, but over time mixed with other races to barely resemble the original type whatsoever. They occupy the south, inner west and a few are the ruling landed elite in the north. Many of their number dwell across the border in Pakistan. Should a civil war, based on the traditional north/south conflicts, ever tear the country apart, the various ethnic groups will probably be reunited with their relatives across the border and the Pathans with their Pashtun brothers in north-eastern Pakistan.
The Ghilzais are of Turkish origin and descended from the Khalaj tribe, a part of the larger Qarluq or Khallak confederacy. They migrated across the Oxus, perhaps with the Ephthalites into Afghanistan. Major subdivisions consist of Turan and Buran with the clans of Tokhi, Hotak, Andar and Taraki. To the north of the Hindu Kush a considerable number of the tribes are clearly Turkish, the most numerous being the Uzbeks; others are the Turkmen, Khirghiz, Kazaks, Qarluq and Chagatai. A few Mongoloids, the Hazarahs were brought into the land by Chenghiz Khan or another later Mongol ruler. Unlike the other tribes which border with relatives in other countries, the Hazarahs have ended up in the very centre of the country, cut off from their kinsmen. And, unlike most of the country, they are Shiite Moslems (i.e. the Islam of neighbouring Iran). Because of their Shi'a faith and Mongolian origins, they have suffered immense persecution, slavery or neglect at the hands of the Pathan/Sunni ruling class.
123 Caroe 1967:37
124 Grolier Society 1961: vol 3:169
125 Gommans 1999: 164
There are also some tribes in Afghanistan resembling swarthy Dravidians as we shall see in a later chapter and also a few Arabs. Afghanistan therefore suffers an enormous complexity of ethnic groups representing an impossible national unity.
Let us return to the story flow. The Kirghiz in particular were known to be rather savage. Bordering on China, they are Mongoloid peoples (Magog) in the main. They regard themselves as the most beautiful of all races for, according to their aesthetic views, God made them with bones prominent like the horse, an animal which was the crowning work of creation, in their eyes126. Their name has an interesting origin: Kir means field and gis or gez is the root of the word gizmelt (wander); in other words their name in Turkish means that they are wanderers in the field - nomads127. Their homeland is so vast that it is roughly one third the size of the United States.
Other place-names which may assist in identifying Edom, Amalek, and Teman are:
* Amalik city in central Asia
* Tarim River once called the Yumalak-Darya
* Town of Edomka in Siberia
* Toman Agha in Afghanistan
* Odomantes tribe in Greece and the Odomantis region of Armenia identified by Strabo whom Herodotus calls the Siro-Painones which may derive from Seir129. While Ptolemy refers to the province of Odomantica and town of Idomene in Macedonia and Idymus in
The Turkic Tribes of Central Asia
The Turkic tribes were defeated and ruled by the Chinese for a century in the 7th century AD. In 75 IAD the Arabs, entering Turkestan by way of Persia defeated the Chinese and ruled until the 13th century, after which the land of Turkestan has been ruled by Turks and Mongols until the Great Russian conquests.131 The Mongol conquests beginning early 13th century under Genghiz Khan were especially cruel and bloody. For instance, in 1220AD the Mongol hordes entered and sacked the major Turkic cities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Merv - the population was systematically murdered, raped and enslaved. Almost the entire populations of these cities were massacred, although the artisans were spared but horribly enslaved. Also, the famous irrigation dams were inexplicably destroyed.
The Turkomen character was famous for its fierceness and marauding activities
"given from remote times to intestine warfare, and living mainly on the 'loot' brought back from plundering raids ... All feeble or useless captives were slaughtered, the rest chained in gangs ... and either sold as slaves ... or else kept in bondage till ransomed by their friends"
126 Browne 1890:233
127 Strabo 3:359; 5:325
128 Herodotus 5:15
130 Ptolemy 3:12
131 Coon 1939:634
writes Sir Harry Johnston in his famous and comprehensive study on The Living Races of Mankind132. Robert Brown in his masterly work The Races of Mankind says that their:
"... slaves are treated very cruelly - so cruelly, indeed, that even the pilgrim hadjis who are so hospitably entertained in the Turkoman's tents that they are during their stay virtually masters, get disgusted with the inhumanity they see practised"133
The greatest Turkic empire was established by Tamerlane (Timur i Leng or Timur the Lame which is Aksak Temur in Turkish), who was renowned and feared having conquered foreign lands and peoples from India to the Mediterranean and having built a fantastic capital at Samarkand in Uzbekistan. He was proclaimed the sovereign of Bakhara in 1370 and after many a conflict with other rivals, mounted the throne at Samarkand, the capital. He defeated the Golden Horde in 1395 and formed his own oppressive empire. Cruelty and ruthlessness followed his armies wherever they invaded: whole populations were slaughtered, towns razed to the ground and slaves and treasure were brought from afar to build up his capital (Samarkand) and native town (Shahr-i-Sabz).
His terrible plundering hordes he led to the Persian Gulf, the Hellespont and even to the Ganges River! He was on his way to invade China when he was overtaken in death. We can only speculate what incredible manpower this Gog leader would have had at his disposal to eventually invade Europe should he have had marshalled the hordes of the Far East. The Elizabethan poet Christopher Marlowe is famous for the drama Tamburlaine in which Tamerlane is portrayed as an insane monster. Yet, like so many power driven and even demon-led dictators, he is less well known for the encouragement he gave to science and the arts as well as to the construction of vast public works. After his death, as is so often the case when a strong political or religious leader dies, his empire is divided. Group after group set up khanates and petty kingdoms (e.g. Bukhara and Khiva in Uzbekistan; perhaps the latter may be related to the Hivites with whom Edom intermarried).
Edom's sons, Zepho, Gatam and Kenaz are difficult to specify exactly to which of the Turkic nations they apply but they are probably scattered throughout Central Asia or the Arab world today. Another son of Teman is Omar. Is there any connection between him and the name of the Mosque of Omar? Edomites are scattered throughout the Middle East, in parts of Iran with others perhaps resident among the Iraqis, Saudi Arabians and Yemenis (Yemen is perhaps named after Timna, Eliphaz's concubine).
Gog is indeed a mystery. Ezekiel places him on an equal footing with Magog, yet he is not mentioned as being a descendant of Japheth in the Table of Nations nor anywhere else in scripture. However, in history there is a king Gyges of Lydia, called Gugu by the Assyrians134. He was ruler of a Cimmerian people135. Also the Arabs referred to the 'Yajuj and Majuj' (i.e. Gog and Magog) as living in North-east Asia beyond the Tatars and Sclavonians136.
132 Johnston c 1890: vol 1: 250
133 Brown cl890:237
134 Douglas 1972:480; Sayce 1928:73
135 Wiseman 1973:165
136 Hoeh 1957:17
Certain scriptures refer to an Og (Deut 3:1-13; Num 21:33) and Agag (Num 24:7; 1 Sam 15:8-9; Est 3:1; 8:3; 9:24); these are not Japhethites but Amalekites descendants of Edom Pentateuch for Agag reads as Agog and the Septuagint reads it as Gog138.
What does Gog actually mean?
"Gog - it is a long o both in the Hebrew and in the Greek - is made from the old-world-root ‘GG’ which in the early languages implied something 'g-i-g-antic'. Russia has this long time been the colossus of the north'.
A potentate of bible history and prophecy was 'Agog'. That name, or rather, its title, comes from the same root. He was (in his own estimation), a, Aleph, + GG = No. 1 - GREAT! The Agagites, we are told in Young's Analytical Concordance, were an 'Amalekite tribe' and Agog, was 'a poetic name of Amalek, derived from a particular dynasty...'.
Of course, it is always on the cards that some great military dictator [in Russian Central Asia] may arise - he would be the personal Gog".139
Gog is both a people and a particular leader of the hordes of Asia. Whoever the leader of Russia is who will eventually marshall the east against a German-led United States of Europe and western civilization, he may well be from this stock.
Amalek, the most infamous of the sons of Edom, also migrated into Turkestan naming a city there "Amalek" after themselves according to Paul Herrmann's Sieben vorbei und Acht Verweht (p 451)140. Amalek was borne from a union between Eliphaz and Timna, a Horite (Gen 36:12, 22). The Egyptians called the Amalekites "Amu". In Turkestan the River Amu was probably named after them (the Oxus of the ancient Greeks); Amu is a Persian name141. But that is not all. The Edomites inhabited Mount Seir anciently, as has already been mentioned. In Turkestan the Syr Dary river may be named after them as the meaning is "the river of Seir"! There can be no doubt about it, a branch of the Amalekites dwell to this day in Central Asia, Turkestan to be exact. Here then is the end-time Gog! We should expect a strong leader to emerge from this region in the future years and decades. Gog is not Russia and the Western peoples of the former Soviet Union as many speculate, but the peoples of central Asia, seeking independence from Russia.
We should perhaps note that the Assyrian texts refer to the King of Lydia (in western Turkey) as Gugu and there was also a mention of Gugians in the area of Mitanni142. However, whether there is any connection to the Amalekites cannot be ascertained at this point in time although it could be pointed out that the kings of Amalek were sometimes named Agag (Num 24:7; I Sam 15:8). Josephus also sees Agag as a synonym for Amalek143. We know from the scriptures that one evil man Haman, tried to exterminate the Judahites in Persia. In the book of Esther Haman was called an Agagite (3:1,10; 8:3,5;9:24); Josephus, in fact explicitly calls Haman an Amalekite: "Now there was one Haman, the son of Amedatha, by birth an Amalekite, that used to go in to the king"144. All this positively indicates that many of the Edomites were migrating slowly toward Central Asia even at
137 Haman the Agagite mentioned in Esther 3:1 is called an Amalekite by Josephus in Antiquities 11:6:1
139 Milner 1941:9-10
140 quoted in Hoeh 1957: 5
141 Caroe 1967:14
142 Yamuachi 1982:23
143 Josephus Antiquities Vl.l .2,3
144 Josephus Antiquities XI.6.5
this time. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia reveals that Hainan's home was in an area adjacent to Media known as Agazi in the Annals of Sargon145, a name possibly associated with or derived from Agag or Gog.
Another son of Edom, Reuel, unlike his grandsons Amalek and Teman, is very difficult to trace specifically. As Reuel's mother was Bashemath, the Ishmaelitess, he may be among the Arabs, Ruwaleh specifically. Conversely, Jehush, Jaalam and Korah were borne by Aholibamah who was daughter of Anah and granddaughter of Zibeon the Hivite, one of Esau's wives. They might well be among the Turkic tribes of Central Asia along with Amalek as a result. Korah may have given his name to the Karakum Desert, Karakul lake, Karatau mountains, the Kirghiz and Khorasan in Turkestan. One division of the Kirghiz is known as the Kara.
The name of Hivite may have lived on in the city of Khiva of Central Asia, which was the capital of the province of Khiva of the Turks.146
The Edomites were also known as Idumaeans, probably due to some intermarriage between Edomites and Dumah, the descendant of Ishmael. In Turkey we find the areas of Duman, Duman Dagh mountain and Dumanli Dagh mountains. And in India the town of Dumagudiem and Duma mountains.
Turkey In Prophecy?
Dozens of prophecies concerning Turkey fill the pages of God's Word. Everywhere you read Edom, Esau, Seir, Idumea or Bozrah in the prophets, it is referring to these people, particularly to Turkey, a nation of some 55 millions. The entire prophecy of Obadiah is a blistering message of warning to the Turks today!
When the modern Babylon/Tyre/United States of Europe invades the Middle East,
"these shall escape out of his hand even Edom and Moab and the chief of the children of Ammon." (Dan 11:41)
Why will Turkey escape the wrath of Europe, at least initially? The following scripture indicates that they will be closely allied with Europe in the End Time:
"In the day that thou stoodest on the other side [i.e. with the enemy], in the day that the strangers carried away captive his forces, and foreigners entered into his gates, and cast lots upon Jerusalem, even thou wast as one of them." (Ob 11)
From these inspired scriptures we can see that Turkey will be allied to Europe against the House of Israel and Judah:
"Therefore thus saith the Lord God: 'I will stretch out Mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it; and I will make it desolate from Teman; and they of Dedan shall fall by the sword'." (Ezek 25:13)
Who will God use to execute such destruction? Earlier in the chapter He mentions men of the east - Russia and the 200 million horde from the Orient. And of Amalek (Gog), God thunders:
145 Bromily 1982: vol 2:602
146 Brown cl900: 223; Lands and Peoples 1961:vol 3: 179
"Amalek was the first of the nations [against Israel]; but his latter end shall be that he perish for ever." (Num 24:20)
A comprehensive list of prophecies dealing with Turkey may be found in the footnotes147
[I HAVE EXPOUNDED THE PROPHETIC BOOKS OF THE BIBLE, ON THIS WEBSITE, WHICH INCLUDE THEN THE PROPHECIES ON EDOM OR TURKEY - Keith Hunt]
Descendants of Ishmael and the Peoples of the Arabian Peninsula
The brown peoples of Saudi Arabia spring from Ishmael. Ask any Arab, they will tell you so! Ishmael was Abraham's son through Hagar, the Egyptian handmaid of his wife Sarai (as an interesting aside, Hagar means flight; the flight of Muhammed to Medina is known as the Hagira). A case may be made for her being white, but evidence seems to favour her being descended from the dark Mizraimites (Gen 16:1-4, 15). If this be the case, then Ishmael was half Egyptian. And having married an Egyptian wife (Gen 21:21), this would make his descendants three-quarters Egyptian. However, being descended of Abraham the Saudi Arabians still bear inexplicably (to anthropologists) "certain resemblances" to the nations located in north-west Europe148. Many researchers would agree with this viewpoint. Raymond McNair writes that "our investigation further revealed that the modern Arabs are more Hamitic than Semitic"149, and in this conclusion he is correct.
As we have seen, Edom rejected his birthright and it was given instead to Jacob. Jacob's father, Isaac, was granted the birthright instead of his brother, Ishmael, even though Abraham wanted Ishmael to inherit it (Gen 17:18-21). Yet, Ishmael still inherited great blessings, but rivalry between their descendants are the order of the day.
They are termed "Arabs" after the land they occupied, for Arabia was called by this name before the Ishmaelites moved into that peninsula and, it seems, Cushites originally held this name (known as Himyarites). The Hebrews called the land 'arab' meaning 'evening', 'dusk' or 'sterile' (desert). Thus the Ishmaelites were termed "Arbim" by the Hebrews and "Aribu" or "Arubu" by the Assyrians150. It should also be noted that a few centuries ago the Khazars called the Arabs Ishmael, giving further credence to their origin.
Miles and others have written and researched this extensively:
".. the Hamitic Cushites spread over Southern and Eastern Arabia and founded most of the settlements .... [and] were overwhelmed eventually by a great wave of Semitic invasion from Northern Arabia, by which they were partly expelled and partly absorbed."151
As far as historians are aware, the word Arab is first mentioned in an inscription of Assyrian King Shalmaneser III who refers to the 'Gindibu the Aribi', a rebellious tribe he was declaring victory over. From that time on both Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions refer frequently to Aribi or Arabu151. They were a nomadic people living in the Arabian desert, and they usually paid tribute to the Assyrian kings in the form of camels which they first domesticated about 1500-1200 BC. The
147 Is 11:14; 34:6; 63:1, 6; Jer 9:26; 25:21; 49:7-10, 17-24; Lam 4:21-22; Ezek 25:12-14; 35:1-15; 36:5; Joel 3:19; Amos 1:6-12; 2:1; 9:12; Obadiah (entire book); Mic 1:12; Mai 1:2-4.
148 Glubb 1969:16
149 McNair 1963:316
150 Pfeiffer 1966:45
151 Miles 1966
152 Mansfield 1976:13
name is first used in the Bible in 2 Chronicles 17:11. Otherwise the Bible normally uses the word Ishmaelites to refer to Arabs.
The Ishmaelite Arabs were a nomadic people, wandering all over the region. However, with the arrival of the seventh century and being filled with religious zeal due to the teachings of Mohammed, these Arabs established a mighty empire which extended from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to China in the east. The Muslim inhabitants of the empire came to be called collectively 'Arabs'153. Thus many people are inaccurately termed 'Arab'. The Berbers, Moors, Libyans and others are not Arabs by race but they do speak the Arabic tongue and practice the Muslim religion154. Many Cushitic peoples from Sudan and other northern African countries are also termed 'Arab', however they are not racially so, but only because they practice the Muslim religion of the Ishmaelites155.
Today the original Arab blood constitutes a very small percentage of the populations of the nations they conquered and are largely submerged into them156 The Ishmaelites are scattered throughout North Africa, Iran and even in India. Others have intermarried with the original Jordanians, Lebanese, Syrians, Kuwaitis and Iraqis. Traces of them may be found in the Ahaggar Mountains in the Sahara and the Hoggar tribe; the Ismailiyya division within the Islamic Shiites; the town of Ismailia in Egypt and the Ismailzai tribe in northwestern India.
The Muslim religion has had an enormous impact upon the world for centuries and holds sway over Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. It is also making huge inroads into Black Africa. It stems from Mohammed who claimed special inspiration and that he was a special prophet of God. In 622AD he was forced to flee to the city of Medina from Mecca (this is known as the hegira or hagira). He was unable to write, but nevertheless he dictated his ideas which were collated after his death and published as the Koran. He declared war upon the Christians, but died before he was able to accomplish his goals.
However, his band of followers gradually increased and after his death Jerusalem fell to the Muslims in 637AD. They spread themselves into Syria, Asia Minor, Persia, Egypt and North Africa and within 50 years after his death they rapidly had spread to Constantinople and Gibraltar. Wherever they went they annexed the territories and compelled the nations to accept Islam under the cry "the Koran or the sword". As the Saracens they passed into Spain and were on the verge of overwhelming Europe. The famous Merovingian King, Charles, was able to muster an army strong enough to oppose them at Poitiers in 732AD. Eighteen years later they held sway from Spain to the borders of China - the height of their power and success. Then they turned their attention to learning, literature, philosophy and science, gaining techniques and inventions from various other cultures (e.g. the Chinese, Indians, Jews and Egyptians).
The Twelve Sons of Ishmael
Tracing each of Ishmael's sons is difficult and some of them appear impossible to trace. But they have become great as prophesied (Gen 17:20; 25:16) yet subject to a resonance of upheavals (Gen 16:11-12). The famous Arab historian, al-Masudi indicates the Ishmaelite origins of the Arabic peoples in his book Meadows of Gold. Ishmael is honoured among the Arabians to this day as their ancestor. J S Fox, author of Today, Tomorrow and the Great Beyond, writes that he possesses "an
153 Glubb 1969:13
154 Seligman 1930:150
155 Ibid: 151
156 Glubb 1969:16
Arab Koran which contains a genealogical tree of the Arab race on the front page, showing, according to their own testimony, their racial descent from Abram, via Ishmael"157
The Sons of Ishmael
Nebajoth or Nebaioth probably gave rise to the Nabataean Arabs who lived at Petra for centuries. The inscription of Ashur-banipal of Assyria calls them the Nabaiate158, the Nabajati or Nab'ati in the Accadian documents and of course the Nabataeans of the Hellenistic-Roman period. The Semitic root for Nabataean meant to 'gush forth of water' (i.e. an oasis).
The Kedars, Qedar or Qodars were a nomadic tribe which inhabited the Syro-Arabian Desert159. Their name means black or swarthy, because of the colour of their tents and are known as Bedouins160. They consider themselves to be the original or purest Arabs and marry only among themselves161. Several scriptures refer to Kedar from which we may deduce their lifestyle (Ezek 27:21; Jer 49:28; Is 21:16-17; 40:7; 42:11; Ps 70:5).
From Kedar (c 1800 B.C) may be traced a line of descent to Adnan (Qais) (122 B.C.) and from him, a further twenty-one generations to Mohammed (A.D. 570-622) of the Korneish tribe. Thus Mohammed himself claimed descent from Kedar!
Mishma became the Mesha of Yemen. Dumah gave his name to Dumah (modern Arabic Dumat-al-Gandal) which is the capital of a district called Gawf halfway across northern Arabia between southern Babylonia and Palestine162. His descendants may have been the Adummu which Nabonidus claimed he conquered, the Domatha described by Ptolemy and the Dumathii mentioned by Porphyry. This may be the origin of the name Idumaeans.
Massa settled in northern Arabia. They were called the Masa, who, along with Tema, paid tribute to Tigleth-Pileser III. Ptolemy located the Masanoi tribe north-east of Duma, in Arabia163 and an Assyrian text mentions a tribe known as Mas'a side by side with Tema. Tema probably settled at
157 Fox 1948 (vol 1): 47
158 Douglas :1972 : 872,858
159 ibid: 151
161 Huxley 1975:129
Taima (Tema in Babylonian), a city which is located in north-west Arabia164. Perhaps others settled in the Yemen. Dumah was called the Adummatu in the Assyrian records. An oasis on the northern edge of the Nefud-desert is called Dumat el-gandel165.
Hardar or Hadad probably settled in Hadoram in southern Arabia; the name may also survive in the wadi el-Hadad, north of Tebuk. Adbeel was known as the Idiba'leans mentioned in the Assyrian texts. Kedemah or Qedemah was mentioned by Ptolemy and Stephen of Byzantium as dwelling in the region to the east of the Nabataeans166. Mibsam, Jetur and Naphish are, in all likelihood, scattered around Saudi Arabia and are difficult to trace to specific locations.
Lot, the nephew of Abraham, had two sons: Benammi and Moab (Gen 19:33-38). From them spring the Jordanians. They were originally a white people, but today have mixed somewhat with the Arabs (today about half of Jordan is Palestinian). Their chief town was Rabbath Ammon (modern Ammon)167 named after Ben-Ammi. They settled the plateau east of the Dead Sea168 and many have spread into Syria and Iraq. According to the Biblical Archaeology Review, they remain in the area to this day:
"So what did happen to the Ammonites? The Babylonians did not destroy them when they wiped out Judah. Instead, Ammonite culture continued unscathed, and the Ammonites prospered right through the sixth century B.C.E.... Although the Persians no doubt exercised suzerainty over the area, the basic Ammonite culture, including language and pottery techniques, continued just as it had been when Ammon was independent."169
A prophecy in Jeremiah compares them to an old bottle of wine which has aged without being disturbed, its "lees" have been allowed to settle at the bottom (Jer 48:11). Other prophecies in Isaiah show them still living near Palestine in the end-time (Is 11:14) and that they would be a small people (Is 16:13-14).
The Future of the Arabs
All that is required of this section is a brief overview of future events. A detailed list of prophecies may be found in the footnotes170. In Psalms chapter eighty-three stands a vital prophecy, a pivotal prophecy if you wish, concerning the peoples of the Middle East:
"Keep not Thou silence O God ...
For lo, Thine enemies make a tumult...
They have taken crafty counsel against Thy people ...
They have said, 'Come and let us cut them
165 Simon 1959:46
167 Douglas 1972:30
169 Herr l993:35
170 Prophecies on Ishmael: Jer 2:10; 3:2; 25:23-24; 49:28; Ezek 29:21; Is 42:11; 60:7
Prophecies on Jordan: Is 11:14; 16:1-5,13-14; Jer 9:26; 12:5; 25:21; 27:3; 48:9-11; 49:1-3, 6-9; 50:44; Ezek 25:1-10; 21:30; Zeph 2:8-1 l;Zech 11:3; Amos 2:1-3
Prophecies on Lebanon: Is 10:34; 14:18; 29:17; 33:9; 37:24; 40:16; 60:13; Ezek 26:5; Jer 47:4; Hab2:17;Zechll:
off from being a nation: that the name of
Israel may be no more in remembrance ...
They are confederate against thee:
The Tabernacles of Edom [Turkey and Central Asia], and the
Ishmaelites [Saudi Arabia], Of Moab [Jordan, with
some in Syria and Iraq] and the Hagarenes [Saudi
Arabia]: Gebal [in Lebanon] and Ammon [Jordan], and
Amalek: the Philistines with the inhabitants
of Tyre [southern Italians, symbolic also of the
U.S. of Europe] Assur also is joined
with them" (Ps 83:1-8).
[IF THIS IS A PROPHECY FOR THE END TIME IS VERY QUESTIONABLE - Keith Hunt]
The Middle Eastern Arabs and Turks will be allies of the soon-coming National European Socialist Empire! That is why they will initially escape the wrath of Europe (Dan 11:41). But Egypt, Ethiopia and Libya (ie the northern African nations) or "King of the South" will be deemed enemies of Europe and worthy of invasion (Dan 11:42-43; Ezek 30:4-5; 32:17-24; Is 20:4-6; Nah 3:8-10).
Later, Europe will turn on them, slaughtering and destroying the populace (see Is 16:7-8; 21:13-17; Jer 49:28-29; 47:1-4; Zech 9:5-6). God will punish the Arabs, as He will all nations, teaching them a lesson they will both deserve and never forget.
Bartlett, JR(1973) - "The Moabites and Edomites" in Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, London.
Bromiley, G W (et al) - "Edom", The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.
(eds)(1987) - William B Eerdmans, Michigan.
Childress, DH (1993) - Lost Cities & Ancient Mysteries of Africa & Arabia. Adventures; Unlimited Press, Illinois.
Czaplicka, MA(1918) - The Turks of Central Asia. Curzon Press, London. New impression 1973.
Douglas, J D (1972) - "Ishmael", The New Bible Dictionary. Inter-Varsity Press, London.
Liptak, P(1983) - Avars and Ancient Hungrians. Akademiai, Budapest.
Taylor, J (1993) - Petra. Aurum Press, London.
MODERN DAY DESCENDANTS OF EDOM AND ISHMAEL
The Descendants of Edom
Teman - Ottoman Turks in Western Turkey
Omar - Central Asia?
Zepho - Central Asia?
Gatam - Central Asia?
Kenz - Central Asia?
Alamos - Gog in Central Asia
Nahath - Central Asia?
Zerah - Central Asia?
Shammah - Central Asia?
Mizzah - Central Asia?
* Jehush - Central Asia?
* Jaalam - Central Asia?
* Korah - Kirghiz in Central asia
The Descendants of Ishmael
* Nebajoth - Nabataen Arabs
* Kedar - Quedar tribe in Syr-Arabian desert
* Adbeel - scattered in Arabian Peninsula?
* Misbam - scattered in Arabian Peninsula?
* Mishma - Mesha nin Yemen
* Duma - Dumat-al Gaudal
* Massa - northern Arabia
* Hadar - Hadoram in southern Arabia
* Tema - Taima in northern Arabia
* Jetur - scattered in Arabian Peninsula?
* Naphish - scattered in Arabian Peninsula?
* Kedemah - scattered in Arabian Peninsual?
TO BE CONTINUED