In Search of... The Origin of Nations




All scholars, almost without exception, will readily identify Javan (Hebrew Yawan) with the Greek Iones1012, translated in the Bible as Grecia. The Assyrians called the Greek people Yawani, Yamani or Iam-anu and the Achaemenians termed them Yauna1013. The inscriptions of Sargon and Sennacherib label the Greek Islands as Mat Yauna and Yaniana. The Persians called them Yauna or Yuna, Yaman in Akkadian, Yauna in Elamite; the Babylonians Yavanu1014 and the Egyptians Wynn1015. Ancient peoples knew each others' origins. Why don't we today?


* who has descended from Tiras

* who has descended from Elishah

* ancient traditions concerning them

* the amazing true origin of the American Indians

The Ionian Greeks

Because Greece lay close to the Ionian Isles, the Assyrians called Greece the "Island of the lonians"1016. While the Pakistani dialect, Urdu, calls the Greeks Yunani which is a derivation of the Persian Yauna or Ionian which in turn derives from the Sanskrit root word Yavana. All the above proves that the word Ionia is a derivation of Javan. According to the scriptures, Javan's descendants were: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim or Rodanim.

Now, the early settlers in Greece were not lonians but Indo-Europeans1017. The Indo-Europeans committed genocide in the famous Peloponnesian War, a barbarous civil war between the tribes. What remnant was left of them was absorbed into the Ionian peoples. However, some northern European-looking types and even a few blondes may still be witnessed in Greece today.

Greek tradition traces the bulk of their ancestory back to one Japetos who is obviously Japheth1018. In fact Aristophanes (born c455BC died c375BC) in his poem "The Clouds" takes the ancestory of the Greeks back to Japetos while the Persians called them Jaones. To this day a group of islands off the West coast of Greece is called the Ionioi. However, other traditions of theirs claiming that all four major subdivisions (Dorians, Aeolians, lonians and Achaeans) derive from one forefather1019, must be a fabrication, in part, to justify their varied origin, as the Dorians and Achaeans were Indo-Euroneans, not Mediterraneans like the lonians. The Greeks did maintain one other tradition significant to our thesis: that they descend from one Hellas. Hellas is a mere corruption of Elishah,


1012. Douglas 1972:600

1013. ibid

1014. Sayce 1899 vol 2:552

1015. Bernal 1987: vol 1:83

1016. Gayre 1973:50

1017. ibid: 50

1018. Custance 1975:81

1019. Driver 1969:112


son of Javan. The Greeks were known as Hellenes centuries ago1020 and this is still their official name. Hellas was also the ancient name of Thessaly which is a mere modernisation of the name. In the book of Daniel Greece is called Iapetos (Javan) in chapters 11:2; 8:5-8, 2-22. For prophecies on Greece, see the footnote1021

According to Greek tradition and belief Zeus was the chief deity in the Pantheon. This name was actually Indo-European, akin to the Sanskrit Dyaus. According to the tradition, mankind degenerated which made Zeus resolve to destroy everyone on the earth. But Deukalion and his wife Pyrah survived. Their eldest son was Hellenes by which name the Greeks were known in the 7th century BC. The name 'Greek' derives from the Latin Graecia, the country from which the Doric settlers known as the Graii came to live in Italy (in Magna Graecia). It was the local Italians who first called them 'Greeks'.

Many of them settled on Cyprus where the Canaanites called them Alasiyans1022. That is why Cyprus was called the islands of the 'Ionians' by the Assyrians1023. The Greeks had other settlements in southern Italy, southern France, North Africa and Spain where they were absorbed into the local population.

Professor Sayce candidly states that there appears to have been two branches of Elishah. One in Cyprus and Greece and another in the Aleian plain of Cilicia1024. Robert Gayre of Gayre tells us that anciently Gaza was called lone; the sea between Egypt and Philistia was called Ionian, western Lydia and Coria were called Ionian and there was also a people called Ion in Asia Minor (where the Khittim and Tarsus were). As Gayre states, the whole eastern Mediterranean was associated with Javan1025. Gayre also believes that there were two branches to Elishah: the traditional one in Cyprus while the other resided to the east in Cilicia, Asia Minor1026. Where is the branch which dwelt in Asia Minor today?

An Eastern Elishah?

As has already been noted, the peoples of Elishah on Cyprus were known as Alisha, Alisiya1027, Alasia, Ellasar, Larsa, and Alsa. One might see then how changeable, malleable and elastic that name was. On Cyprus we also find the Phoenicians (Canaanites) for Cyprus was a Phoenician colony1028.

It is very probable that the Arkite, Hittite and Hivite tribes of the Phoenicians are among certain descendants of Japheth. These two peoples, then, were definitely connected. In Ezekiel 22:7, for instance, mention is made of fine linen made in Egypt and dye and purple from the isles of Elishah.

Where are these Elishah-Phoenicians today? The Bible Dictionary has the following to say:

"Elishah has been thought to be Elis, Eolis Helles. etc ... Not only Greece but Italy, and Western Africa have been suggested ... no one particular island was in any case intended"1029


1020. Custance 1975:93

1021. See Joel 3;3-6; Ezek 27:13, 19; Rev 18:13

1022. ibid; Douglas 1972:366, 867

1023. Sayce 1928:75

1024. ibid

1025. Gayre 1973:51

1026. ibid: 52

1027. ibid: 51

1028. ibid: 50

1029. The Bible Dictionary 1887:383


Eolis or Aeolis was the coast of Peloponnesia, itself meaning the "land of Elos" or Elishah. Where are the Peloponnesians of the eastern branch of Elishah? Very likely in Polynesia. How like the eastern branch of Kittim dwelling in northern China (Cathay) and the eastern branch of Tarshish in Japan, whilst western branches dwelt in southern Europe. Also, the Greeks called Elishah Maori1030and Smith's Classical Dictionary1031 associates Maori or Mauri and also Milyaes with Tiras a people living in geographical proximity to Elishah. These two tribes of Tiras still are in proximity to a branch of the Peloponnesians (or Pelonesians, Polonesians or Polynesians).

What major upset caused the Elishahites of Cyprus and surrounding areas to migrate? The Philistines. They were displaced by the Philistines (cl200 B.C.) who were en route to Palestine1032. Let us now trace the movements of the Elishahites.

Migrations into the Pacific

From Cyprus and southern Anatolia, the Polynesians migrated further into Asia. Suggs, author of the now famous Island Civilizations of Polynesia mentions a certain Percy Smith, a New Zealand researcher who, in 1904, postulated that the Polynesians originated in Asia in the land of Atia te varinga nui. This was where there was a stone temple - palace of King Tu te rangri marana, where he reigned. After infighting and quarrelling, the Polynesians were forced out to Java and eventually migrated to the islands of the Pacific1033. Keep the "Land of Atia" in mind for we shall be returning to investigate it shortly.

"An admirable concise account of the wanderings of the Polynesians is given by S. Percy Smith ..., who believes that the parent stock can be traced to India about 450 B.C., and that a migration to Java took place in 65 B.C., where they resided for about a hundred years".1034

Notice they were forced out to the island of Java and south-east Asia. They found the pygmy Negrito people already there. Much later the Mad-japahit Empire arose in Malaysia and Indonesia. The name "japahit" quite possibly derives originally from Japheth or Javan. Probably, various Canaanite tribes migrated with Elishah into the region, for there a tribes with features more akin to European and wavy or curly hair:

"The early population of Indo-China, the Malay Peninsula, and the Malay Archipelago was not Mongol but of the same racial type as the Mediterranean"1035.

This may include the Gergasi and Arvadi tribes, probably descendants of Canaan.

Some researchers have even claimed to have been able to trace the Polynesians back to north-west India and Persia. Suggs admits that there are some vague resemblances between the Polynesians and Semitic languages1036. Barty Fell, author of America BC, has plenty of proofs in this remarkable book of how the Polynesian language is derived from the Egypto-Libyan group. Polynesian also has a very strong Anatolian element1037. Anatolia? This is Asia Minor - where a branch of Elishah originally lived as we have seen.


1030. The Nations of Genesis 10, page 1.

1031. Smith 1894: art; "Tiras."

1032. Wiseman 1955:18

1033. Suggs 1968:48

1034. Haddon 1912:36

1035. Field 1939:521. Debets states that the early settlers of Indonesia (the proto-Malayans) "have less clearly pronounced Mongoloid features" than the current majority (1924).

1036. ibid

1037. Fell 1976:178


Note that he connected it also to the north African languages. There was a people in north-west Africa called the Mauri or Maurya. One cannot be dogmatic and say that the Polynesian Mauri, or a branch of them were there at some ancient period in time. As far as one can tell, the name Maurya is derived from Moor. However a Mongoloid-type of some sort must have dwelt in norhern Africa at some time to have produced the mixed Hottentots who are a mixed people from Negroids and a Mongoloid race, dwelling today in southern Africa.

In any event, the Mauri claim in their traditions to have come from Aryavarata, which was in northwest India according to researcher Kalyanaraman1038. Where were they before that? Remember the land of Atia in Asia mentioned earlier? Another tradition states that they came from a land called Raiatea (Tahiti).A Raetia was found just north and east of the Italian Alps near Thrace, where the sons of Tiras once dwelt. An island in the Society group in the south Pacific Raiatea, may well be named after it.

Maori, was located in ancient times in an area adjacent to Thrace (where some descendants of Tiras dwelt). He would have ended up joining the Polynesians and not the children of Tiras. No wonder Elishah was called Maori by the Greeks. Although the Maurya Empire of northern India was not composed of Mauris it may be a name lasting in that area of the world long after the Mauris left for Java. This is mere conjecture and it is raised here for further thought. The Polynesian roots in the ancient Middle East and also in part of Europe may be attested to by the following:

"Morphologically, the Polynesians, as a whole, are closest to the Southern Europeans"1039

Spread of the Name "Malay"

You would recall the tribe of Milyaes mentioned earlier in the chapter. When the Polynesians moved through south-east Asia, they migrated through the peninsula which was named Malaya after Milyaes. The peoples of Ashkenaz who settled that area became known as the Malays. The name Mala appears all over southern Asia. Below is a list of these:






Malaca Peninsula.


Malaya in Sumatra.


Mala or Malava in Laos


Molucca Islands


The ancient name for Madagascar (modern Malagasy Republic).


Malava-Malaya a tribe of India.


The ancient Malayu Kingdom of Sumatra.


Malava (Malaya) was the geographical name for the Punjab to Rajaputna,

down the east coast to Ceylon1040.

The names Malawi in Africa and Malanchu province in Peru may be related to Malaya1041, because the Milyae may have traded with them anciently1042. Linguists know that the Polynesian language very definitely belongs to the Thai-Kadai-Malayo-Polynesian language family. The language found


1038. Kalyanaraman 1969 vol 2:333

1039. Debets 1974

1040. ibid: 175

1041. ibid

1042. according to Kuttner 1967:14, the Dyakids of Malaya are virtually identical to certain American Indians. Perhaps some of the latter derive from Milyaes.


in Malagasy (Madagascar) resembles the Maori-Polynesian language1043. Certain Ashkenazic Indonesians and Malays at one time, historians inform us, settled in Madagascar. Not only does the language of Madagascar have a close resemblance to the Malayo-Polynesian family, states Sibree in his work The Great African Island, but so do the people.1044. Perhaps some of the Maori ventured there too as we have the nearby island of Mauritius.

Smith's Classical Dictionary referred to a further tribe associated with Tiras but evidently had migrated with Elishah, "Gasgar". Gasgar settled in Mada-gascar, and have now been absorbed into the local population. The name means "Gasgars of the land of Madai", suggesting that the Polynesians were once in Persia as Suggs reported.

Which Route Did Elishah Take?

The routes of the migrations of the Polynesian peoples into the Pacific is a sore point between many researchers. Some feel they came from the coast of China, others say from the Americas. Which viewpoint is correct?

The majority of researchers trace the Polynesians, through archaeological evidence and dating methods, back to south-east Asia and before that to southern China1045. Their physical type, culture and their language connect them with south-east Asia, not the Americas1046. It would be impossible and futile to list all the proofs of how they came out of Asia, but a good summary may be found in Suggs' chapter "Out from Asia"1047. If at all possible, it is well worth obtaining this work from your local library.

Thor Heyerdahl has written several works on the Polynesians and American Indians. In one wonderful book, Early Man and the Ocean, he mentions, like others have before him, the three clear strains within the Polynesian peoples:

Those in the west slightly mixed with the Melanesians and Micronesians, very dark and have curly hair.

Those in the east, similar to the American Indians with a touch of Asiatic Mongoloid.

A further Europid element, these had fairer skins, were tall reddish or brown hair and some are described by physical anthropologists as having a prominent nose and Jewish or Arab-Semitic features1048.

Earlier in the book he described the skin colour of the latter group as being much like southern Europeans1049. In 1772, Cozet, a French navigator with Marion du Fresne's expedition, came to the Bay of Islands and had this to say of the Ngaphuhi Maori tribe: "Their colour is generally speaking like the people of Southern Europe”1050


1043. Kalyanaraman 1969 vol 2:332, 175

1044. Sibree 1880:102

1045. Howells 1973:295-96; Suggs 1968:32. Perhaps they migrated via India: "The .Mohenjo script [by the Indus] was not yet deciphered, but it is said to be like that discovered in Easter Island, some 12,000 miles to the south-east" (Taylor: 1937:210).

1046. Kalyanaraman 1969 vol 2:443

1047. Suggs 1968: chapter 6

1048. Heyerdahl 1978:290

1049. Ibid: 98. Taylor 1937: 103 states that "Indeed it is almost impossible to distinguish some Hawaiians and Maoris from certain Europeans".

1050. Another researcher, Suggs feels that they are a mixture of Caucasoids, Mongoloid and Negritiod elements but being over-whelmingly Caucasoidl050. Obviously they are not over-whelmingly Caucasians, but his observations are very useful.


Generally, the Polynesians as a whole have a yellow-brown skin, wavy black hair with a "rare" reddish tinge. They range from dolicocephalic to brachycephalic with the latter dominating. Seriological work into the Polynesian blood type shows that those in the east, nearest America, have blood similar to the Indians of America (type O). But types B and AB are found to a sizable degree in the west. Their blood group O dominates overall, showing that they are a different people to the rest of Asia1051. Like all nations, those on the periphery have mixed with the peoples close by (for example those in the west mixed with the Melanesians).

But does the similar blood type between the Polynesians and American Indian prove that they came out of America and not Asia as Heyerdahl postulates? His theory that the eastern and central Polynesians are directly related to the Peruvian Indians because both have high percentages of type O and low percentages of type A and with the absence of types AB and B, holds little water by itself. Why? Because such diverse groups as the Labrador Eskimos and Australian Aboriginals have similar blood types as do the Russians with the Ituri Pygmies. We need more evidence than that.

Yet Heyerdahl presents many fascinating facts to prove that the Polynesians were related to the early Peruvians. There are many resemblances between the two which cannot be overlooked1052. What an enigma. To further add to the problems of historians, the peoples of Easter Island claim in their legends to have come from the east and not the west. And some Maoris (some of whom appear to be strikingly similar to American Indians in certain photographs before me) claim to have come from Mexico 3,400 years ago, settled for a time in Peru before setting sail 1,500 years ago for New Zealand which they reached in a series of migrations and stops approximately 250 years later.

Some have postulated that the Polynesians came to the Pacific in two waves, both from Asia1053. The genealogies of the western Polynesians (the names of whose gods originated in China1054) go back only 700 years, while those in the east to 4,000 years, which represents more evidence of two separate migrations.

But instead of both migrations coming out of Asia, the eastern Polynesians, who are fairer, fairly dolicocephalic and have blood type O, came out of Peru1055. The other migration came out of Asia, settling in western and central Polynesia. The latter being descended from Elishah. Undoubtedly, a relationship between the Americas and Polynesia is established by Heyerdahl. Many items of similarity, such as the Maori totem poles which are very similar to that of the Americas or their headdresses, are further proof of such contacts.

Polynesian Middle Eastern Origins

Next are quotes from several authors who make statements that, when placed together with the evidence already presented, throws further light on this study. Roberts wrote a book Ancient Hawaii Music published in 1926. She writes that far from being universal, the conch shell trumpet originated in ancient Crete and among some other early Mediterranean cultures. In India the conch trumpet was supposedly introduced by the god Krishna, a great deity of Hinduism1056.


1051. Huxley 1974:143

1052. Kalyanaraman 1969 vol 2:447

1053. Suggs 1968: 48-49

1054. Heyerdahl 1952: 182-191

1055. Kalyanaraman 1969 vol 2:361

1056. Roberts 1926:352


She also shows that by old Spanish accounts, the conch trumpet was part of the ceremonial equipment of the Aztecs of Mexico1057. Another author, Best, compares the Polynesian god Tu or Ku, with the Assyrian god of death Tu and the Egyptian word Turn, meaning "setting sun"1058. In naming their homes the Marquesan Islanders, in particular, have shown a pronounced predilection for the prefix Hana. which in some parts of the group appears in the names of almost every settlement. Fornander, writing in Polynesian Race. Its Origin and Migrations, says -

"Hana, name of numerous districts and lands in the Hawaiian, Marquesas, and Tahitian groups ... refer themselves ultimately, doubtless, to Sana, one of the ancient Cushite emporiums in Southern Arabia"1059.

All of this demonstrates ancient contacts between these diverse peoples when they all resided in the Middle East after the Flood. And Cowan, writing in The Maoris, says that the Maoris descend from the Phoenicians1060 - the very people Elishah identified themselves with as was pointed out earlier in the chapter.

Of further evidence is their creation legend which pre-dates Christian missionaries:

"To dwelt within the breathing space of immensity. The universe was in darkness; with water everywhere, there was no glimmer of dawn, no clearness, no light. And He began by saying these words, that He might cease from being inactive, 'Darkness, become a light possessing darkness.' And at once light appeared."

"To then looked to the waters which compassed Him about and spake a forth time, saying, 'ye Waters of Taikama, be ye separate. Heaven be formed.' Then the sky became suspended. 'Bring forth thou Tupuhoronuku.' And at once the moving earth lay stretched abroad." (ancient chant of Ngati Kahungunu Maori)

This compares well with the Genesis record (Genesis 1:1-10) and clearly has a Middle Eastern origin.

Then we have Cohane's remarks in his marvelous work, The Key:

“There is a large category of Eloah/Aloha place-names in the Pacific where an initial vowel would appear to have been lost over the centuries, as in Loaloa, once Aloaloa (Eloah-Eloah)? Those Loa names continue in an unbroken chain back to the Mediterranean…”1061


1057. ibid: 355

1058. Best 1924:58, 109,110

1059. Cowan 1930. Note the following from Paul Norman and Michael Fa'amoana To'o's paper Knowldege of the God of 1060. Creation found amongst Maori and other Polynesians in the Pacific (page 12) located at homepages/thailand/ARTO l_IO.HTM "Elsden Best, writing in New Zealand around the turn of the century, concluded that To", the Maori name for the Supreme God, had been carried east in successive migrations from somewhere near, if not in, Middle Eastern lands. He believed that the Maori had spent some time on the western seaboard of India, and he often draws parallels with ancient Indian Brahmic and Vedic teachings and practices, "one old Maori tradition gives the names of two primal gods, Io and Ha. Oriental Scholars tell us(xxxiv) that Ea, or la, or Aa, was identified with Ya, Yau, or Au, the Jah of the Hebrews."{xxxv} The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament says that the name of Yahweh was shortened to Yho and Yo when used in names. Hence, Joel - Io (Yahweh) is God, etc. However, "the Polynesian authority, E. Handy{xxxvi}, says that it is doubtful that the common folk were even allowed to know the true name of the Supreme Being."{xxxvii}"

1061. Cohane 1973: 186-87


The above represents additional proof of the traceable roots of the Polynesians back to the Mediterranean region - of course, for they are descendants of Elishah.

Origins of the American Indians

Let us now turn our attention to the American Indian tribes. From which descendant of Noah do they spring?

There are scores of Indian tribes (somewhere in the vicinity of 178 major tribal groupings1062). They cannot, must not, be lumped together under one single description. They are very individualistic and do not all share common languages or customs1063.

The Indian tribes have never been homogenous. In California alone, there are distinctive types in head form, facial features, and the nose. Here we find the shortest and tallest of all American Indians1064. Unfortunately, many books lump them together with the Mongoloids ... but many of them are so very different : They differ in features, skin colouring, blood groups and in other areas1065.

In this section we shall discover the part Canaanite origins of the Sioux, Akiri and Chivite Indians. Others in Alaska and in South America look much like the Mongoloids of Asia1066 and no doubt either a branch of Tiras migrated via that route or peoples descended from Magog and the Turkic (Edomite) tribes migrated via that route. The fascinating migration of the Dene and Na-Dene from Asia is detailed in The Dene and Na-Dene Indian Migration -1233AD by Ethel Stewart.

Should the reader ever be in a position to afford the time to study Ethel Stewart's book it would be well worth it. She delves into the origin of various American Indian tribes who were ousted by Ghengis Khan but who fled to the Americas in the 13th century. In this large book of over 500 pages, proofs utilised include linguistics, folklore, religion and knowledge of Central Asia whence they sprang. One of these tribes, the Navajo, may be a derivation of Nebajoth, whose sister, Edom married (Genesis 36:3). Nebajoth was a son of Ishmael and as such the family name may have carried also via Edom.

In fact, write Broek and Weber, many Indians look like south-east Asians1067. They may have been referring to such tribes as the Navajo. In a personal letter from a Filipino pen-friend of mine, dated 5 March 1979, he stated:

“You know, the Spaniards have always called the Filipinos 'Indios', (meaning Indians) as they called the natives of Central and South America. Filipinos have always resented this! My elder sister 3-4 years ago went to the U.S. to do some research on public health among the Navajo Indians. And you know the Navajos would not believe that my sister wasn't a Navajo herself! My wife also told me of how the second daughter of [name witheld] remarked from the pure logic of a 7 or 8 year old, upon seeing Filipinos for the first time on their arrival here: 'Look at all those Indians!’” 1068.


1062. South American Culture in Perspective 1973:12

1063. Reynolds 1974:506

1064. Ibid: 511

1065. ibid: 512

1066. Heyerdahl 1978:358

1067. Broek & Weber 1968:83

1068. Personal letter; name withheld.


Undoubtedly there was a relationship between the American Indians and other peoples. The peoples of Milyaes were in south-east Asia; another branch may be in America today (the Dyakids of Borneo, for instance, have blow-guns and bird dances in similitude to certain South American tribes). Physical anthropologists recognise the diverse origins of the Indians, and have thus attempted to classify them into three broad groups: Zentralid (Mexico, U.S.A) Andid (Peru), Brasilid (Brazil)1069. From where did they originate? And why is there but one brief reference to Tiras in the Bible and that is in the Table of Nations? He then disappears from Scripture, unlike the other nations, which persist in the Near East for some time. Is it because he disappeared so far from the Near East that he had no consequence on the course of events in the Old World? If this be the case, then we should look for a people far removed from the Old World.

The Red-Skins of Thrace

Baikie, in a book published in 1926, wrote of the ancient peoples of Thrace that they were of reddish-brown complexion with their long black hair done up in a crest.1070 How like the American Indian! But who was their forefather? Josephus tells us: "Tiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians"1071.

A city called Tiraspol exists today in Russian Moldavia, near the Rumanian border in the region of ancient Thrace! Although it was built just over two hundred years ago, in 1792, the name nevertheless seemingly recalls the early name of that region; and the River Teams (Tiras) ran through the region of Thrace according to Herodotus.1072 This is where one branch of Tiras dwelt before migrating into central Asia.

Most theologians cannot trace the descendants of Tiras. Professor Archibald Sayce makes a statement fairly indicative of most theologians and historians:

"Tiras is the only son of Japhet whose name continues to be obscure. Future research can alone be expected to settle the question"1073."

Well let us settle that question once and for all. Let us discover where the descendants of Tiras migrated to.

From whence spring the Indians of the Americas? Who is their forefather in Genesis chapter 10? Is it at all possible to trace these amazing tribes and peoples to an ancient source in the Middle East?

The Ancient Minoan Civilization

Another branch of Tiras's descendants dwelt in the Aegean.

Archeologist and historians attest to the fabulous Minoan civilization on Crete and on colonies in the nearby Aegean Islands. Due to cataclysmic disasters (c1450 BC) including earthquakes, poisonous ash from the Thera or Santorini volcano and tidal waves, the civilisation declined dramatically and within 50 years or so after the disasters it disappeared forever. The survivors were driven out by Mycenean invaders from Greece and many appeared soon thereafter in Egypt before disappearing from the face of the earth. They brought with them precious objects. Indeed, Minoan civilisation was


1069. Baker 1974: 625

1070. Baikie 1926:74

1071. Josephus Antiquities 1:6:1

1072. Herodotus 4:89

1073. Mitchell 1976 vol 1:38


extremely wealthy and replete with gold. For instance no human bones and very few golden objects have been found at the palace of Zakros despite the wealth of the palace. These Minoans were related to the early Canaanite Hittites1074 who were broad-headed and allied with the Amazon tribes of that region1075 (it may be no coincidence that the name Amazon appears in South America). As a result of this vacuum in the region caused by these crises, the old Hittite Kingdom in Anatolia was invaded and the Phoenician enterprises beyond Gibraltar came to an end. This allowed the infamous sea peoples to invade the coastlands of the Near East1076

What did the Minoans look like?

"Judging from the surviving inscriptions, the Minoan men were bronzed, with dark hair and beardless faces.”1077

Also, the murals of the temple in Medinet Habu in Egypt, depicts them as people with features akin to the American Indians. Many Minoans also wore plumes:

"The tufts of feathers offer incontrovertible evidence, because no other people have worn them", writes one author1078.

Both quotes reveal quite clearly that the Minoans were similar to American Indians. Here settled one branch of Tiras, the other, as already mentioned, lived in Thrace.

The Anchor Bible tells us that Tiras was probably the father of the Tyrsenoi on the Aegean Isles1079. Another author, Graves, speaks of the people of Tiras being called Tarsha in a 13th century BC Egyptian document. These he equates with the Tyrsenians, a pirate people, who held certain islands in the Aegean1080. We find the name throughout the Mediterranean : Tiryns in southern Greece1081, Torre in southern Italy, Torone in Greece, Thera Island off Greece, Taras, Toronto, or Tarrentum in southern Italy and Tarraco in Spain although Torre may, alternatively, derive from Tyre1082. The Romans called the descendants of Tiras Thirasians (Thracians), the Greeks Tyrsnoi and to the Egyptians they were know as Tusha or Turusha as we have seen.

What were the names of the islands of the Tyrsenoi? The names of these islands bear amazing resemblance to the names of various Indian tribes. Please notice first, that people of one race do not always call the people of another race by the same pronunciation and spelling of that race.

The White man, upon hearing the Indian names, arranged or re-arranged them according to the phonetic sounds of their own languages1083; for example, the Spanish called the Sioux, "Xious" (Shooz). With that in mind, let us turn to the names of various islands in the Aegean, many of which were Minoan colonies and notice how similar they are to the names of certain Indian tribes:


1074. McEvedy 1967:28

1075. McEvedy 1967: 38

1076. Heyerdahl 1978:325

1077. Baikie 1926:212

1078. Rea 1968:14. See also Coon's excellent description (1948:141-42).

1079. Speiser 1964:66

1080. Gravesl964:124; Douglas 1972:1283

1081. Grant 1971:5

1082. ibid: 6, 20, 19, 51

1083. Rea 1968:19


Islands of The Aegean

American Indian Tribal Names

Ios or Xious


Tenos (Tinos)

Aztecs (named their island in the midst of LakeTexcoco,



Androa tribe in Oregon, the name means "one which lives

amongst trees", as does Andros)


Patoes tribe in Colombia.


Lecos of Brazil


Piros of Chihuahua


the Hahos tribe


Aquios (Haquios) of Guatemala


the Siquias of Honduras

Anarfe (Anaphe)

Anafes of Brazil

Karpathos (Carpathos)

the Karpazos from Colorado

Could all this be mere coincidence? Surely not. Many (although not all) American Indians are ultimately from the Aegean Islands of the Tyrsenoi. Amongst other evidence a few are listed below:

The ancient peoples of the Aegean built mounds and painted themselves in a very similar fashion to those that built the civilizations of the Mississippi and Mexico1084.

Maya hieroglyphics show affinity with those of Egypt and also to Cretan scripts. Even certain Maya names of days resemble the names of letters in the Phoenician alphabet1085. Stone scripts with markings and language similar to the Minoan has also been found at Fort Benning, Georgia1086.

The main streets of the Maya were bordered by fountains from which sprung hot and cold water. Similar installations of like design have been found beneath the ruins of Minos's palace in Crete1087

This is not the place to spell out the details involved to the reader. But I would urge a perusal of the sources found in the bibliography. These are just a few of the many proofs tying Crete and the Aegean to the Americas. Let us now return to Thrace and the migrations of the sons of Tiras from there to America.

Indians in Ancient Scotland?

Tiras, like all other peoples, once lived in the Middle East, where they gave their name to the Taurus Mountains in southern Turkey1088. When they migrated outwards, one branch settled in Crete and the Aegean, the other migrating towards the north, perhaps settled in Thrace. In those times the river running through Thrace was known as the Tyras River (modern Dniester), and the city at its mouth was called Tyra1089 or Tyras.


1084. ibid: 18

1085. Kolosimo 1970:177. See also "Newspaper illustrator Robert Ripley said the Greek alphabet was the same as a Mayan epic poem", Creation Ex Nihilo, vol 15, no 3.

1086. ibid: 174

1087. Gordon 1971: 82. Dr Gordon even believes that the Minoans were related to the Phoenicians (pages 1-4,20).

1088. Grant 1971:2

1089. Shepherd 1956:35


An early writer, Julius Firmicus, wrote:

"In Ethiopia all are born black; in Germany, white; and in Thrace, red."1090

Could anything be clearer? The Thracians were a reddish-coloured people. What became of them? Historians of old mention a warrior people in Western Europe being employed in the armies of the "barbarians", as being fierce, swarthy, half naked, tattooed and painted.

These dark, red-skinned, wild tribes were driven into the British Isles. It is these who gave rise to the account of the primitive, barbaric British. This label has stuck to the Celts ever since. In Britain they became known as Picts.

Where did the Picts originate? Wainswright in his The Problems of the Picts says that they originated in Illyria and Thrace1091, though other traditions place them in Spain. The Picts tatooed themselves and even used the totem-pole in Scotland1092. Pokorney writes that:

"There remains no doubt that the launches of skin used by the Irish and Welsh fishermen correspond exactly to the round boats that the Indians of North America used."1093

Proof mounts upon proof. Voltaire wrote of these early tribes in Britain:

"When Caesar crosses into England he finds [some in] this island still more savage than Germany. The inhabitants scarcely covered their nudity with a few skins of beast. The women of a district belonged equally to all men of the same district. Their houses were huts made of reeds, and their ornaments were shapes that the men and women imprinted on the skin by pricking it and pouring on to it the juice of herbs, as the savages of America still do".1094 [emphasis mine]

One researcher relates how according to Danish tradition, the first Odin or Votan (Dan I) in c.1040 BC, brought certain tribes from south-eastern Europe into Denmark1095. They, along with other similar peoples, were called the Agathirsi and were settled in Scotland under their leader Cruithne, by Odin. They ruled over their fellow Pict tribes and thereby also became known as Picts. The Picts and Thracians had a matriarchy (as do the Ohwachia Iroquois) and tattooed and painted themselves. In Scotland were geographical place-names such as the bay, town and river of Thurso, Tharsuinn Mountain and Tarras River.

The Original Picts Disappear

Most of the Picts suddenly disappeared in 503 AD with the arrival of the invading Milesians. They left behind mounds of flint knives, stone-hewn tombs and carvings.


1090. quoted in Hoeh 1969 vol 2:86

1091. Wainwright page 132. Illyria is where Lud settled (a part of the Etruscans). Some historians link the Tyrsenoi with the Etruscans (see for example Kinder 1974:73).

1092. Rea 1968:23

1093. Pokorney page 16

1094. Television programme earlier this year, featuring the Church of Stoke Dry, which led this writer to visit it, the Medieval wall paintings being of great interest. We look first in the Chantry Chapel. Here we see a crowned king tied to a tree, being shot full of arrows by two warriors. The notice on the wall claims this to be King Edmund of Suffolk shot by Danish bowmen. It also goes on to say, however, that the bowmen resemble American Indians and that Vikings reached America 200 years before Columbus." One expert felt it may be Arthur II who supposedly went to America and was killed by Indians there. Or perhaps it shows that a few Indians were still extant in the region until becoming extinct. ("Another Church - Another Witness", Wake Up!, Nov/Dec: 142).

1095. Hoeh 1969 vol 2: 61


They were driven out of Britain and settled in Greenland for a time1096. Some may have migrated directly to Central America. Toltec tradition says that they arrived in c.503 AD to the already settled areas where Mexico City stands to-day1097. It should be mentioned here that there was not one, large monolithc movement of tribes to the Americas. Some would have settled shortly after the flood, with others continually arriving over the centuries.

The Toltecs were basically a people of white appearance, features and characteristics1098, while the nobility of the Aztecs were European-looking, not Indian and likely the descendants of Arphaxad (the next section will deal with his descendants more fully). Undoubtedly many of the Nordics who served under Dan I associated with the Picts and migrated with them. Histories record that some remained behind after 503 AD. There are several sources to prove that1099. They refer to the original inhabitants of Scotland as a very dark, wild people with prominent cheek bones, living in the islands off Scotland. They have either now died out or had left centuries ago.

Let us quote one source which states:

"Some were as black [ie. dark] and wild in their appearance as any American savages whatever ... like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was necessar to give one an impression of being upon an American river”1100.

Anthropologists and historians speak in terms of a Turanid people which once populated Scotland and Ireland1101. Who are the Turanid or Turanian peoples today? These are the Edomite Turkic peoples which occupy central Asia and the territory from the eastern shore of territory north of the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea1102, bordering on Thrace. Why do I mention this? Because certain Turkic or Turanid tribes of central Asia claim descent from Tiras1103. If so, the small Tirasian element would be totally absorbed by now into the Turkic masses or migrated eastwards as we have seen above and made it via the Bering Strait into North America. Another scholar writes:

"Close to the Black Sea are the Kabards and Abkasians, who speak a curious agglutinative speech. Its nearest allies are in far-off North America, though Basque is slightly akin in structure ... These Caucasus people might be related to the North Amerinds ... It may be noted that Roland Dixon finds the same type of skull in those two regions".1104 (emphasis mine)

John Beddoe, famous anthropologist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, wrote in the classic work The Anthropological History of Europe, that a Mongoloid race (i.e. Japhetic, of which Tiras was a branch) once occupied Scotland as its earliest inhabitants1105. Further, he mentioned that traces of Turanian speech are still evident in the Scottish language1106. A tiny fragment of the Turanian


1096. Holmes page 388

1097. Hoeh 1969 vol 2:92

1098. ibid

1099. ibid:  ibid86-7. These works include Martin in Western Islands of Scotland (18th century); Croker's BosweR (1848); Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal (no. VII) and Pennant's Second Tour (1772).

1100. Croker 1848:316, 352 quoted in Hoeh 1969 vol 2:87

1101. Lawless c 1887:5

1102. Baker 1974:225

1103. The Nations of Genesis 10, page 2.

1104. Taylor 1937:214. See also page 170. Barry Fell in his America B.C. finds definite links between Basque and various Indian languages. According to Anderson's The Story of Extinct Civilizations of The West: "Whitney, an American scholar, concludes that 'No other dialect of the Old World so much resembles the American languages in structure as the Basque' " (page 33-34).

1105. Beddoe 1912:160

1106. ibid: 147


persists in a part of Ireland1107. These are the few Irish with strong features and high cheekbones. With them may have been other fairer descendants of Japheth - these were all conquered by the Kelts, Angles, Saxons and Normans.

To Beddoe, it remains a mystery how these Picts suddenly disappeared”1108. To Beddoe and others, yes. But if we look long and hard enough, basing our search upon the Holy Scriptures, we see that they migrated to the Americas, forming part of the tribes we call "Indian". Some superb photographs of the great artistic abilities of the early North Americans may be seen in the National Geographic magazine1109

It is relatively unknown among the public that they built thriving cities, raised huge mounds that rivaled the size of the pyramids in Mexico, and even had a sophisticated trade network extending from the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf Coast.

No, not all Indian tribes were 'savage'. Take for example the Zapotecs who constructed Monte Alban in southern Mexico. To construct it they had to level the top of a mountain (this happened c 1000 BC). The same tribe plotted the stars and devised one of the first calendars in the Americas. Their artwork is so exquisite as to be comparable to the craftmanship of the finest works of the Egyptians, Greeks and Chinese1110.

White Visitors to the Americas

The sacred volume of the Popol Vuh of the Maya kept by Quetzelcoatl, one of their priests, mentions that they

"came from the East... they left there, from that great distance ... they crossed the sea".

They further claim that a great king, Votan, brought them over and settled them in Mexico c.1000 BC. This can be none other than Dan I, mentioned earlier in this chapter. Dan I (Odin, Votan or Wotan) ruled Denmark c. 1040-999 BC.

Perhaps the "forest of Dan"1111 in the land of the Quiche Maya is named after him. The earliest capital built by these Indians, under a foreign leadership was called Amag-Dan. They claim in their traditions to have been ruled over by fair-skinned persons, many of whom had fair hair. How could one argue with their histories? And many of the Mandan Indians of North Dakota were of mixed descent and blonde1112. In fact, many of the Mandans still have blue eyes - and that is not due to recent Caucasian influences1113. Is it mere speculation to assert that the Mandans migrated out of Maya country, being in part, descendants of Dan and his party? All anthropologists can say with certainty is that the Mandans may be traced to the southern parts of the United States of America.1114

Long before Columbus, the Americas was visited by a fair-skinned people. Most people do no know that. I have already referred to the Toltecs and Dan I and his party. An Irish chronicle, the Imanas


1107. ibid: 156

1108. ibid: 157

1109. Stuart 1972 "Who were the mound Builders?"

1110. Elliott 1978 "Monte Alban, City of the Gods"

1111. Bancroft 1875 vol 5:103, 549

1112. Coon 1956: plate 33

1113. Taylor 1937:246

1114 . Adair's History of the American Indians published in 1775 befriended the Chickasaw nation. In his book he demonstrates that there were 23 similarities between these tribes and ancient Israel (indicating ancient ties, trade or links). I have seen a summary of this book, but it is too long to include here.


makes references to the expeditions of Saint Brendan in 577 AD to the Americas with seventeen other monks on an evangelizing mission. Also, Eric Gnupson, Bishop of Greenland, visited the New World in 112 AD1115. Previously, Eric Leifson (c. 1001 AD) landed on the shores of Canada. Various Vikings explorers both preceded and followed him and remains of their settlements have been uncovered in Labrador.

"America" may have taken its name from these "Erics". "Amterica" in the ancient Scandinavian tongue means the "land of Eric" - "Amt" means land and "a" at the end of Eric denotes possession. This is what some of the Indians were calling the land when Amerigo Vespucius came there. His name in Italy was Marco and possibly he took his name from America rather than gave it to her, as is speculated. This is, of course, speculation, and is only one theory we might give consideration to. Yair Davidy of Israel has introduced other, just as legitimate, suggestions for the origin of the name. Multiple origins cannot be ruled out.

Reader's Digest's excellent book, The World's Last Mysteries, mentions how many White, or part White, tribes have been found occasionally in Venezuela and other parts of South America1116. One such tribe was found to be red-bearded! It was discovered by the builders of Brazil's Trans-Amazon Highway. Their name? The Assurinis.1117 Could they be, in part, descendants of Assyrian traders? Or were they former Assyrian slaves in the Ancient Middle East? We do know that some Canaanites were blonde in ancient Asia Minor1118, probably due to inter-marriage and some Canaanite (Phoenician) tribes landed up in America.

There is nothing new in the belief that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians settled in America. Samuel Bochart and Pierre Daniel Huet, both already referred to in earlier chapters, claimed this in the 16th century1119. Anthropologists and historians will also tell you that, although the Minoans were mainly dark-haired and eyed, some had blonde hair1120 due to intermarriage with Indo-Europeans.

The Missing Link

Why has it not been generally recognised that the American Indians originated in Thrace and in the Aegean? The major reason is that the bulk of evidence has been destroyed. The Santorini incident sunk much of the Minoan civilization to the bottom of the sea. Others have speculated that the lost continent of Atlantis situated just west of the Azores may indeed be the missing link between the America Indians, North-West Africa (the Mauri?) and the Aegean. Could this be the case?1121

Another territory off Heligoland, perhaps the original Thule, later also became known as Atlantis1122. This too, may be a missing link between Europe and the Americas, now long since disappeared beneath the waters. Thule is mentioned by Ptolemy (AD 140) as being between Scotland and the Shetland Isles. Also, evidence of great human - built walls, now underwater, off the island of Bimini


1115. Hoeh 1969 vol 2:91

1116. World's Last Mysteries 1977:20

1117. Dankenbring 1978:89

1118. Heyerdahl 1978:339

1119. Poliakov 1974: 141

1120. Coon 1948:141. The Eskimos of the Coppermine River are also blonde according to Taylor 1937:246

1121. An excellent account on Atlantis may be found in the book Beyond Star Wars.

1122. Rea 1968:13-14. See Scrutton 1977.


in the area of the Bahamas is further evidence of worldwide catastrophes which were unleashed upon planet Earth thousands of years ago.

One day, as technology improves, and we explore some of these underwater treasure-troves, historians and archaeologists will be forced to rewrite world history and admit that many of the Indians came from the east, as their traditions say, and not the west alone.

Smith's Classical Dictionary tells us that the family of Tiras subdivided into various tribes. They are listed as follows:






Calybes (Caribes)






Others were Ketei, Tosk and Moskas, similar to the names of nations in Asia Minor. The name of the Moskas may derive from a branch of Tiras which dwelt next to the Moschi in Asia Minor1123, the Tosks from the Etruscans and Ketei from some of the Hittites (see the final section, Canaanites in the Americas Too, below). Perhaps there is even a relationship between the Tarascos of Michoacan Mexico and Tuscarora Indians with a section of the Etruscans. Dr Nott wrote:

"A great similarity exists between the ancient Etruscans ... and the Auraucanians of South America. The features and outlines of the Cherokees seem to be perfectly identical with those of several Italian populations, the Calabrians [Canaanites], for instance. The inhabitants of Auvergne, especially the female portion, much more nearly resemble physiognomy of several Indian tribes of North America than any European nation”.1124

Dr Nott is on to something, for some of those European peoples have Tirasian or Canaanite or Edomite blood.

The Milyaes, Gasgars and Mauris have already been referred to as being absorbed into Elishah. The Carians may also have been absorbed by Elishah. But what of the rest?

The Dyras are called Dures and the Dorasquas; Teres is named Turas; and Tauri is the Dauri in South America. Undoubtedly, the Trios and Atures Indian tribes are also related to Teres and Tauri. Calybes gave rise to the Calybes or Caribes in the Carribean. The Tinne, called Thyni by the Greeks, are in Canada. The famous Amazons are to be found in South America. It may be that some of these were somehow related to those which allied with the Hittites against the Phrygians1125.

Maias fathered the Mayas; Ketei, Tosk and Moskas (called Ketei-Moskas by the Greeks) gave rise to the Chahta-Muskoki Indians in the United States. A tribe called the Tarasca dwell today in the Michoacan Province, southern Mexico1126. They are named after their god, Taras1127, who can be no other than Tiras deified. Similarly we find the Touros in Brazil and Terrazas city in Mexico.


1123. Rawlinson 1878:174

1124. Dr Nott page 343 

1125. McEvedy 1967:38

1126. Driver 1969: map 44

1127. Brinton 1891:136


Surely it could not be any plainer? The American Indians who built the civilizations of the Mississippi and founded the Maya and Aztec Empires descend from Tiras, son of Japheth, son of Noah.

No mention is made of Tiras in prophecy. Why? Simply because God knew they would be a subjected, down-trodden people (unfortunately), their lands swamped by other races.

Canaanites in the Americas Too

From the aforementioned evidence, it would appear that even some Canaanites migrated to the Americas. For instance Kansas and Kanawha River may be named after them.

Where are the sons of Heth today? The ancestors of Heth became known as the Hittites1128. In time they migrated from Palestine to Dardania in Asia Minor; the Indo-Europeans who settled in the territory of these Hittites took their name and applied it to themselves because they were such famous warriors1129. In the Middle East, three or even four racial groups may be identified as Hittites1130. The Hittites which descended from Heth are the original group whom I wish to discuss..

Some confuse the Hittites with the Khittites, another group who inhabited Asia Minor. The original Hittites were a dark-skinned people1131 who had a yellow-brown skin1132. They were related to the Minoans1133 while some others mixed with their Indo-European conquerors1134. In Egyptian monuments the true or original Hittite peoples were depicted with prominent noses - straight or hawked shaped.

"Somewhat proud, with lips full, the cheek-bones high, the eyebrows fairly prominent, the forehead receding like the chin, and the face hairless ... The hair is black, the eyes dark brown". 1135

"The skin colour varied from brown to yellowish and reddish [because of the racial stocks being confused by writers]. Greek tradition insists the people were a warlike, rude people, known for their frenzied dances and music”1136.

The only dark people anywhere on the face of this planet bearing the name Hatti or Chatti (that is, Hittites) are amongst the American Indians. The white man first encountered them in New England and in the plains of America. The inter-tribal name of the plains confederation of the Indians was Chatti. The main tribe was the Sioux, living in both North and South Dakota. They are an exception to the rule that the American Indians are brachycephalic head-shaped (ie round-headed) - the Sioux are actually long-headed (dolichocephalic)1137. Their features are quite different too (for example their nose is hooked and longer than most Indians). Further, the name Heth (whence Hittite is derived), means warrior. The Sioux were commonly called "brave" which means "warrior". Writing in the 1840's, Goodrich had this to say about the Sioux who are different, he states, to the other tribes


1128. Douglas 1972:528

1129. ibid

1130, Wiseman 1973:197

1131. Koestler 1976:164

1132. Sayce 1928:42

1133. McEvedyl967:28

1134. Gayre 1973:34

1135. Sayce 1925:133

1136. Hoeh 1969 vol 2:360

1137. Brinton 1891:99


"No Indian tribe, except the Sioux, has shown such daring intrepidity and such implacable hatred towards other tribes. Their enmity, when once excited, was never known to be appeased till the arrow or tomahawk had forever prostrated their foes. For centuries, the prairies of Illinois and Iowa were the theatre of their exterminating prowess; and to them is to be attributed the almost entire destruction of the Missouris, the Illinois, Cahakias, Kaskaskias, and Borias".1138

Brinton wrote similarly:

"Their frames are powerful, and the warriors of the Sioux have long enjoyed a celebrity for their hardihood and daring. The massacre of General Custer's command, which they executed in 1876, was the severest blow the army of the United States ever experienced at the hands of the red men".1139

We know that some of the Hittites mixed with their Indo-European conquerors1140. Is this the reason why some of the Indians of North Dakota had blonde hair?1141 A final point to mention is that the line of descent of the Canaanitish tribes was often counted through women (a matriarchy). The Mohawk, Mohican or Iroquois Indians had old women as ruling-chiefs. Sometimes, of course, they had male rulers because they went to war, but women figure very prominently. Is all this mere coincidence? Or is fact stranger than fiction? Another clue may be the K'nai'a Khotana Indians in Alaska. Their name may derive, in part, from Canaan.

The Hivites

The Hivites who were linked to the Edomites, inhabited Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, from the Hermon Range to Hamath. But they are not there today.1142 Then where are they?

The Hivites were driven out of the Middle East by the Philistines according to researcher Peter Tompkins1143. Many readers would be familiar with Peter Tompkins' stimulating work Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids. In it, Tompkins uses Ordonez, Nanez and native Mexican sources. Part of the Hivite tribe fled to Tyre from whence they set sail to America1144. On page 79 he quotes from an Indian document signed 28th September 1554, which reads

"We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us, who came from the other part of the sea, from Givan - Tulan, bordering on Babylonia". 1145

One Indian tradition recorded in The Annals of the Cakchiquels - Lords of Totonicapen mentions that their ancestors came from the east, from the rising of the sun, across the ocean from a place called Civan - Tula, which means in American Indian "place of caves”.1146

One researcher has written the following concerning that event

"The people led by Odin or Wotan across the Atlantic to the New World were not exclusively the sons of Tiras from Thrace; some tribes were called Chivim, reports Ordonez the early Spanish writer. It is the very Hebrew spelling used for the English word.


1138. Goodrich 1844:246-7

1139. Brinton 1891:99

1140. Gayre 1973:34

1140. Gayre 1973:34

1141. Coon 1956: plate 23

1142. Douglas 1972:329

1143. Tompkins 1974:79

1144. ibid

1145. ibid

1146. Goetz 1953:169-70


Hivites, some of whom once lived in Mt Seir, the land of caves near Babylonia. So the Mexicans were a mixed people".I147

There we have it. The Hivites are today absorbed into the general population of Mexico and Guatamala, perhaps representing the darkest strain in those peoples.

Some Hivites may have settled in the land of the Tatars, called Khiva1148, for a time, before migrating to Pannonia in Hungary where a minority brown Turanid people dwell. But much more research needs to be undertaken to prove that a small dark component of the Hungarians (known as the Pusta) descend from the Hivites.

Genetic Research

An interesting item appeared in a scientific journal in April 1998 on "Genes may link Ancient Eurasians, Native Americans" in Science journal by Virginia Morrell:

"Anthropologists have recently been puzzled by surprising features on a handful of ancient American skeletons that resemble those of Europeans rather than Asians, the presumed ancestors of the first people to cross the Bering Strait into the Americas.

Now a new genetic study may link native Americans and people of Europe and the Middle East, offering tantalizing support to a controversial theory that a band of people who originally lived in Europe or Asia Minor were among this continent's first settlers. The new data come from studies of a genetic marker called Lineage X, which has been found both in living Native Americans and in certain groups in Europe and Asia Minor, including Italians, Finns, and certain Israelis - but not in any Asian population"

The research referred to above and that by Cavalli-Sforza et al (The History and Geography of Human Genes) will not only assist in tracing the movements and migrations of tribes and nations, but also will provide further support to this book and the Biblical record. Further work on human genetic history will no doubt give further credence and substance to our argument.

To sum up, the American Indian tribes have a range of origins including Tiras, Canaan, Edom and Magog. They are a diverse people and must not be thought to be descended from the same source.


1147. Hoeh 1969 vol 2:93-94

1148. Pococke 1856:217



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