Keith Hunt - Drama of Lost Disciples #2 - Page Two   Restitution of All Things

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The Lost Disciples to Britain #2

The Tin Island and Culdee


by George Jowett (1961)


     WE have identified the sterling character of the Noblis
Decurio, his eminence in religious, political and commercial
affairs in both the Jewish and Roman hierarchy, his intimate
association with the family of Christ, and particularly the
powerful influence he exercised in the last tragic days of Jesus,
from the scene of the illegal trial for life to the time Joseph,
with his companions, were banished from Judea, to their arrival
at Marseilles, in Gaul. It will be helpful if we pause to
consider the world of A.D. 36, before beginning the fascinating
story of Joseph's landing in Britain with his companions and what

     Due to the historic discrepancies that commonly exist
concerning this era, it is important that one becomes familiar,
if but slightly, with the histories of the peoples of the various
nations who played an active part in the Christian drama. We
commonly find much confusion and misunderstanding caused by the
random translation of names and places into the various languages
that then prevailed. Historians do not quote, or even refer, to
the language then spoken by the original Britons and Gauls.
Reference is generally given piecemeal from the Greek or Latin,
which had not the slightest affinity with the Cymric tongue.
Perhaps unwittingly, historians have been the worst offenders in
erecting barriers to the truth, subscribing to the unsupportable
belief that Britain, for centuries before and after A.D. 36, was
an island populated by wild savages, painted barbarians
completely devoid of culture and religious conscience.
     Nonchalantly, the reporters wrote off those majestic years
as being steeped in myth, legend and folklore.
     The strange distortion of ancient Britain is the most
incredible paradox in history. One could be forgiven for thinking
that certain academic minds had deliberately entered into a joint
conspiracy to defame the history of those islands and their
inhabitants. It is not as though the truth were hidden. They had
but to read the classical histories of Rome, Greece and Gaul, as
their course affected Britain, and compare notes with the early
British Triads. It required but a mite of effort on their part to
search the old church records and the stored tomes in the British
Museum Library and other libraries at hand, replete with concrete
evidence contradicting the spurious writers. In addition,
thousands of Cymric Triads and monastic documents exist,
particularly in the Vatican Library, as well as the historic
versions of the earliest British historians, Celtic and Saxon. A
few enlightened historians did cast gleams of light on the truth,
but it was darkened and made obscure by the mass of irresponsible
literature foisted on the public.

     Truth was lost in unbelievable error.
     Strange as it may seem, it was the enemies of ancient
Britain who wrote at length with candour the most faithful
description of the early Britons, showing that they possessed an
admirable culture, a patriarchal religion, and an epochal history
that extended far beyond that of Rome. Modern writers also
confirm their testimony.
     E. O. Gordon, in "Prehistoric London," states that the city
of London (Llandn) was founded two hundred and seventy years
before Rome, in 1020 B.C.
     The famed British archaeologist, Sir Flinders Petrie,
discovered at Old Gaza gold ornaments and enamelware of Celtic
origin, dated 1500 B.C., and in reverse found Egyptian beads at
     The art of enamelling is early identified with Britain as is
the production of tin. The ancient Briton was the inventor of
enamelling. He was so perfect in this craft that relics reposing
in the British Museum, and the Glastonbury Museum, such as the
famous Glastonbury bowl (over two thousand years old), and the
beautiful Desborough mirror are as perfect as the day they were
made. They are magnificent examples of "La Tene" art, as the
Celtic design is named, their geometric beauty and excellence
being beyond the ability of modern craftsmen to duplicate.
     In "Early Britain," by Jacquetta Hawkes, page 32, we read
"These Yorkshire Celts, beyond all other groups, seem to have
been responsible for establishing the tradition of La Tene art.
... Nearly all the finest pieces are luxuries reflecting the
taste of warriors who enjoyed personal magnificence and the
trapping out of their wives and horses. Brooches to fasten the
Celtic cloak, bracelets, necklaces, pins, hand mirrors, harness
fittings, bits and horse armour, helmets, sword scabbards and
shields were among the chief vehicles of La Tene art. They show
on the one hand strong plastic modelling, and on the other
decorative design incised, in low relief, or picked out in
coloured enamel. Both plastically and in the flat the Celtic work
shows an extraordinary assurance, often a kind of wild delicacy,
far surpassing its Greek prototypes. In these the finest artists
achieved a marvellous control of balanced symmetry in the design
and equally in its related spaces."
     S. E. Winbold, in Britain B.C., writes:
"The Celtic curvilinear art, circa 300 B.C. and of which the
famous Glastonbury bowl is a good example, reached its zenith
development in Britain."
     Roman testimony states that captive Britons taught the
Romans the craft of enamelling.
     Herodotus, father of profane history, circa 450 B.C., wrote,
of the British Isles and its people, under the name of
Cassiterides, remarking on their talent in the metal industry.
Julius Caesar, following his campaign in Britain, 55 B.c., wrote
with admiration of their culture, their sterling character,
ingenuity in commerce and craftsmanship. He refers in amazement
to the number of populous cities, the architecture, universities
of learning, the numerical population of England, and
particularly to their religion with its belief in the immortality
of the soul.

(Obviously the druids of Britain did not have all truth, they did
have false doctrine among many truths - the immortality of the
sould being one of those false doctrines - Keith Hunt)


     Ancient historians record the exploits of the Kimmerians-
Kimmerii-Keltoi-Kelts, in their migrations through Europe into
Britain. Modern historians refer to their passage and somehow
leave and lose them on the European continent. Yet modern
ethnologists have correctly charted their migrations from their
ancient source in the East to their final destination in Gaul and
Britain, which were uninhabited before their arrival.
     Archaeologists have uncovered their past from the Crimea to
Britain as factually as they have substantiated the historic
existence of Babylon and Chaldea.
     Long before they were known as Kimmerians, the prophet
Isaiah addressed himself plainly to the inhabitants of "The
     Why historians have mutilated the facts, submerging in myth
and mystery the antiquity of Britain, is a tragedy that baffles
the mind.
     While it is stated that the ancient Phoenician script is an
ancestor of our own, philologists assert that the Keltic or
Cymric tongue is the oldest living language. Its root words have
a basic affinity with ancient Hebrew. In making this statement it
should be pointed out that the original tongue of the Biblical
characters had little association with modern Hebrew. The ancient
language was devoid of vowels. Modern Hebrew was not formulated
until the sixth century. To the modern Jew, the original Hebrew
is a lost tongue.

(On visiting Wales today you will find in many stores things like
tea-towels with the words on them "Welsh, the oldest language in
Europe" - yes Europe not Britain. I talked to a Welshman and he
told me that if you could raise from the dead a Kelt from 500
B.C. the two of them would speak and understand each other
perfectly in the Welsh language - Keith Hunt)

     In the Bible we read of Ezra bewailing the fact that his
brethren could not understand their native language and,
therefore, on their return to Jerusalem from the Babylonian
captivity, 536 B.C., Ezra was obliged to read the law to them in
the Assyrio-Chaldean language.
     Modern Hebrew is like Greek and Latin, a classical language.
The Jew of today reads and speaks in Yiddish, a conglomeration of
several languages.
     In the same manner as many modernists prate the dead, false
theory of evolution, the prejudiced, and uninformed continue to
regard the ancient British language as a mixture of several,
regardless of philologic contradiction.
     Abundant proof exists today that the ancient language is
still alive. It is frequently spoken in Wales, Cornwall, Ireland,
Scotland. and in Brittany and Normandy. Available are many old
Bibles written in the Celtic languages. One of the most prominent
Scottish newspapers is published in the old tongue, and an
adaptation of the Celtic is the official language of Eire.
     It is interesting to know the important part the ancient
language played in World War I. When the Allied Command could
find no other method to prevent German Intelligence from
deciphering the Allied wire messages, it was Lloyd George,
Britain's wartime Prime Minister, who suggested that the ancient
language, which he spoke fluently, be employed. Its use
completely baffled German Intelligence, preventing further code
interception. This could not have been possible if the Cymric
tongue was garbled. It had to be grammatically organized and
     Even today, nothing is more distorted than the modern
histories of world nations. They are either subject to political
chauvinism, or glorified idolatry by super-patriots. The historic
truth seems to be unpopular. Reporters seem to revel in biased
national opinion, with an inclination to judge from the
materialistic level of intelligence. Anything different is
ignorant, medieval or prejudiced. They tend to describe their own
native history according to their Party philosophy, ignoring its
transition in name and language from the past. They fail to
recognize the significant fact that language and geography is no
criterion of race. There is change in everything. Language
changes, so does the geographical habitation of people, but not
race. To evaluate the history of any race we must recognize the
progressive changes as they appear in language, religion, social
custom, and their adaptation to geographical residence. We must
ever be on guard against the distorters, the irresponsible, the
charlatan and the atheist. Their warped minds are motivated by
bigotry, prejudice, intolerance, religious and racial hatred.
They delight in destroying the champions of the truth. What they
do not understand they scofflingly label as tradition. Actually,
they do not understand the meaning of the word. To them it means
a myth. Disraeli eloquently said: "A tradition can neither be
made nor destroyed."

(Since 1961 when the author was puiblishing this work, what he
said about historians was very correct. Since then historians
have had to admit historic truth they would not accept, so things
have changed, and British ancient history is now admitted to be
correct as preserved by the Welsh and others - Keith Hunt)

     A tradition is a truth, though garnished with degrees of
exaggeration in the passage of time from repetitive retelling. It
can be clearly elucidated by separating the chaff from the wheat.
Through the common practice of generalizing we are prone to use
terms loosely, which easily side-track us into forming faulty
conclusions. Arising out of this habit we have come to generalize
the meaning of the word "Christian", insinuating that all
followers of Jesus were known by that name from the beginning. In
actual fact, the name "Christian" had not then been coined. It
was not created until years after His death. To the Judean, the
Greek, and the Roman world, the early adherents to the new Gospel
were known as "Followers of The Way". Jesus had said, "I am The
Way." To all His devotees He was "The Way". In their devotions
they referred to Christ and His spiritual philosophy as "The


     The title, "Christian", is claimed to have originated at
Antioch, following the enthusiastic reception given to the
disciples who fled there in A.D. 36. It is nearer to the truth
that the inhabitants of this ancient city referred to the
converts as "Little Christs", and, "Little men of Christ". These
labels are by no means the correct interpretation of the name
"Christian". The word is a composite of Greek and Hebrew.
"Christ" is the Greek word meaning "consecrated", and "ian" is
from the Hebrew word "am", meaning a person, or people.
Therefore, the true meaning of the word "Christian" is
"consecrated people".

     Early ecclesiastics and historians definitely state that the
word is of British origin. Philologists also support its claim to
British invention; created by the British priesthood, among whom
the Christian movement gained its first and strongest impetus.
Substantiation is found in the statement by Sabellus, A.D. 250,
who wrote: "The word Christian was spoken for the first time in
Britain, by those who first received The Word, from the Disciples
of Christ."

     It is interesting to note that the Bethany group who landed
in Britain, was never referred to by the British priesthood as
Christians, nor even later when the name was in common usage.
They were called "Culdees", as were the other disciples who later
followed the Josephian mission into Britain.
     There are two interpretations given to the word "Culdee", or
"Culdich", both words purely of the Celto--British language, the
first meaning "certain strangers", and the other as explained by
Lewis Spence, who states that "Culdee" is derived from
"Ceile-De", meaning, "servant of the Lord". In either case the
meaning is appropriate.
     This title, applied to Joseph of Arimathea and his
companions, clearly indicates that they were considered as more
than ordinary strangers. The name sets them apart as somebody
special. In this case, since they arrived in Britain on a special
mission with a special message, we can fairly accept the title
meant to identify them as "certain strangers, servants of the
     In the ancient British Triads, Joseph and his twelve
companions are all referred to as Culdees, as also are Paul,
Peter, Lazarus, Simon Zelotes, Aristobulus and others. This is
important. The name was not known outside Britain and therefore
could only have been assigned to those who actually had dwelt
among the British Cymri. The name was never applied to any
disciple not associated with the early British missions. Even
though Gaul was Celtic, the name was never employed there. In
later years the name Culdee took on an added significance,
emphasizing the fact that the Culdee Christian Church was the
original Church of Christ on earth. It became a title applied to
the church, and to its High Priests, persisting for centuries in
parts of Britain, after the name had died out elsewhere in favour
of the more popular name, Christian. Culdees are recorded in
church documents as officiating at St. Peter's, York, until A.D.
936. And, according to the Rev. Raine, the Canons of York were
called Culdees as late as the reign of Henry II. In Ireland a
whole county was named Culdee, declared with emphasis when
reference was heard at a court hearing in the seventeenth
century, as to its laws. The name Culdee, and Culdich, clung
tenaciously to the Scottish Church, and its prelates, much longer
than elsewhere.

     Cambell writes in "Reullura":

     The pure Culdees
     were Alby's [Albion] earliest priests of God,
     ere yet an island of her seas,
     by foot of Saxon monk was trod.


     In the days of Christ the popular language of the East was
Greek, more so than Roman. Aramaic and Hebrew were chiefly
confined to the Judeans. Jesus was, in all probability, fluent in
Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek and Latin. And, if what we are told is
factual, He was also versed in the Celtic language. The cultured
people of the Roman province of Palestine were conversant with
Greek, Hebrew and Latin.
     The Septuagint translation of the Old Testament was written
in Greek at Alexandria, 285 B.C. It is interesting to note that
this work was compiled by seventy Jewish scholars, and not Greek,
as was generally supposed.
     Centuries before Christ, the Greek-language was well known
to the ancient British, from commercial association with the
Phoenicians, Greek tin traders and sailors. Julius Caesar tells
us that the Druids employed the Greek script in all their
commercial transactions. 


At this particular period of British history, the island was more
commonly referred to by its industry than by its British name.
Known as the Cassiterides, meaning "Tin Island", it was for many
centuries the only country in the world where tin was mined and
refined, Aristotle, 350 B.C. is one of the first writers to name
Britain, the "Tin Islands". Herodotu uses the name earlier, circa
450 B.C. (Bk.3:115).
     Julius Caesar writes of his visit to the famous Spanish tin
mine at Talavera, 50 B.C. Many centuries before tin was
discovered at Talavera the tin trade flourished in Britain. In
fact, Spanish history tells of a close association with Cornwall
and it appears that the Spanish Government sought the skilled
miners of Cornwall, to instruct them in obtaining the wolfram and
in constructing the mines. Many Cornish names appear in Talaveran
tin mining history of men who were instructors, superintendents,
overseers and foremen and experts in assaying the rock. Proof of
British superiority in the tin industry and its affluent
world-wide trade is referred to by Herodotus 450 B.C., Pytheas
353 B.C., Aristotle 350 B.C., Polybius 150 B.C., Diodorus
Siculus, Posidonius and others, most of whom wrote long before
the Christian era. Each deals at length with the British tin
industry in Cornwall and Devon, explaining the paths of
transportation from Britain, overland and by sea to the various
ports on the Mediterranean and elsewhere in the known world of
that time.
     The ancient ships of biblical Tarshish were the first
navigators to transport tin and lead from Britain to the nations
of the empiric world. Their navy controlled the seas and later
became known in history as the Phoenicians. The tin that
garnished the splendour of the Palace of Solomon, 1005 B.C., was
mined and smelted into ingots at Cornwall and thence shipped by
the Phoenicians to Palestine.
     Creasy, the eminent British historian, in his "History of
England," writes: "The British mines mainly supplied the glorious
adornment of Solomon's temple."
     For many years the Phoenicians held a monopoly on the
transportation of British tin over the sea lanes. They guarded
their secret jealously. It is well known that when followed by
other seacraft, seeking to learn the source of their trade, their
mariners would deliberately strike a false course, and in
extremity would purposely wreck their vessel. This sacrifice was
reimbursed out of the Phoenician treasury. For confirmation of
this it is interesting to quote Strabo, who died A.D. 25
"Anciently the Phoenicians alone, from Cadis, engrossed this
market, hiding the navigation from all others. When the Romans
followed the course of a vessel that they might discover the
situation, the jealous pilot wilfully stranded the ship,
misleading those who were tracing him to the same destruction.
Escaping from shipwreck, he was indemnified for his losses out of
the public treasury."
     The Phoenicians of Carthage were more, successful. Anxious
to share in the trade of Cadis, an expedition under Hamilco
passed the Straits about 450 B.C., and sailing to the north,
discovered the Tin Island.
     Ptolemy and Polybius, vigorously support Diodorus, writing
of the friendliness of the people of Cornwall and of Dammonia,
which was the name then applied to Devon. These locales were
where the tin mining chiefly existed. In the making of bronze,
tin was the main alloy. Thus it can be safely said that the
Bronze Age had its inception in Britain. Knowledge of this fact
alone is sufficient to refute all malicious insinuation that the
ancient Britons were barbarian.

(Most historians today agree that B.C. Britain was FAR from
barbarianism - Keith Hunt)

     By necessity, to excel in mining and smelting tin and lead,
to be proficient in casting metal, and expert in enamelling, a
people must be intelligent in the science of minerology and
     The world-wide demand for these precious metals beat a sea
lane to Britain's shores, bringing its inhabitants in close
contact with the ancient powers. Consequently, it is quite
understandable why the British, with the foundation of their own
language steeped in ancient Hebrew, and their knowledge of Greek,
could be responsible for coining the word "Christian". Also, we
can understand why many of the oldest landmarks in this area of
Britain abound in Hebrew names.
(Many have seen the connection between Welsh and ancient Hebrew
languages - either of them used vowels - and the pronouncing of
words had to be handed down from generation to generation. So
today nobody can pronounce Welsh unless you are verbally taught
as it contains no vowels - Keith Hunt)

     The association of Joseph of Arimathea with the tin industry
in Cornwall is positive. Fragments of poems and miners' songs,
handed down through the centuries, make frequent reference to
Joseph. It has long been customary for the miners to shout when
they worked, "Joseph was a tin man", "Joseph was in the tin
     These were their chief trade slogans which identified Joseph
as a prominent person in the British tin industry.


     At the time of our story, the islanders were known racially
as Kelts, derived from their historical racial name Kimmerian-
Kimmerii-Kymry-Keltoi-Kelt. The letter 'C' began to substitute
the letter 'K' in spelling the name, but the pronunciation is the
same. Even in those remote times the name Kelt took on a
different enunciation and spelling, arising out of native patois.
Then, as today, we find the descendants of this ancient people in
England and Wales referred to as Celts, the inhabitants of
Hibernia - Ireland - as Kelts, Gaels, in Scotland and the people
of Gaul, now France, as Gauls - Gallic. Ethnically they are all
the same people. The meaning of the word in each case is
"stranger", indicating that a Celt, Kelt, Gael or a Gaul were
strangers to the land in which they dwelt, not an aborigine as
some would have us suppose. It is important to note, though they
were strangers to the land, they were its first settlers,
securing their new homeland in peace, and not with the sword,
since there were no people to conquer.

(Brutus the Trojon from the city of Troy - the famous Troy/Greek
wars - came with his band of settlers to Britain about 1100 B.C.
and were its first permenant settlers. The Trojons were from the
house of Judah, they left the tribe of Judah and settled the city
of Troy - Keith Hunt)

     They were truly colonizing strangers in a virgin land.
We know they were strangers to Britain and Gaul, though very
ancient, but, like a silver thread woven in a dark woof we can
trace their wanderings as one people from their original homeland
beyond the Euphrates river, for over three thousand years B.C. to
their new domicile in the Mystic Isles, and in Gaul.
     Francois Guizot, the authoritative French historian in his
"Histoire de la Civilisation en France," writes: "The Gauls, or
Celts, had the honour of giving their name FIRST to this land."
The name of the Gaul persisted until about the middle of the
fifth century, when the Gothic Franks, under the leadership of
Meroveus, invaded, and settled the land, displacing the Gaul in
numbers and in name.
     The national name "France" is derived from the tribal name
of Frank, meaning "Freeman". Yet, the Gaul left his impress on
the land in his co-British name in the first province he founded.
Today it is still known by its original ancient name - Brittany.
At one time the Continent had been land-locked with Britain,
until a natural upheaval caused the present separation. Evidently
for a considerable length of time the separation was not too
widely marked. In the ancient Druidic Triads we read of a Gaulish
bishop, walking over the divide across a plank as he journeyed
from Gaul to pay the annual tithe to the mother Druidic Church in
     Despite the washing of the lands by the seas for many
centuries, the distance between Dover and Calais today is only
twenty-four miles.
     Separated, the island became geographically known as
Britain, and the nearby Continental section as Gaul.

To be continued with "The Glory in the Name"


In the last 40 years Scotland and Wales have become very "proud
of their nations" and their long history and culture and
language; hence finally the Anglo-Saxon English have acknowledged
and admitted to the truth of the historical records kept
preserved by the Scottish and Welsh people - Keith Hunt

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