In Search of... The Origin of Nations
MODERN IDENTITIES OF THE DESCENDANTS
OF ELAM AND LUD
Where are the Elamites and the peoples of Lud today? Can we trace their movements from the Middle East? Or did they become "lost" from view, unable to be traced? Only an analysis of the physical type of both Lud and the Elamites and their tribal names can give us a clue as to their modern identities. Hold on to your hat as we go on a whirlwind tour of the exciting historical and anthropological data from which we may form an educated opinion.
UPON COMPLETION OF THIS CHAPTER, THE READER WILL KNOW:
* who the East Europeans descend from
* why the Croatians and Serbians, blood brothers, are 'at each other's throats'
* the true origin of the Albanians and the Georgians
* how to track them back to parts of the Middle East and specific sons of Shem
* where they are mentioned in prophecy
The Elamites which dwelt in south-west Persia1563 were known to the Babylonians as the Elamtu, to the Greeks as Elymais and the Romans called them the Elymaci. But to the Elamites, they named themselves Haltamti and subsequently in the old Persian language, the rendering of their name is hfuju) and in Middle Persian as Huz. This is the archaic form of Khuzistan which is the old land of Elam to the south-east of Babylonia.
What did they look like physically? Anthropologists describe them as being neither Nordic nor Semetic (Arabs)1564. Hinz, author of The Lost World of Elam, writes
"Any attempt to trace the Elamites ethnologically is beset with difficulties. The more you investigate available sources, the more you get the impression that the Elamites were ... a race of immutable independence. No relationship with other peoples has yet emerged."1565
He adds that the glazed brick reliefs depict three different races existing in Elam : white, brown and another so dark that it is almost black1566. The White ethnic group in Elam were the original literal descendants of Elam and may be classified as Alpine racially according to an expert in the field, Taylor1567
Dr Gay re has this to say:
"Donald A. Mackenzie, citing C.H.WJohns, asks: 'were the pre-Semitic Elamites originally speakers of an agglutinative language, like the Sumerians and the present-day Basques, who were conquered in pre-historic times by a people of Aryan speech?"1568
1563. Josephus Antiquities : 1:6:4
1564. Pfeiffer 1966: 217
1565. Hinz 1972 : 21
1566. ibid. These would include the original Elamites, Riphathites and Dravidians
1567. Taylor 1937: 140
The historian, Los, concurs, maintaining that the Elamites we find depicted on the monuments are round-headed (brachycephalic) and have a receding forehead like the Sumerians1569; all experts are aware of the fact that they were white and definitely not brown Arabic Semites.1570
The Elamites came into unfortunate conflict with Assyria. The powerful Assyrians mercilessly invaded Elam, sacked Susa their capital, and slaughtered many of them resulting in the two nations becoming eternal enemies. Later, Elam was destroyed by Media (c640 BC) together with their capital, Susa. This ended the Elamite power, even though Cyrus, King of Persia, made Susa one of his capitals a century later. Those that escaped this tragedy migrated to find a new homeland. Where did the Elamites eventually settle down? Who might be the modern descendants of Elam today?
The tribes within the confines of Elam were the Anzan, Uxii or Uxians, Armardians Mardians, Khapirt, Aipir, Messadatae, Cissi, Cossaei or Cossi1571. In addition Elam contained the Khuzi or Huzha tribe1572. The Kassi or Cassite tribes were also known as the Kossai or Kashshu1573 and thus were probably Kassite robber tribes dwelling in north-west Elam1574. The name may also be spelt Kissean, Kossean or Kossaioi. The Assyrians called these Kassi hill-tribes of west Elam the Kusu1575. These Kassi were not Elamite by race, but Indo-Europeans who dwelt within their land.1576
What became of the Elamites and the non-Elamite Kushu and the Massadetae who migrated with them? They migrated into southern Russia settled along the Don with Madai, being known as the Sauromatae by Diodorus and other Greek historians. Perhaps the name derives from, or partly derives from, the name of the Armardian or Armatian Elamite tribe. The word Sarmatian may also be spelt Samartian. However, some writers dispute whether they are an identical people to the Sauromatae. It may be that the Sauromatae are the descendants of Madai and the Sarmatians descend from Elam and that the two became confused by observers and ancient historians due to their close proximity and similarity. Vernadsky notes the following
"It is doubtful that the name 'Sarmatae' has any inner connexion with 'Sauromatae'; the similarity must be accidental... the Greeks and the Romans called the 'Sarmatian' tribes 'Sarmatae’”..1577.
Regardless, Pliny mentions that they were part of the Scythian hordes1578. Amongst their tribes were the Alani, Iazyges, Roxolani, Siraces, Aorsi and Antae1579; not all of these were Elamites or even descendants of Madai. The Iazyges were also known as the Iaxamatae or Ixibatai1580 and the Chinese
1568. Gayre 1973 :140
1569. Los 1967: 149
1570. Simon 1959: 28
1571. Encyc Brit: 9th ed : art "Elam"
1572. Hinz 1972: 72
1573. Waddell 1929:453
1574. Cameron 1936: 72
1575. Hannay 1916 :199
1576. In the Rig Veda, the god Indra slew the Srbinda who were a non-Aryan people.
They were also known as the vi-bhindu which may be a form of Budini, Vendi or Venedi.
Were these original Serbian tribes?
1577. Vernadsky 1959: 57
1578. Pliny Bk iv. xiii. 80
1579. Sulimirski 1970 : 24
1580. ibid: 102
called the Aorsi the Yentsai of Antsai (Antae)1581 who were perhaps descended from the Elamite Anzan tribe.
In terms of their physical biology and anthropology, Professor Coon informs us that the Samartians were White and in no way may be considered as Mongoloid1582. They conquered western Scythia in Roman times and reached the Carpathian mountains, naming them the Sarmatian mountains and they are so-called throughout the ancient Book of Vies. We know that the Sarmatians were an Iranian-speaking people1583 and that their weapons, implements and artistic objects were comparable to those of Elam and Mesopotamia1584. In addition, Elamite art 'influenced' the Sarmatians and both Persian and Elamite axes and other implements have been found among them1585. Of course - for they were the Elamites.
It is also of interest that "Sar" in Sarmatian originally meant "Prince" or "tribal chief, according to Vernadsky1586. In the ancient Middle East "Sar" meant "king" in Assyrian1587 and I'm sure we have all heard of the famous Persian Shahs. We also find in Strong's Exhaustive Concordance that "Sar" in Hebrew means a "headperson ... captain ... chief... general... governor ... prince ruler"1588. The origin of the word is clearly found in the Middle East.
Eventually, the proto-Slavs came under the dominion of the Sarmatians1589and their culture was greatly influenced by the latter1590. But after the power of the Alans (and in particular their leading tribe, the Spali or Speri) was broken by the Goths, the leading role was taken over by the Anti or Antes Sarmatian tribe. In historical perspective the proto-Slavic and Armatian peoples were united politically to such an extent that Jordanes, a famous Gothic historian of the sixth century AD wrote that there were three groups of Slavs: the Venedi, Sclavoni and the Antes1591.
Where are the Sarmatian Venedi, Sclavoni and Antes today? For we find that once the Sarmatians were conquered, "they completely disappeared from history"1592. But whole races do not just simply disappear. So where are they? Antes is an Iranian name1593 and are regarded by historians as the direct ancestors of many of the Slavs today1594. Could they be descendants of the Anzi or Anzan tribe which were, as we have previously seen, an Elamite people? Historians note that there are clear traces of the Sarmatians - especially the Antae (or Aorsi) having settled in, and populated Poland1595. Sulimirski remarks:
"Ancient Sarmatian traditions survived in Poland for a long time. A belief in the Sarmatian origin of Poland was widespread among the Polish Nobility"1596.
1581. ibid: 117
1582. Coon 1963: 198
1583. Gimbutas 1963 : 63
1584. Rostovtzeff 1922: 19
1585. ibid : 57, 59
1586. Vernadsky 1959:57
1587. Hannay 1916 : 327
1588. Strong 1890: #8269
1589. Dvornik 1956: 22
1590. Gimbutas 1963: 64
1591. Sulimirski 1970 : 196
1592. McGovern 1939: 42
1593. Dvornik 1956 : 24
1594. Taylor 1947: 391
1595. Sulimirski 1970 : 166
1596. ibid: 167
Much evidence may also be found in ancient Polish coins and heraldry1597. Certain authors of the early twentieth century agree that the western Slavs descend from the Sarmatians1598 It should be noted by the reader that as physical anthropologists identify the white Elamites as Alpine, so they classify the non-Russian Slavs of Eastern Europe as eastern Alpines. All historians agree that the Alpine peoples once dwelt in Central Asia where the Scytho-Sarmatians arose1599. It is of particular significance that author Sulimirski comments that:
"The Sarmatians were closely akin to the ancient Medes, Parthians and Persians.”1600
Prepare yourself for a pleasant surprise. Where might some of the peoples who inhabited Parthia (a part of ancient Persia), be today? Lempriere's Classical Dictionary explains: "Parthini, a people of Illyricum"1601~Illyricum is south-east Europe. Here is a further clue to identifying the very descendants of Elam himself. Dvornik also makes mention of how the peoples of Iran (Medes, Persians and Elamites) did not follow the other Indo-Europeans in using the symbolic name of Dieus ("worshipped sky") for their god. Instead, they substituted "cloud" for "sky" and used the cognate Deiwas (changed to "Daeva") to refer, not to god, but a demon, hostile to him. The Slavs, maintains Dvornik, followed the Iranians in all of these respects1602; and why should they not? For they were the literal Elamites who had previously dwelt in ancient southern Iran. But that is by no means all of the proof: the Slavs, he further states, "followed" the Iranians in also the types of gods they had, used the same names of the gods, and in various practices such as burial, they emulated the Iranians. Further, they also had many Iranian words in their own vocabulary1603.
Many of the Slavs settled in Slovakia. When the western Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century AD, the Germans (then occupying Czechoslovakia), were led to release their 'pent-up energies' with out-migration, emptying the land and permitting the Czechs (also known as Bohemians), Slovaks and the Hannacks (known as the Moravians or Moavians) to settle the area1604. It is very likely that the Slovaks descend from the Sarmatian Sclavones tribe and the Hannacks from the Hanshan or Anzan tribe of Elam1605.
Who Are The Poles?
The Poles or Polaks (a word which has come to mean 'men of the plains') are a fascinating people but are somewhat more difficult to identify specifically. We know that the Polani tribe united six tribes (not all Slavs) in the tenth century AD, forming the first Polish state1606. To my knowledge, these six tribes were the Polanians (also known as Lechs), Vistulians, East Pomeranians, Mazovians, Silesians and the Kashu. Because of the German and other neo-Nordic tribes in Poland today, the Poles comprise the fairest of all the Central European Slavs. A tribe known as the Pul once inhabited Asia Minor1607, but whether they had anything to do with the Elamites and the modern Poles, one cannot say dogmatically at this time. This may be the origin of the name of the Polani tribe.
1598. Grant 1923: 143,272
1599. McGovern 1939: 42
1600. Sulimirski 1970 :22
1601. Lempriere 1788 : 449
1602. Dvornik 1956 : 47-48
1604. McEvedy 1967 : 83
1605. Waddell 1929 : map 4
1606. Langer 1968 : 257
1607. Hoeh l957:8
Perhaps they came from the Pillatu district of Elam1608. Historians know that
"western Russia, before it came to be called 'white', was thus referred to as Polotian Russia, from Polock, its strongest and most advanced principality."1609
Amongst the original Slavs in western Russia, were the Polyanians and Polotians.1610 One tribe known as the Polabians settled along the bank of the Elbe, south of Hamburg - they were definitely a
Slavic Tribe .1611 But the Poljane proper were the ancestors of the Poles 1612 who settled in the district which came to be known as Great Poland1613. Are the Poles descended from Elam? It is probable that many are. But it is just as likely that the northern Poles descend from Peleg. In terms of physical anthropology, the Poles are not typical Slavs, although they are regarded as Alpine or semi - Alpine. Professor Coon believed that Poland is too blond a nation to be regarded as completely Alpine. In addition, their skin pigmentation is Nordic1614.
The word Pol or Pul may be found all over eastern Europe:
* Polabi region of Czechoslovakia (known also as Lake Plain)
* A town and bay in Yugoslavia are known as Pula or Pola
* Polesyer Marshland of USSR (Pripet Marshes)
* The city of Ppjevskoy (USSR)
* A city of Belorussia was known as Polotsk
* Polgar in Hungary
Many other names of places bear the prefix Pol in the Soviet Union. Another Polish tribe, the Pomeranians dwell along the northern sea-board of Poland. They are a neo-Nordic people.1615 Occupying the sea-board with them are the Kashubs1616. Geipel spells their name as Kaszuby or Cassubian1617. Surely we have here the Kashu tribe (descendants of the Kassites) who dwelt in Elam, referred to earlier in the chapter? The Kashu are a blonde people. No wonder the district near which they occupied in Elam was known as Rashi1618, meaning blonde.
The Serbians and Croatians
Further south from Poland lies Yugoslavia (sometimes spelt Jugoslavia), which means "southern Slavs". They recall their first independent state under one Stephen Nemanja (c 1168-96) which was known as the Grand Zupan (chieftan) of Ruscia or Rask; that was the Medieval name of Serbia. They reached their zenith during the reign of Stephen Dusan (1331-55). But the southern slavs were a divided lot. Their lack of solidarity was due, in part, to their tribal system and divisions along clannish lines with each clan having its own chieftan or Zupan. As a result they could not resist the Ottoman conquest when the Turks became masters of the Balkans with their victory over the Serbs at Kosovo in 1389. To this day, divided by natural geographic boundaries, they perpetuate a variety of
1608. Oded : map opp page 142; Cameron 1936 : 261
1609. Vakar 1956: 40
1610. Cross 1953: 55
1611. Geipel 1969: 189
1612. ibid: 43
1613. Encyc Brit vol 25 15th ed : art "Poland"
1614. Coon 1948 : 566
1615. Wojciechowski 1947 : 77
1616. Barnett 1958:46
1617. Geipel 1969: 195
1618. ibid: 261 (map)
social and cultural differences. In fact, they are racially the same people but they did not become one state until this century. Also, the Catholic nations of Croatia and Slovenia regard themselves as more Central European culturally and ethnically, a view which was intensified under the Hapsburg dynasty. In contrast, the Eastern Orthodox Serbians have a closer affinity with the Russians.
The Serbs' ancient enemy is the Islamic Turks, that old oppressor. Yet they and the Croats seem unable to combine against Islam and find themselves in blind raging hatred of each other. The Serbs have felt rejected by Europe since the Turkish conquest of 1389 and to this day still felt let down by the Christian nations of Central and Western Europe. To them isolation is nothing new. But their relationship with Croatia is a bitter hatred between two siblings, one who feels betrayed and rejected by the other. It is indeed a very deep conscious and subconscious national feeling. To make matters worse, their racial brothers, the Ustasha Croats, collaborated with the Nazis in World War Two, resulting in massive massacres. Memories and bitterness will not simply go away in this region.
Several other tribes dwell there, including the Herzegovinians who are taller than their fellow tribes. Note also the Slovenians in the north who "in stature, head form, and pigmentation they cannot be distinguished from the Austrians upon whose territory they touch"1619. (They number about 1.9 million persons today).
The Elamites (also called Halam) were also known as Elymais or Elymaeans1620. The Greeks maintained in their records that the Elimaei dwelt northwest of them in Yugoslavia. The same word was used by the ancient Greeks to refer to the Elamites.1621 Lempriere wrote: "Elimea, or Elimiotis, a district of Macedonia, or of Illyricum according to others.1622
There we have it; a part of Elam dwell today in Yugoslavia. One wonders whether the name of Serbia derives from the Seropi or Surappi River in Elam and that the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, derives from the Zagreb mountain range in ancient Elam. Interestingly, the mountain range Dinara in Dalmatia and the Dinar currency may be connected to Mount Dinar of ancient Elam. It may be no coincidence that the fifth king of Elam was Tata and the word Tata means "Dad" in Serbian. Could all this be mere 'coincidence'? Further, Strabo1623 also has the Elimeia as dwelling in Macedonia.
The two largest tribes or nations comprising a major part of Yugoslavia are the Croats and the Serbs, who, according to Slavic history expert, Dvornik, descend from the Sarmatians, and may be traced back to southern Russia1624. Dvornik adds the following in a footnote:
"P.S.Sakac thinks that he discovered the name 'Croats' in Darius' inscriptions from the sixth century B.C. There an old Persian province and people are mentioned, called Harahvaitai, Harahvatis, Horohoati…”1625
Is further proof required?
Centuries ago Ammanius Marcellinus mentioned that a people arose anciently in Persia called Habroatis and a city known as Chroates1626. Is this where the Croats originated? According to Sakac
1619. Coon 1948:588
1620. Field 1970:126
1621. Hoeh 1957 : 8
16222. Lempriere 1788:222
1623. Strabo : map 7
1624. Dvornik 1956 :26; Sulimirski 1970 : 190-1
1626. Marcellinus: xxiii.6,42-43
the Harahvatis were driven out of southern Persia and migrated via the Caucasus1627. Dvornik goes on to mention that Byzantine Emperor, Constantine Porphyarogennetus, in his Book of Ceremonies,1628 calls the Croats and Serbs "Krevatas and Sarban", who were located between Alania and Tsanaria. Sulimirski, author of The Sarmatians also makes mention of the referral of the Emperor's to the Belochrobati or White Croats who "exhibited certain Sarmatian characteristics ... [they were] of Iranian origin" he states.1629
Pliny writing in the first century BC, stated in his Natural History that the Chroasi dwelt with the Massagetae in southern Russia1630 and that the Serbi lived on the shores of the Black Sea while Strabo mentions the Chorasmii as also dwelling in southern Russia1631.
It should be noted that an area of south-west Poland was once known as Chrobatia, which the Croatians probably occupied centuries before trekking southwards1632. Pliny also makes reference to the region of Serbi between the Azov and the Caucasus1633. In the following century, Ptolemy, in his Geography, locates the Serboi between the lower Volga and the Caucasus1634.
But the first mention that we are aware of the name Serbian in their present location, may be found in Annals regni Francorum written by Frank the chronicler about 822AD.
Yet another ancient writer, a Latin geographer by the name of Vibius Sequestrus found the Serbs on the eastern shores of the Azov and describes their westward movement into Europe with some settling in Germany for a time. In the fifth century the Serbs disputed where they should settle and the tribe split up with some migrating into Germany but the majority settling in present-day Yugoslavia. They number 9.9 millions (including 2 million Albanians in Kosovo and 2 million Vojvodians in the north), the Croats 5 millions, Montenegrians 632,000, Macedonians 1.9 million and 4.4 million Bosnians, Croats and Serbs occupy Bosnia-Hercegovinia.
Historians who have studied the language of the region have come to the conclusion that somehow they have had connections to the region of Iran (Persia and Elam) but do not understand how. One such historian writes:
"Most scholars believe either that both Serbs and Croats were Slavic tribes with Iranian castes, or that they were originally Iranian tribes which had acquired Slavic subjects ... What is clear is that the Serbs and Croats had a similar and connected history from the earliest of times..."1635
The few Serbs in Germany close to the Czech and Polish borders are still there to this day and are known as Sorbs or Sorabians. They are also known as Wends or Lusatians by some (Lusatian derives from lut, meaning meadow in Sorbian). The northern Sorbs have kept their distinctiveness, whilst the southern Sorbs are being assimilated. However, they have employed an alphabet of Latin origin. And even though they are completely surrounded by Germanic peoples, they have maintained their own customs, identity, language and literature. Their numbers are concentrated in the Spree Forest area of
1627. Dvornik 1956: 26
1628. Bk 2, ch 48 : 688, quoted in Dvornik 1956 : 26
1629. Sulimirski 1970 : 191
1630. Pliny Bk vi. xviii. 50
1631. Strabo 11.8.8
1632. Ripley 1899:411
1633. Pliny quoted in Dvornik 1956 : 26
1535. Malcolm 1994: 7
Lusatia between Cottbus and Lubben with a total of about 100,000 to 120,000. An outline of the Sorbian characteristics and history may be found in The Times Guide to the Peoples of Europe by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto (pages 292-94)
It is interesting to observe that the Elamites called the most famous mountain in their region Elwend1636. History records that at one time the Elamites overran Babylonia and extended their rule into Palestine 1637 where they named a river the Elwend, which the Greeks called Orontes1638
One of the tribes from the Baltic region was called the Venedi, Veneti or Eneti in Latin or Wends in German. More than one tribe of people was known as Wends1639 just as more than one tribe was known as Suevi. Some think that a part of the Sarmatian Serboi which settled along the Polish border became known as the Wends. Today they are known as the Serbs with a branch settling in Yugoslavia1640. Whether they were the original Wends it is not possible to ascertain today. In any event, historians trace the Serbs (or Sorabs as they were sometimes known) and Croats (Chrobates) from East Germany to Yugoslavia1641.
It is, however, sometimes difficult to distinguish in history between the north German Wends and the Slavic Wends. Historically, the Venedi had joined with the Sarmatian tribes called the Iazyges. Butinger's Tabula is one of the oldest sets of maps available concerning Europe (third century AD) which names the region occupied by the Sarmatians and Slavs as "Venedi Sarmatae", indicating that they had become united. This no doubt led to some confusion concerning the Wends and Veneti. Perhaps the Veneti derive from the Lake Van area or that certain Elamites passed through that region.
We do know that Strabo wrote that the Eneti had originated in Asia Minor and migrated to the Adriatic1642:
"... the ... Eneti ... were the most notable tribe of the Paphlagonians ... the Eneti disappeared and are not to be seen in Paphlagonia1643... the Eneti first set forth from the country of the White Syrians".1644
Lempriere's Classical Dictionary concurs showing us an alternative spelling as Heneti1645 and the Heniochi were "a people of Asiatic Sarmatia"1646. Perhaps they gave their name to the Heniochi Mountains in which the river Kur had its source according to Pliny1647. The Historian, Hertz comments that
1636. Hoeh 1957 : 8
1637. Gen 14:1-4,9
1638. Hoeh 1957: 8
1639. Hoeh 1969: 2:21
1640. Sulimirski 1970 : 190
1641. Taylor 1947 : 390
1642. Geography of Strabo :
1643. Strabo 12 .3.8
1644. ibid 12.3.25
1645. Lempriere 1788: 223
1646. Lempriere 1788: 271
1647. Pliny vi.x.26
"The Eneti occur in Asia Minor, but as Veneti they crop up also in Italy and in the Alps. The Lake of Constance was called Lacus Venetus. Mons Venetus lies in the Pyrenees".1648
In summary, we can see that it is quite clear that the tribes of Elam settled in parts of Eastern Europe, especially southern Poland and Yugoslavia as well as other regions of East Europe.
The Modern Descendants of Lud
Josephus informs us that Lud gave rise to the Lydians1649 while the account of Herodotus shows us that they were a white people1650. They lived in Asia Minor1651 with their land bounded by Phrygia, Mysia and Caria1652 but they have nothing to do, however, with the dark Ludim who descend from Mizraim who cannot be connected with the White Lydians1653. The Lydians were also known as the Luddu in Accadian1654 and as a result, writes historian Simon, "hardly anyone else but the Asiatic Lydians can be meant by 'Lud’…1655. While the Egyptian monuments label them as the Luden, the Assyrians called them Ludbu1656 and an ancient town in the area was known as Ludbi1657. Certainly a Ludbu is attested to on the upper reaches of the Tigris, in the cuneiform.1658
They joined with the Etruscans who were a certain priestly class from Chaldea with their subjects. Scholars still argue as to whether the Etruscans originated in Asia Minor or south-east Europe, the former theory having gained the predominance. What happened was that the Etruscans, fleeing Chaldea after its fall, migrated to Lydia, where we find the Ludbu. Referring to the Luden, Baker's Bible Atlas notes that they migrated to Asia Minor after being displaced by the Assyrians1659. Together with the Etruscans they migrated into southern Europe to a district in northern Italy northwest of the Tiber river. Lempriere's A Classical Dictionary asserts the following:
"Etruria, ... The ruling class were immigrants from Lydia, and the Tarquins at Rome were probably an Etruscan family ... its influence on Roman rites and ceremonials was very great. From Etruria came the curule chair, the fasces, augurs and haruspices, triumphs, trumpets, and the purple toga [these people were] famous for their superstitions and enchantments".1660
Indeed. For they brought with them various Egyptian and Babylonian elements including religion, divining art, farming and so om. Tuscany in Italy is named after the Etruscans or Etrurians as the name is sometimes spelt. One area occupied by them in Italy was known as Alba. The Etruscans identified with the Tyrsenians or Tyrrenians of history 1661. Hertz writes that the Etruscans were known as Tusci, Tyrrheni and Tursha to the Egyptians1662 and that "in all probability there existed
1648. Hertz 1928: 116-7
1649. Josephus Antiquities 1 : 6
1650. Herodotus Histories 1 : 7
1651. Gayre 1973: 24
1652. Douglas 1972 : 255, 760-1
1653. Simon 1959 : 57
1656. Ross 1981 : 29
1657. Saggs 1984: 46
1658. Westerman 1974: 513
1659. Pfeiffer 1979: 44
1660. Lempriere 1788: 231
1661. Gayre 1973 : 54
1662. Hertz 1928: 112
two distinct racial types within the Etruscans"1663. Dr von Fange agrees with this assessment stating that one group was mongoloid or Finnic by race1664. They may have been conquered subjects of the Etruscans. By way of an aside, it is interesting to note that Professor Sadovsky of California State University-Fullerton, has written of the many interesting similarities between the Finnic peoples and American Indians1665. In or near the Etruscan lands anciently, a city known as Atia1666 was once known. We also find that a nation called the Rhaeti once lived in Etruria.1667
The Etruscans split from them - with the Ludbu migrating to south-east Europe, giving their name to the River Ludias. They settled in what we call Albania today, which was named after the land of Alba in Italy where they had originally settled. Langer's famous Encyclopedia of World History maintains that the Etruscans came from Lydia and that the Lydians contributed a marked amount to ancient Italian civilization1668. Professor Coon in his Living Races of Man mentions that the Etruscan language of ancient northern Italy was from the Indo-Hittite Illyrian tongue which is today represented by the Albanian language. He feels that perhaps they came into Italy via Albania. In any event, he feels certain that they originated in Asia Minor1669.
We know that the Albanian language, a modern close relative of the Etruscan, is a branch of the great Indo-European family of languages1670. Also, in terms of physical anthropology, the Albanians descend from the Illyrian peoples of the Dinaric branch.
They are noted for their large round head, flattened at the back1671. Historians note that the Albanians descend from the Albanoi tribe of the Ulyrians1672. Today they are divided between the Ghegs in the north and Tosks in the south, separated roughly by the Shkumbian River. These two Albanian tribes comprise 95% of the population, but the remainder are Greeks, Romanians and Bulgarians. Under the former oppressive and terrible Communist regime ethnic groups "as [sometimes] customary in Socialist countries, are allowed to keep their language and national customs".1673 A tribe once extant in the region of Albania was the Shoshi, which may have been an Elamite element from the area of Susa in Iran.
The Ghegs and Tosks have certain differences which are apparent: they do not only differ in dress, musical and other cultural customs, but also in human biology. The Tosks have a less Dinaric head form and are generally shorter1674. In addition, the Tosks also have the same cephalic index as their Epirotes tribe in Greece, just across the border1675. The tribes of the Tosks are the Myzeqe, Camevia and Laberia. Laberia may be a derivation of Lub or Lud. Dr Pilkey suggests that the Ghegs descend from the Canaanite Girgashites1676. The tribes of the Ghegs are the Dukagjin and Maleia1677 The
1663. ibid: 114
1664. von Fange cl980 : 33
1665. von Sadovsky 1984 : 16
1666. Lempriere 1788: 91, 123
1667. ibid : 544. It may be no coincidence the Maoris claim to come from an island in the Pacific with the exact same name.
1668. Langer 1968 : 50
1669. Coon 1956: 57
1670. Radulescu 1984 : 77-131
1671. Huxley 1974 : 121
1672. Encyc Brit 15th ed, art "Albania"
1674. Coon 1948 : 633-634
1675. ibid: 604
1676. Pilkey 1984 : 94
1677. Encyc Brit 15th ed, art "Albania"
Tosks look down upon the Ghegs as uncivilized; conversely, the Ghegs regard the Tosks as weaker and mercenary1678. One tribe of the Ghegs are the Kosovars who live in the Serbian province of Kosovo. The Ghegs or Gegs are
"more animated, verbose, and at times rowdier ... [they] speak loudly and forcefully, and to outsiders they may even appear angry - gesticulating wildly and even throwing things down on the table when talking ... Gegs and Tosks speak somewhat different dialects".1679
Anciently the descendants of the Girgashites were known as the Karkisa or Qaraqisha to the Hittites and Kirkash to the Egyptians when they resided in Asia Minor.
Another branch of Lud is located in the Caucasus region, and known today as the Georgians with the areas of Tskaro and Tskhinvali. The province was known as Gurjistan to the Persians, indicating that it either had or still has some remnants of the descendants of Girgashite dwelling therein. They are also an Alpine/Dinaric people and have the greatest degree of blondism for peoples of that region, other than the Ossetes1680. It should also be noted that an ancient territory in that area was known as Lubdu or Lubdi1681. In addition, a kingdom known as the Kingdom of Albania once existed in that region and the area was also known as Iberia. Today Albania's official name is Shqiperi, but it is probably not a derivative of Iperia or Iberia. Rather, Shqiperi means 'Land of the Eagles'.
The Albanians are also known as the Arben, Arber or Arbereshe tribes113, "Arberia being a word akin to Berber or Barber"114. Among the Berbers of North Africa today are the Kabyles or Cabyles. Contrary to the dolicocephalicy and mesocephalicy of the Berbers, the Kabyles are brachycephalic, have a White skin and there are many blondes among them115. They are also the only White race speaking a Hamitic language116 No one really knows for sure where they came from, but historians and anthropologists do acknowledge that there have been migrations from south-east Europe to North Africa and visa versa117. Two prophecies in Ezekiel and Jeremiah refers to a branch of the Lydians (Hebrew "Lud") dwelling in North Africa118. Another in Nahum refers to the Lubim in North Africa.119 Whether the latter refers to Lehabim or the Ludbu one cannot state either way with certainty.
Ammianus Marcellinus mentions a city of Cabyle in Thrace120 and the tribe of the Chalybes as dwelling in northern Asia Minor, near or in Armenia121. While Pliny refers to the tribe of the Cabyleti as dwelling on the banks of the Maritza in Thrace, south-east Europe122 and the Albani,
1678. Arnakis 1969 : 30
1679. Richmond 1995: 218-19. Adrian Poruciuc refers to a "small, dark type [in Albania characterised by] round head, face short and rather wide across the cheekbones" (1992:10). These appear to be different to the Ghegs and one wonders if they are not remnants of the descendants of Tiras in the area. For such groups are also found in parts of Bulgaria and southwest Rumania.
1680. Coon 1948 : 633-34
1681. Aalders 1981 : 234
113. Polio &Puto 1981 :40
116. ibid: 29
117. ibid: 34
118. Jer 48:9; Ezek 30:5
120. Marcellinus xxxi.8.21
122. Pliny iv. xi. 40 See Lempriere 1788 : 122
Chalybes and Armeno-chalybe tribes as dwelling in or near Georgia123. In addition we had the town of Chalybon in Syria124, the Chalybs river and the Calybes tribe in Spain125. Perhaps this tribe descended from Lud too.
The Future of East Europe
Lud in Albania may form part of the prophesied United States of Europe, but prophecy does not specify. However, the Bible speaks in terms of history repeating itself. Will the Elamites be doomed to repeat their history? As Solomon, the wisest man to have lived, wrote:
"The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; And that which is done, is that which shall be done : And there is no new thing under the sun. Is there any thing whereof it may be said, 'see, this is new?' it has been already of old time, which was before us" (Eccl 1:9-10).
In World War One Croatia, Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria were allies of Germany. In World War Two Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Montenegro and Albania were allies of the Axis forces. Will history repeat itself? Will the Slavic nations of South-eastern Europe be involved in a United States of Europe? Bible prophecy may indicate such.
A part of Elam, maybe those of south-east Europe who were allied with Germany in the two World Wars and which were also within the Roman Empire, may form part of the coming Holy Roman Empire. It is these which are described by Ezekiel as being in the service of the king of Babylon (Europe) when it invades Egypt.128 Isaiah allies them with the peoples of Kir who were anciently in Anatolia but who are now in Europe.129 In other prophecies, however, Elam is allied with the Medes against Babylon. From this it would appear that there will be a break-up of the European combine and that certain nations of Elam such as Poland and Czechoslovakia may align with the nations of the east during the Tribulation:
"Go up, O Elam [East Europe]: besiege, O Media [Ukraine, Russia]: All the sighing thereof have I made to cease ... 'Babylon is fallen, is fallen [it has fallen once, and it is now announced that the end-time Babylon, United Europe, will fall again in similitude to its spiritual/political root empire]’.”130
And through the prophet Jeremiah, God Almighty thunders a blistering warning to the East Europeans:
" 'Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. And upon Elam will I bring the four quarters of heaven [war], and will scatter them toward all those winds ... And I will bring evil upon them, in my fierce anger ... and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them ... 'But it shall come to pass on the latter days, that I will bring again the captivity of Elam, saith the Lord' ."131
Watch out Eastern Europe. God says what He means and means what He says. Already we can see that the Balkans are splitting down the middle: a part inexorably tending toward the east and part
123. ibid vi.x.29; vi.iii. 11-12. See Lempriere 1788 : 27,114,142,292
124. Lempriere 1788 : 142
128. Ezek 32:11-12,22,24,30;. See Dan 11:40-42; Is 11:11
129. Is 22:6
130. Is 21:2,9. See Jer 25:25
131. Jer 49:35-39
toward the west. How like the ancient double-headed eagle symbol so prominent in the region. It is the official crest of Albania and of Serbia and Montenegro. The long history of this creature goes back to Rome where the single-headed variety symbolised the one Roman State. But when, in the fourth century, Emperor Constantine devolved the eastern half of the Empire to another emperor and another capital was established at Constantinople (modern Istanbul), two halves emerged.
Thus metaphorically, there was now a double-headed eagle, looking both west and east. Again, metaphorically, the neck ran down the Balkans: to its east was Serbia and on its west lay Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia. Later, the Turks invaded and devoured the eastern Roman Empire. Even after the Turks were driven out of the region, the impact of their presence in reinforcing the divisions and introducing another religion to the already awkward relationships, remain to this day.
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Fernandez-Armesto, F (1994)
Guide to the Peoples of Europe. Times Books, London.
The Lost World Of Elam. Sidgwick & Jackson, London.
Richmond, Y (1995)
From Da to Yes. Understanding the East Europeans. Intercultural Press,
Inc, Yarmouth, Maine.
The Sarmatians. Thames & Hudson, London, UK.