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Monuments in STONE!!

Just How was it Done?

                         SECRETS OF LOST RACES #7

Mystery MONUMENTS of the Builders

     During the last twenty-five years, and particularly within
the last decade, serious questions have continually been raised
concerning the validity of the theory of evolution. They have
emerged not only from such areas of research as biology,
genetics, paleontology and geology, but also from the study of
archaeology, the science dealing with man's early products. All
over the world, on almost every continent, stand the remains of
colossal edifices of stone which, though admired for millennia,
have only recently been subjected to the scrutiny of men of
science in an attempt to probe the mysteries of their purpose and
     What has been found by these men is one gigantic mass of

     The popular view of history today is that we began in an
animal existence and stumbled along over an undetermined length
of time to eventually become a humanoid creature, only to pass
again through successive stages of crude tool making. This last
period is called the Stone Age. We are told that after all this
we finally achieved civilization in Egypt and Mesopotamia,
through another lengthy process of trial and error mixed with
cultural invention and assimilation.
     Sounds far-fetched? Yes, it does; yet this is the orthodox
view of history. This view, however, is increasingly being
challenged. Rather than corroborating the concept of slow,
gradual development of the arts and knowledge, a concept in line
with evolutionary theory, the monuments left by our early
ancestors point decidedly to an advanced technology in the remote
past, which either matches or surpasses our own.

     There have been, of course, many theories formulated in
recent years in attempts to explain the origin of the ancient
edifices, but a satisfactory explanation cannot be found until
these theories are linked to those accomplishments of
antediluvian technology that somehow survived into the
postdiluvian era. Early man was no ape. He certainly had a
well-developed knowledge of mathematics and architecture, and he
must have belonged to a social order that combined the efforts
for the construction of cities and for the organization of
civilizations. Considering the astonishing accomplishments
achieved by the first generations that survived the Flood (the
Tower of Babel, world surveys, atomic power, flight, etc.), we
may well wonder what advanced forms of structural and
technological feats the antediluvians were responsible for prior
to their being swallowed up by the waters of the Deluge.

STONEHENGE Mystery Solved

     Antiquity does not easily surrender its secrets, and
constant probing is necessary to extract even those minute
fragments of surviving knowledge which enable us to get a glimpse
of our ancestors' accomplishments. But what has been discovered
already only increases our eagerness to dig even deeper.
The mystery is intensified when we try to remove the obscurity
from the hundreds of stone monuments that are strewn across the
world, for, located on the crossings of the ley lines, these
prehistoric monuments of man have been erected for a definite
purpose by a race of great intelligence. Most puzzling of them
all is Stonehenge, the enigmatic ring of stone standing in
solitude on Salisbury Plain in southern England.
     Since the seventeenth century, writers and scientists have
pondered the purpose for which Stonehenge was erected, and many
theories have been advanced to explain its origins. Perhaps the
one man who has done more to unravel the mystery of the ring of
stones is Gerald S. Hawkins, an astronomer and historian who
believes that the structure is a gigantic celestial calculator.
After many years of careful observation and research, Hawkins has
demonstrated with the aid of a computer that the Stonehenge
standing stones, or the spaces between them, were observation
posts pointing to the specific points of the risings and settings
of the sun, moon and stars at various times of the year. His
calculations have shown that by use of the Stonehenge
observatory, celestial phenomena could be accurately predicted.
Stonehenge is indeed a scientific instrument of the highest

     Diligent examination has revealed that the center underwent
three distinct waves of construction, several hundred years
apart---to meet the needs of a developing society. Charcoal
fragments taken from one of the chalk-filled pits, known as
"Aubrey Holes," are assigned a carbon-14 dating of 2000 B.C.,
plus or minus 275 years. Materials removed from other holes have
been dated between 2200 and 2100 B.C., which suggests that
Stonehenge may have been constructed almost within the first
millennium after the Deluge. The second building phase, known as
Stonehenge 2, did not begin until several hundred years after
Stonehenge was completed. Whereas the first phase had set the
basic scientific philosophy for the center, the main feature of
the renewed building was the first assembly at Stonehenge of
megaliths, or "large stones." As many as 82 of the 5-ton
bluestones were erected around the center of the old ridge-ditch
system, with the stones placed 6 feet apart and approximately 35
feet from the center point. It appears that the stones formed a
double circle, with a pattern of radiating spokes of two stones
each. Since the rings were open at the northeast, facing the
midsummer sunrise, the paired stones probably served as a series
of observation points for the ancient astronomers.
     However, it is not merely their use that constitutes the
real mystery, but rather how these giant stones got to Salisbury
Plain in the first place. Every archaeologist who has examined
Stonehenge leaves with a different theory, but no one has been
able to explain how the builders were able to transport 80 of the
5-ton stones over a distance of 240 miles, crossing land and
water, from Prescelly Mountain in Wales to the construction site.
Nothing like this has ever been done by any other prehistoric

     Stonehenge 3 heightens this enigma even more, for
approximately one century after Phase 2, between 1800 and 1700
B.C., 81 or more stones were added to the complex, some of them
weighing between 40 and 50 tons. This deepens the Stonehenge
riddle even more, for the source of these rocks is the
Marlborough Downs, lying about 20 miles north of the complex. It
has been theorized that these immense stones were moved by
dragging them on wooden sledges which were rolled across log
rollers. If this is what actually happened, it took from 800 to
1,000 men to pull each stone, with another 200 to clear the path,
guide the sledges and move the log rollers from the back of the
sledge to the front. Even with efficient use of this manpower, it
would have taken the builders of Stonehenge seven years to
transport all the stones.

Where Was the Law of Gravity?

     Was there perhaps another way? Is it possible that the
surviving science of the antediluvians included a method of
overcoming the law of gravity?
     While actual proof has not surfaced as yet, there is a
medieval source that may offer a clue to an alternative
     The twelfth-century English historian Geoffrey of Monmouth
tells, in his "Historia de Gestis Regum Britanniae," the legend
of how the great boulders of Stonehenge came to be. He reports
that under the leadership of Uther Pendragon, the father of King
Arthur, a force of 15,000 Britons occupied the area where the
stones for the monument were to be placed. Once they had secured
the land, they set themselves to the task of removing the
boulders - but were unsuccessful. Even when using "great hawsers
. . . ropes . . . scaling ladders," etc., the army of men could
move the gigantic stones "never a whit the forwarder."
     Suddenly they heard a peal of hilarious laughter. Merlin the
Wizard, who had accompanied the expeditionary force, came forward
and, telling the men to stand aside, began "putting together his
own engines" with which he "laid the stones down so lightly as
none would believe" possible. By means of these "special
engines," the stones were transported and set up at Stonehenge,
which "proved yet once again how skill surpasseth strength."
     Geoffrey's story, of course, is a legend, but it may contain
some element of truth. Simple brute force alone would have
required tremendous amounts of human energy to move the stones -
even if it were possible to do so at all. The stones were
undoubtedly moved and transported in a special way unknown to us,
and the "engines" of Merlin may indicate that some form of
prehistoric machinery provided the lift needed. The fact that
modern cranes and lifting apparatus are barely able to move, let
alone lift, the gigantic sarsen stones does support this.
     Moving the boulders to Stonehenge was one problem; elevating
them into their assigned positions may have been even more
complex, for the entire observatory was built not on level ground
but on a sloped surface. Measurements show that even this tilt
was compensated for by the builders with an astonishing degree of
     Gerald Hawkins comments, in his book "Beyond Stonehenge,"
"Such precision of placement is, or was, astounding. To erect a
boulder so that it was horizontally aligned . . . was a task
difficult enough; to sink that great block into the ground just
so far and no further, so that its tip was aligned vertically to
an accuracy of inches, was an achievement requiring another whole
dimension of skill.
"How, in fact, was it done? If, after erection, the stone had
settled too deeply it would have been out of alignment - and how
could it have been lifted? Of course, if it had not settled far
enough its top could have been bashed away to lower it to the
proper height - but the top was not bashed. . . . Somehow, by a
technology unknown, the Stonehengers figured out beforehand the
depth of hole required to match up exactly, as far as the survey
shows, with this collection of variables. "

     If such a task were assigned to a modern builder, Hawkins
further explains, he would not be able to do so without the aid
of a yard tape, plumb line, spirit levels, elevation sights, and
blueprints showing the land contour and the particular design of
each stone and its corresponding hole.
     It is certainly apparent that the sagacious builders of
Stonehenge had access to tools and instruments of precision and
exactitude similar to those in use today.

The Stones and the Heavens

     Since men of science down through the centuries first began
to examine the boulders of Stonehenge, there have been numerous
theories advanced to explain the construction's purpose; when
Gerald Hawkins initiated his research he approached his story
from an architectural standpoint. Touring the monument, he noted
that many of the archways were very narrow, ranging from one to
two feet in width.

     When an observer looked through two aligned archways, his
view was restricted to a very small angle. It appeared that the
builders had intended to limit the viewer's field of observation
so that only one specific phenomenon could be seen. It seemed
that the placement of the stones and archways had been made with
the intention of stressing the importance of what was to be
     Suddenly the idea occurred to Hawkins that the viewing lines
might have celestial significance. In order to test this theory,
he made a meticulous record of all the possible viewing
alignments through the archways.
     His initial task completed, he then turned to a computer to
reconstruct the way the night sky looked between the years 2000
and 1500 B.C., particularly noting where certain celestial
phenomena associated with the sun and moon took place. It was
then just a matter of programming the computer to find whether
the Stonehenge viewing alignments and the positions of the sky
phenomena coincided.
     The results were amazing! Twelve of the most significant
Stonehenge alignments pointed, with a mean accuracy of better
than a degree and a half, to important sky positions of the moon;
twelve more alignments pointed to important sky positions of the
sun with a mean accuracy of less than one degree. Checking
further with the computer, Hawkins discovered that the
probability that these Stonehenge alignments had not been planned
was less than one in ten million.
     There was no doubt of it: Stonehenge was built and used as a
Stone Age astronomical observatory! This bizarre rock pile is
actually the remains of a monumental sky computer, and with it
the Stonehengers were able to predict and record with an
unprecedented degree of exactness the recurring patterns of the
sky and the eclipses and were also able to calculate the times
and seasons for the planting and harvesting of crops.
     After the erection of the 50-ton boulders, Stonehenge was in
use for roughly 500 years before it was abandoned; however, the
operation of other stone computers continued, although they were
smaller in size. Scattered throughout Britain are other stone
rings, admittedly not as impressive in size, but equally
important to the society of the builders. Stonehenge was never a
unique concept - only its size was extraordinary.

     In recent years Professor Alexander Thorns of Oxford
University has conducted a detailed survey of over 600 British
megalithic stone circles, and the dating methods employed in this
study show that they were erected between 2100 and 1500 B.C.
Here, too, as with Stonehenge, the dates were corroborated by
astronomical information.
     But there were other discoveries. The study also revealed
that many of the circles were laid out with a precision that
today can be measured only by a highly qualified team of
surveyors. For example, not far from Stonehenge, the stones of
Avebury are set out with a scientific exactitude approaching 1 in
1,000, while those of Penmaenmawr have an error of only 1 in
1,500. This accuracy is also found on a much smaller scale, for
many of the stones have cup-and-ring markings which, when
carefully examined, are found to have been carved with a diameter
accuracy within a few thousandths of an inch!
     Primitive workmanship? Hardly! This was an extremely
accomplished people, for an investigation of the 600 rings
indicated that the megalithic builders laid out the various
geometric forms according to an exact unit of length, what is now
known as the "megalithic yard": 2,720 feet. The uniformity of
this ancient unit of measurement suggests that one central
authority had planned and directed the construction of all the

     "This unit was in use from one end of Britain to the other,"
Professor Thorns concluded. "It is not possible to detect by
statistical examination any difference between the values
determined from the English and Scottish circles. There must have
been a headquarters from which the standard rods were sent out,
but whether this was in these islands or on the Continent the
present investigation cannot determine. The length of the rods in
Scotland cannot have differed from that in England by more than
0.03 [inch]. If each small community had obtained the length by
copying the rod of its neighbor to the south, the accumulated
error would have been much greater than this."

     The resulting conclusion could not be avoided. Professor
Thorns says, "The design of the necessary sectors, whether
obtained by pure reason or by some complex empirical operation,
demands a highly trained intellect. The discipline necessary
could not have arisen out of nothing. There must have been behind
it a school or system of mathematical reasoning, evidenced by the
remarkable designs that we find in the complex rings."

     He was simply baffled by his discovery, which was compounded
by the realization that many of the ovoids, ellipses and circles
were based on the use of the Pythagorean triangles, a concept
which was thought to have originated with the Greeks, yet here
they were, 1,500 years before Pythagoras entered history.

Knowledge of the Moon "Wobble" 4,000 Years Ago

     Perhaps one of the most impressive of the megalithic
stone-circle sites is Callernish, situated on Lewis, the
northernmost island of the Outer Hebrides, which has, among other
prehistoric landmarks, an avenue marked off in stones. It is this
stone avenue that has currently become the focal point of a new
discovery. As seen from Callernish, the midsummer moonset occurs
over Mount Clisham, and the avenue points directly toward the
mountain. Because the Callernish complex lies only 1.3 degrees
south of the arctic latitude for the moon, the megalithic
observers would have seen a peculiar phenomenon: once every 18 or
19 years the moon would appear to stand still about one degree
above the horizon. This 18/19-year cycle is, of course, the same
as that recorded at Stonehenge. The avenue stones are aligned in
such a way that the prehistoric astronomers were able to observe
what is called the moon's wobble - the small amplitude ripple of
the moon's declination at extreme positions. Before Callernish
was investigated, it was believed that this phenomenon was not
discovered until the sixteenth century, by Tycho Brahe. The
period of the wobble is 173 days, and the wobble reaches its
maximum amplitude immediately before the season for lunar
eclipses! The Callernish builders, it appears now, possessed a
unique computer in stone for predicting lunar eclipses.
     Another significant point to note is that many of the
alignments of Callernish are the same as those found at
Stonehenge, with the key observation stones laid out in a very
similar geometric pattern. Callernish is situated at a latitude
where the moon appears to skim the horizon; Stonehenge is also
located at a spot where the extreme positions of the moon appear
at right angles to those of the sun.
     If Callernish and Stonehenge are related works - and the
fact that they used the same basic measuring unit in their
structures would tend to confirm this - then the builders were
aware of the differences in the celestial phenomena observed at
both structures - differences which could easily have led to a
knowledge of the curvature and size of the earth.

Other Megalithic Sites in Britain

     Even though the builders were engaged in massive
construction projects enabling them to chart the course of
heavenly bodies, this was hardly their only endeavor. At the same
time that Stonehenge and Callernish were being built, other
remarkable projects were undertaken. One of the most common was
the long barrow, or burial mound. Even though the greatest
concentration (350) of these is found in the Salisbury area of
England, the most outstanding one is located at West Kennet,
about 16 miles north of Stonehenge. Constructed long before 2000
B.C., this mound is 350 feet long and varies in width from 75
feet on the east end to 50 feet on the west, where it terminates
in a sepulcher approximately 35 feet wide, 43 feet long and 8
feet high. The entrance was blocked by several enormous stones,
one of which weighed about 20 tons. What is most fascinating
about this West Kennet barrow is that when dating techniques were
applied to it, it was found to be one of the oldest, if not the
oldest barrow in Britain. Yet it demonstrates building skills of
the highest order.
     Excavation of the barrows has provided many surprises. They
have shattered the belief that the earliest Britons were isolated
from the rest of the world, because in fact their communication
with the Continent and the Mediterranean area was much greater
than that of the Britons of several centuries later. Among the
remains in the tombs were bronze pins from Bohemia, faience beads
from Egypt, and amber from the Baltic.
     The builders surpassed the stone circles or burial mounds,
for half a mile beyond West Kennet is the largest artificial
earth mound in Europe, Silbury Hill. The reason for its existence
is still a mystery, although scientists now claim to be inching
closer to the truth. Conical in shape, it rises to a height of
130 feet, with a circular base more than 200 yards in diameter.
It covers 5.5 acres and its total volume has been estimated at
405,000 cubic feet, and its construction may have required as
much as 2 million man-hours - thought to be even greater than
that needed for building Stonehenge.
     Many explanations have been given for the erection of this
massive structure, the first being that it was a huge burial
mound; however, excavations into the top and sides have revealed
no funerary or skeletal remains. Today the most accepted theory
is that the great hill, like Stonehenge, was designed to measure
celestial phenomena, for there are indications that a large
maypole may have topped the hill and that the shadow the pole
cast was used to calculate the length of the year. Invariably the
monuments erected in that period point to definite connections
with celestial observations, yet there is at least one known
exception. This monument, noted not for its great height but for
its length, is one of the greatest engineering feats accomplished
by the British megalithic builders. 

     From Salisbury Plain, beginning at the southern end of the
Avebury stone circle and extending for two hundred miles
northeastward to Norfolk, is an extraordinary prehistoric highway
called the Icknield Way. The road runs dead straight on level
ground and follows perfectly the contour of the land in hilly
areas. It is level and widens out in some places to the
equivalent of a modern four-lane highway. It is superior to any
road constructed by the Romans, yet it predates the Romans by
2,000 years. Why did the megalithic builders need a highway, when
archaeologists believe that they did not even have the wheel?

Europe, Africa and the Middle East Not Excluded

     Communications must have been good between England and the
Continent, and the roadways and sea lanes were undoubtedly well
traveled, for the remains of the megalithic monuments were not
limited just to the British Isles. They are found scattered
across the globe. Stonehenge may have been the focal point of
activity, but from there the builders, architects and astronomers
fanned out over the entire world, leaving monuments wherever they
went. Across the Channel from England, in the French province of
Brittany, there are several megalithic sites. They are also found
at Kerlescan and Kermario; in fact, within a distance of 3,250
yards, there are nearly 3,000 menhirs (single standing stones),
most of them in rows pointing toward long-forgotten grave sites
and facing the midsummer sunrise. The remains of the chieftains
have long since become part of the earth, but their tombs endure,
a testament to their greatness.

     Elsewhere in Brittany there are other megalithic monuments,
some of which are constructed from the largest standing stones on
record in western Europe. The menhir of Ile-Melon, unfortunately
destroyed during World War II, originally weighed 90 tons. The
largest was the "Fairy Stone" of Locmariaquer. Broken up by
lightning in the eighteenth century, it once stood 67 feet high
and weighed over 380 tons!
     But, again, Britain and France are not the only countries
where the builders left their marks. Far beyond Brittany, on the
coasts of Germany, Holland, Scandinavia, Portugal, Spain, the
Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Malta, at Tiryns
and other Mycenaean sites, there is ample evidence of the past
work of the ancients. The grave sites and the stone circles all
testify to the skill of the builders. Their tracks are found even
in North Africa and the Middle East, telling us of their
far-reaching wanderings and of the spread of their civilization.
     In Morocco, dolmens (a circle of stones capped by a larger
stone) are found in the district of Kabylia; a stone circle is
found near Tangiers. Other dolmens have been discovered in
Algeria, while Libya, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon have literally
hundreds of circles and free-standing stones, all testifying to
the builders' presence at one time.
     And then there's Egypt. Stretched along the Nile, the sandy
countryside of the land of Amen-Ra is speckled with the remains
of dolmens which mark the sites where the ancient people buried
their dead and which were subsequently joined by the tombs of the

     Three sites in the Middle East are of particular interest
because of advanced scientific and engineering skills involved in
their construction. At Baalbek, in modern Lebanon, the Romans
constructed their magnificent temple to the sun, a temple which
was dwarfed in size, however, by the immense prehistoric
dressed-stone platform on which it was built. Of unknown age and
origin, the platform is a feat of engineering that has never been
equaled in history. It is made of individual stones 82 feet long
and 15 feet thick which are estimated to weigh between 1,200 and
1,500 tons each. Of the stones cut for the platform, the largest
one was not transported to the site but instead was left at the
quarry half a mile away. Called Hadjar el Gouble, or "The Stone
of the South," it weighs more than 2,000 tons. There are no
cranes or other lifting apparatus in the world today that can
budge, let alone lift, the titanic blocks of Baalbek - yet there
they are, cut and fitted together with such precision that a
knife blade cannot be inserted between the blocks.
     The second site, equally remarkable, is located on the
windswept moor of the Golan Heights in Israeli - occupied Syria.
There Israeli archaeologist A.Itzhaki recently uncovered the
remains of five giant stone rings believed to be a thousand years
older than Stonehenge. A line drawn through the area where the
rings overlap points to true north. Because of the unreliability
of compass readings in the vicinity of basaltic rocks, the
engineering skills required to find true north were of a degree
of skill generally considered beyond the reach of the ancients.
     The third site is far to the north, at Medzamor in Soviet
Armenia, where the Russian scientist Dr.K.Megurtchian has
discovered what is thought to be the oldest large-scale
metallurgical factory in the world. In close proximity to this,
geometric patterns that were found cut into the volcanic rock
point to various celestial phenomena. One distinct line points to
the spot on the horizon where the star Sirius rose between 2600
and 2500 B.C.
     What is especially intriguing about the Medzamor site is
that it is located only 15 miles from Mount Ararat, the
historical and legendary landing place of the only survivors of
the antediluvian civilization.

Did the Megalithic Builders Reach the Americas?

     With the passing of time, the controversy over who really
was the first to discover America becomes more intense, as if it
actually mattered. For years there have been pitched verbal
battles among renowned historians, lengthy intellectual
discussions, and countless magazine articles, all hoping to solve
this riddle. Was it Columbus? Could it have been Leif Erikson?
Still other names have been proposed and just as rapidly
discarded again. Perhaps the answer lies somewhere else - on a
prehistoric site called Mystery Hill in North Salem, New
Hampshire, where 22 large stones stand majestically on top of a
200foot-high hill. The origin and significance of the site are
shrouded in darkness; its age,however, is not. Carbon-14 tests
conducted in 1969 date Mystery Hill between 1225 and 800 B.C.,
long before the arrival of the Indian tribes that once inhabited
the area, but in the same time slot as similar megalithic
constructions in southern Europe.
     Mystery Hill suffered partial destruction during the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when some of the stonework
was removed and used to build a nearby sewer system.
     The stones of Mystery Hill are arranged in an elaborate
system of tunnels, menhirs and dolmens, and have just recently
been found to be celestially aligned. Each year on the first day
of winter, for example, the sun, when viewed from the center of
the hill, sets directly over what is called the Winter Monolith.
Were the builders the first to leave their prints on the sandy
shores of the eastern coast of America? History remains silent
when confronted with this question, but the hill was definitely
built by someone, and its similarity to the megalithic sites of
Europe is more than coincidental.

     Mystery Hill is not unique, however, for other sites not
unlike this prehistoric perplexity exist in different parts of
the Americas. On the Central American island of Bonacca,
archaeologist F.A.Mitchel Hedges discovered an ancient
800-yard-long wall enclosure with two large standing stones
reminiscent of those found at Stonehenge. The stones measured
approximately 7 feet in height by 2 and 1/2 feet in diameter.
Also discovered were a number of oddly shaped carved stones that
appeared to be older than the Mayan, Toltec and Aztec
civilizations. An even more startling find was made at La Venta,
at Villahermosa, Mexico, where there are menhirs and troughs in
long alignments that strikingly resemble the rows of stones found
in Brittany. Near the prehistoric fortress of Sacsahuaman, Peru,
on a rocky spur called K'emko, menhirs and other roughly hewn
stones have been found, once again corresponding in appearance to
the European monuments!
     Orthodox historians unfortunately have done very little to
take note of the important megalithic sites found in the New
World, as their acceptance would disturb long-cherished theories.
They simply cannot account for the fact that a prehistoric race
such as megalithic man could have crossed the Atlantic and left
its mark in America, when supposedly more civilized later people
were unable to do so.

     It is with the same closed-mindedness that the historians
look at the discoveries made in Asia and the Pacific, where
remains of the builders' activities have surfaced in the most
unexpected regions. In India dolmens dot the land from the
Nerbuddha River to Cape Comorin. At latest count, the Neermul
jungle of Central India has yielded at least 2,000 of the
monuments it has hidden for centuries, and another 2,200 have
been located in Dacca.
     Monuments of a similar nature have also been found in China,
Korea and even Japan. The mystery of the builders' activities
increases as the geographical boundaries expand. On the
southeastern shore of Ponape, in the Senyavin Islands of
Micronesia, the remains of a huge temple complex called Metalamin
face the midsummer sunrise. There is every indication that in the
days of the builders, the population of Ponape Island was many
times what it is today, for Metalamin is sufficiently large to
seat as many as two million people! The ruins, like those in
Europe and America, are composed of vast stone blocks weighing as
much as 15 tons each. These blocks were transported from a quarry
approximately twenty miles away - with not a hint of how this was
     Were they navigators as well as builders? History stands
mute on this question, but the fact remains that three thousand
miles away, southeast of Ponape, on tiny Malden in the Line
Islands, is a second group of ruins architecturally similar to
     There is, however, one important difference. The ruins on
Malden are connected to the rugged coastline by a number of
prehistoric basalt-paved highways, a situation which baffles the

"But they can't be highways," the archaeologists cry out in
despair. "These people didn't have the wheel. . . ."
Oh, didn't they? There are still many ruins the builders have
left on other Pacific islands, but most of these are still being
excavated. One can say without hesitation, however, that the most
famous and mystifying of all the Pacific monuments are those
strange statues that stand in peaceful silence on a lonely rock
called Easter Island.

Unresolved Mystery of the Stone Faces

     There are few detective stories as confounding as the one
that came to the attention of the western world on Easter morning
1722, when the Dutch explorer Jan Roggeveen first set eyes on a
tiny speck of land in the broad expanse of the Pacific Ocean.
Unable to locate it on the navigational charts, he christened the
new-found territory Easter Island. With the anticipation of
finding treasure, he anchored his ship and rowed the few hundred
yards to the rocky shore. But he soon realized that the volcanic
isle had little to offer. There were no trees and no indigenous
animals, and Roggeveen found only a few hundred scantily clad
natives dwelling in huts along the jungle-fringed beaches. The
island was barren and inhospitable, yet it did give one thing to
the world: a mystery unrivaled anywhere in the vast Pacific.
Scattered over the rocky ground, strewn about the meadows of
sparse grass and sullenly peering from the slopes of the island's
volcanoes were hundreds of stone faces jutting out of the soil,
each with the same mute and meaningless expression, long straight
nose, narrow and tightly closed lips, sunken eye sockets, and low
     Who made them? Where did they come from? What was their
significance? Roggeveen and his crew undoubtedly gaped at them in
utter bewilderment, for nothing like this had ever been
encountered. The statues were certainly not the kind he would
carry back to Amsterdam as trophies of a discovery voyage. There
was something weird, something eerie about them, and the somber
expression on their stone faces became an ever-returning topic of
conversation on the long voyage home.
     More than 250 years have passed since that day, and Jan
Roggeveen is now merely a name written on the pages of history
books, but the secret of the silent statues still continues to
evade us.
     The enigmatic question surrounding the Easter Island statues
is not what they are supposed to represent, but rather how they
were moved from their quarry at the edge of the volcano
Rano-Raraku to their present sites, a distance of up to five
miles. In 1956 the Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl, known for
his Kon Tiki expedition, visited Easter Island to conduct the
first large-scale investigation of the statues and their history.
He soon realized that discovering their origin was not half as
challenging as solving the problem of how the monstrous heads had
been transported and erected. Convinced that the builders had
nothing but brute manpower at their disposal, he contracted a
dozen island natives to employ muscle to move a stone head. With
steadily increasing frustration, the team labored for 18 days,
using the "heave-ho" method, which at last enabled them to set up
one of the heads. This answered the question for Heyerdahl;
satisfied that he had found the solution, he abandoned the
project. His efforts are now being cited in many scientific
journals, but did he really duplicate the way it was done?
There are several objections to Heyerdahl's experiment which
cannot be ignored. What is generally not known is that the statue
chosen for the project by Heyerdahl's men was not the average
Easter Island statue, for the weight of the island heads is
roughly between 35 and 50 tons each, but the head which was
arduously moved by twelve sweating natives weighed somewhere
between 10 and 15 tons. Granted, it was still a momentous
achievement, but the result did not qualify it as a "typical"
example. Second, Heyerdahl's stone was transported only
a few hundred feet, across smooth sandy ground that exists only
at Anakena, the place from where the statue was moved. The
contrast between Anakena's terrain and that of the rest of the
island is too great, because the area over which the other stone
heads had to be transported consists of volcanic rock, which is
hard and uneven. If the heads had indeed been dragged across this
surface by Thor Heyerdahl's proposed method, then the stone
statues would have been grooved with long scars. None of the
statues reveal any such markings.
     The type of equipment used in the moving process presents
another problem. Heyerdahl's natives utilized ropes and wooden
poles to aid them in erecting and maneuvering their statue - but
there originally was no wood on Easter Island. Currently sycamore
trees grow on the island, but only because some of the early
European settlers brought them there. The records of Jan
Roggeveen do not mention trees, and Captain Cook also noted an
absence of trees upon his arrival on the island. If wood was
indeed used by the builders, then they must have imported it by
ship from the nearest forest - 2,500 miles away. As for the
ropes, Heyerdahl's experimental team used sturdy,
well-manufactured ropes from Europe. It was fortunate for them
that they did, for ropes made from the indigenous reeds of Easter
Island were neither strong nor durable and were most certainly
not adequate to the job.
     Heyerdahl's moving of one single stone head over a flat and
relatively even surface also had no bearing on how other heads
were moved up and down cliff walls, as there are many spots on
the island where this did occur in the days of the builders. At
the quarry of Rano-Raraku, 20-ton statues were carved near the
top of the crater, then lowered 300 feet, over the heads of other
statues. This was accomplished without leaving even a mark. The
stone heads sitting on ledges in the cliff of Ahu-Ririki are the
best illustration of this operation. Here the sheer rock face
plunges 1,000 feet, straight to the sea. The gusty winds at the
top are usually strong enough to blow a man off balance, while
the sea currents below are so treacherous that a boat cannot
approach the rock. Yet at an elevation of 600 feet on the cliff
wall stands a platform that bears the marks of a number of 25-ton
statues, the remains of which now lie on the ocean floor.
     Heyerdahl may have moved one small head; he has yet to
present an answer that can withstand scientific test.
     But he was not the first to fail. In the late nineteenth
century, the French ship La Flore visited Easter Island with the
intention of taking one of its statues back to Paris. It took a
500-man work force to carry the 7 and 1/2-foot-tall statue, one
of the smallest of the island heads. Today, much battered and
bruised by its ordeal, it can be viewed at the Musee de I'Homme.

     Even though these two heads have been moved, the question
still lingers: How did the builders of Easter Island cut, move
and erect the gigantic heads, including those which approach the
size of a seven-story building?
     There have been many theories about who actually created and
erected the solemn stone heads of Easter Island, but there are no
easy answers. Their origin has been attributed to nearly
everyone, from survivors of the so-called lost continents of Mu
and Lemuria, to tribes of wandering Polynesians who supposedly
sculptured the monolithic monstrosities to while away their idle

     What, then, is the answer? Evidence of a more realistic
possibility is found in a group of stone buildings which few
modern explorers and researchers have diligently investigated.
Thirty-nine in number, they are located on Easter Island in
Orongo. Each structure is oval in shape, measures approximately
seven yards in length and two yards in width, and is topped by a
low circular ceiling. The foundation stones were laid beneath the
surface and were followed by rings of stone blocks, with each
ring narrowing toward the center until the sides converged in the
rounded roof. Francis Maziere, one of the few western experts who
have visited and described the ruins, was impressed with only one
point: that these stone buildings are nearly identical in shape
and construction with those erected by the builders in the
Mediterranean area! For those who still wonder about this
connection, there is one more feature linking these ruins with
those of the European structures. At the Orongo site lie the
remains of a small solar observatory, composed of one or possibly
more standing stones, by means of which the ancient observers
were able to calculate the movements of the sun. Was this perhaps
the beginning of a Stonehenge which was later abandoned?
There is no decisive evidence that the men of prehistory who
erected Stonehenge were also responsible for creating the stone
heads of Easter Island, but, judging from the ruins, it is
obvious that the two sites are parallel, not only because both
were constructed from stone blocks but also because their
building techniques were similarly advanced.

What Happened at Tiahuanaco?

     Two thousand miles northeast of Easter Island, high in the
Andes mountains of Peru, on the picturesque shores of Lake
Titicaca, stand the remains of a city of startling dimensions -
and no one knows its origin. Not even the oldest living Indian
could tell of its history when questioned by the Spanish
conquistadors in their bloody assault on the area in 1549.
Whoever its engineers were, they certainly were not related to
the Indians in any way, as the foreign element is quite obvious
both from the style of the structures and from the fact that the
statues of Tiahuanaco depict strange-looking men with beards, not
the usual Indian faces which tend to be devoid of beard growth.
     The society that developed the entire Tiahuanaco area had
technical abilities that astounded the conquistadors.
     Archaeologists who have studied the site since its discovery
by the Spaniards have uncovered features thought to be unknown to
the ancients. The Akapana, or "Hill of Sacrifices," one of the
three important temple sites, was a huge truncated pyramid, 167
feet high, with a base 496 by 650 feet. The now-crumbling sides
of the impressive structure were perfectly squared with the
cardinal points of the compass, a feature common with other great
edifices found around the world, including the Great Pyramid of
Gizeh. The destructive plundering of the Spanish conquerors
erased clues which might have served as keys to unlock the
secrets of the ancient inhabitants, and the ravages of time have
done the rest. Today the side surfaces of the Akapana are rough
and torn; the stone slabs that provided a protective cover for
the mound have been hauled away and used in construction
projects. An enormous stone stairway that once flanked the hill
has also become a victim of gross vandalism. Today, only a few
steps remain. The reservoir system that once topped the Akapana
indicates the high degree of development of the builders. The
hill still reveals evidence of the precision-designed,
intricately cut stone conduits and overflow pipes, especially
graded to ensure the proper flow of water. Similar pipes are
found scattered throughout the Tiahuanaco complex, suggesting
that the city had a complete drainage, water supply, or sewage

     But other probes have extracted still more from the Andes. A
thousand feet north of Akapana is the Curicancha, or "The Temple
of the Sun." It rests on a stone platform 10 feet high and 440 by
390 feet on a side, composed of blocks weighing 100 to 200 tons
each! The walls of the temple complex itself are constructed of
blocks weighing 60 tons each, while the steps of the stone
stairway weigh an impressive 50 tons apiece. Other structural
units, composed of 200-ton blocks, lie haphazardly, just where
they fell. Tiahuanaco is a place where contradictions and
impossibilities reign supreme. Things that can't happen have
happened here. It's amazing that the city exists at all: the
entire metropolis was built 13,000 feet above sea level, and the
air pressure at that altitude is only 8 pounds per square inch,
as compared to 15 pounds at sea level. The thin, oxygen-poor air
sears the throat and nose, and even the slightest exertion may
cause nausea, headaches, and sometimes even heart attacks. In
addition, no seeds will sprout or grow at that elevation, which
means that there was no local food supply to support a large
working crew. Yet somehow, under extremely hostile conditions
that threatened life itself, the builders managed to maneuver
hundreds of stone slabs weighing up to 200 tons each into their
predetermined places. The quarry sites of the stones have been
discovered on an island in Lake Titicaca, but near the shore
opposite Curicancha. It was therefore necessary to transport the
stone over distances ranging from 30 to 90 miles. In rarefied air
the movement of massive objects over such great distances is not
possible by muscular strength, but the stones were moved
nevertheless and found resting places in Tiahuanaco.
     If muscular energy was not sufficent, then what was used?

The Mystery Fortresses of the Andes

     Tiahuanaco is by no means unique, for scattered throughout
the Andes are several fortresses of very similar design, all
predating the ancient Incas by an unknown period of time.
     In Chile, high on the plateau of El Enladrillado, 233 stone
blocks are placed geometrically in an amphitheaterlike
arrangement. The blocks are roughly rectangular, some as large as
12 to 16 feet high, 20 to 30 feet long, and weighing several
hundred tons. As at Tiahuanaco, huge chairs of stone have also
been found in disarray among the ruins, each weighing a massive
10 tons. Perhaps the most important find at El Enladrillado was
the discovery of three standing stones at the very center of the
plateau. Each is 3 to 4 feet in diameter. Measurements reveal
that two of the stones are perfectly aligned with magnetic north,
while a line through one of these and the third stone points to
the midsummer sunrise. Were the builders here, too?

     To the north, at Ollantaitambo, Peru, is another pre-Inca
fortress, with rock walls of tightly fitted blocks weighing
between 150 and 250 tons each. Most of the blocks consist of very
hard andesite, the quarries for which are situated on a
mountaintop seven miles away. Somehow, at an altitude of 10,000
feet, the unknown builders of Ollantaitambo carved and dressed
the stone (using tools, the nature of which we can only guess,
that could penetrate such hard rock), lowered the 200-ton blocks
down the mountainside, crossed a river canyon with 1,000-foot
sheer rock walls, then raised the blocks up another mountainside
and placed them in the fortress complex. As South American
antiquarian Hyatt Verrill notes, no number of men - Indian or
otherwise - could duplicate this feat with only stone implements
or crude metal tools, ropes, rollers and muscle power. "It is not
a question of skill, patience and time," Verrill explains. "It is
a human impossibility."

     Is it possible instead that a higher form of prehistoric
technology was employed, of which we know absolutely nothing?
One of the most impressive "mystery fortresses" of the Andes is
Sacsahuaman, located on the outskirts of the ancient Inca capital
of Cuzco. It rests on an artificially leveled mountaintop at an
altitude of 12,000 feet, and consists of three outer lines of
gargantuan walls, 1,500 feet long and 54 feet wide, surrounding a
paved area containing a circular stone structure believed to be a
solar calendar. The ruins also include a 50,000-gallon water
reservoir, storage cisterns, ramps, citadels and underground
     What is truly remarkable about Sacsahuaman is the stonework.
Here extremely skilled stonemasons fit blocks weighing from 50 to
300 tons into intricate patterns. A block in one of the outer
walls, for example, has faces cut to fit perfectly with twelve
other blocks. Other blocks were cut with as many as 10, 12, and
even 36 sides. Yet all the blocks were fit together so precisely
that a mechanic's thickness gauge could not be inserted between
     And even more extraordinary is the fact that the entire
Sacsahuaman complex was built without cement.
     As with the other mystery fortresses, the question of how
the stones of Sacsahuaman were transported remains unanswered.
The quarries from which the stones for Sacsahuaman were brought
are located 20 miles away, on the other side of a mountain range
and a deep river gorge. How the massive stones were moved across
such hopeless terrain is anyone's guess.

     Sacsahuaman poses many mysteries, yet it possesses one more
which few orthodox historians are willing to recognize or study
because of its "impossibility." Within a few hundred yards of the
Sacsahuaman complex is a single stone block that was carved from
the mountainside and moved some distance before it was abandoned.
An earthquake apparently interrupted the progress of the movers,
for the stone was turned upside down and is damaged in several
places. It contains steps, platforms, holes and other
depressions - a masterpiece of precision cutting and dressing,
clearly intended to become a part of the fortification. What is
truly impossible about the block is that it is the size of a
five-story house and weighs an estimated 20,000 tons! We have no
combination of machinery today that could dislodge such a weight,
let alone move it any distance. The fact that the builders of
Sacsahuaman could and did move this block shows their mastery of
a technology which we as yet have not attained.

The Lines of Nazca Valley

     The Andes conceal many ancient wonders of construction, not
all made of stones hauled across inconceivable distances. Not far
from the Pacific Ocean, in the Peruvian foothills of the Andes
250 miles south of Lima, is the historical city of Nazca. It is
of important archaeological value; however, the city's real
curiosity is not its relics but the valley in which it lies - a
strip of level desert ground 37 miles long and a mile wide.
Covering nearly every acre of the Nazca Valley are enormous
drawings scraped out on the desert floor-lines running in all
directions: elongated cleared areas, spirals, zigzags, birds,
spiders, monkeys, snakes, fish, etc. They were revealed by
removing the dark purple granite pebbles which lay on the Nazca
desert and exposing the light yellow sand just below the surface.
Since there is little rain or wind erosion at Nazca, the lines
and figures have remained intact for an undetermined number of
centuries. Yet during most of that time, travelers trekking
through the valley never noticed the drawings, because unless one
is standing directly on one of the lines, the areas where the
pebbles have been scraped away are not noticeable. Move a few
feet away, and the line blends into the rest of the rough desert

     Not until the 1930s, when the first commercial airlines
began operating over the Andes, did sightings from the air
confirm the existence of the Nazca drawings. Obscure on the
ground, they are clearly seen from above - clearly enough, in
fact, to have been viewed by the astronauts aboard Skylab,
orbiting 270 miles above the earth. Yet there is no high
mountain, plateau or other natural elevated point nearby from
which the Nazca artists themselves could have seen the drawings
in their true perspective. So why were they made? Did they serve
some purpose? Did the artists also perhaps master the art of
     The first detailed study of the Nazca mystery was initiated
in 1946 by the German astronomer and archaeologist Dr.Marie
Reiche, who devoted the next twenty years to taking accurate
surveys of the ancient drawings and speculating on their
significance. Dr.Reiche focused her attention at first on the
numerous lines crisscrossing the valley. Many of these, she
discovered, ran straight and true for up to five miles. Some are
parallel to one another; others gradually converge, while still
others radiate from specific points - small mounds of boulders.
Dr.Reiche even discovered lines which appeared to run straight
into the bases of mountains and emerge on the other side in
complete alignment and at the same level. When the degree of
straightness of the Nazca lines was checked by modern measuring
equipment, a startling observation was made: the average error
was no more than 9 minutes of arc, a deviation of 4 and 1/2 yards
per mile. That figure is the limit of accuracy that can be
obtained by what is called photogrammetric survey. In other
words, the ancient lines were laid out straighter than can be
measured by the best of modern survey techniques. Dr.Reiche
stated, "The designers, who could only have recognized the
perfection of their own creations from the air, must have
previously planned and drawn them on a smaller scale. How they
were then able to put each line in its right place and alignment
accurately over large distances is a puzzle that will take us
many years to solve."

     It is the opinion of Dr.Reiche and several other students of
the Nazca enigma that some of the lines may be aligned with the
risings and settings of the sun, moon, and possibly several
bright stars. In fact, recent investigations showed that 39 lines
do point to solar or lunar events and that 17 are associated with
the stars. But this is only a small number; the majority of the
lines have no celestial significance, and their purpose remains a

The Nazca Artists---Their Knowledge of the World

     As extraordinary as the lines are, the details of the many
animal figures etched out on the Nazca Valley floor are equally
as remarkable. One of the most puzzling is the picture of a
spider, 150 feet long, drawn with a single continuous line half a
mile in length. What is so peculiar about the spider is that one
of its legs is deliberately lengthened and extended, and at the
tip there is a small cleared area. There is only one spider known
that uses the tip of its third leg in precisely the manner
depicted in the desert drawing, and that is the Ricinulei, which
lives in caves deep in the Amazon jungle, a thousand miles from
Nazca. Known to scientists for its unique method of copulation,
for which the spider uses that extended leg in the described
manner, the Ricinulei is extremely rare. Its mode of reproduction
can be observed only with the aid of a microscope.
     How the Nazca artists were able to find and then observe
their tiny model we cannot say, unless we ascribe to them a
knowledge of science equaling our own.
     There are several indications, both from the valley etchings
and from remains of Nazca pottery found in the immediate desert
area, that the ancient artists had knowledge of the world far
beyond the horizons of Nazca. One desert drawing depicts a
thin-limbed monkey, recently identified as the spider monkey,
another inhabitant of the distant Amazon jungle. On one remnant
of a Nazca pot is a distinct picture of a white-breasted,
black-coated penguin. The difficulty here is that penguins are
indigenous to Antarctica - nearly 6,000 miles away, although they
are living in the Galapagos Islands. How could the Nazcans have
drawn the birds unless they had actually seen them?
     The most startling picture of all, however, was found on
another piece of Nazca pottery, which showed faces of five girls
- one white, one red, one black, one brown and one yellow. These
colors could not have been chosen fortuitously, as all the races
of man have been clearly represented. The faces seem to indicate
that the Nazcans had knowledge, possibly even models to work
from, of each and every racial group around the world. Could this
be evidence of global communication in the distant past that
equaled that of modern times?
     As the study of Nazca progresses, more questions have arisen
than can be answered. When were the Nazca drawings made? A wooden
post was discovered at the intersection of two of the Nazca
lines, and carbon-14 tests revealed a date of A.D. 500. From
this, orthodox historians have ascribed a relatively recent date
to the Nazca drawings: between A.D. 200 and 700. But it is not
known whether the post was placed while the lines were being made
or after they were finished. There is no way, in fact, to date
the lines themselves, and it is entirely possible that they could
be thousands of years older. How were they constructed? The
accuracy of the drawings over such a large area attests to a
remarkable engineering skill not previously believed possible for
any ancient people. There is a question not only of advanced
knowledge, but also of performance: the planning, engineering and
construction of the drawings would have required the energies of
a large number of workers. There is no water, food or shelter
anywhere in the desert valley of Nazca that could have provided
the necessities of life for so great an undertaking. So how was
it accomplished? And the most perplexing question of all, why?
Why were the drawings made in the first place? For that we have
as yet no satisfactory answer.

The Great Pyramid---The Great Enigma

     It is not possible to discuss the profound knowledge of the
ancients without letting the mind drift in the direction of the
land of Amen-Ra. I recall endless lectures in Egyptology and
animated discussions on the role of the gods in Egyptian history.
I also remember long winter nights in the Egyptology room of the
university when I fought my way through Sir Alan Gardiner's
Egyptian grammar, deciphering funeral texts on ornate caskets
stolen from the graves of the pharaohs and their nobles. But
nothing really prepared me for the wonder and awe I felt when I
first viewed the pyramids from atop a swaying camel.
     Coming face to face with the witness of history known as the
Pyramid of Cheops is an incomparable experience. Standing on a
rocky, artificially leveled plateau about ten miles west of
modern Cairo and not far from the rotting circus tent that houses
the Gizera nightclub, the Great Pyramid has silently beheld many
battles fought within its shadow during its 5,000-year history.
But perhaps the greatest battle of them all is the controversy
raging between orthodox historians on the one hand and
archaeologists, statisticians and more liberalminded historians
on the other, over the questions posed by the pharaoh's tomb, for
with each new year added to its history, the slumbering giant
becomes more puzzling.

     The questions confronting science in connection with the
tomb of Cheops are multiple and are all related to the
construction of the 2,300,000 blocks weighing an average of 21
and 1/2 tons, with the largest of them - found in the roof the
King's Chamber, a dark musty-smelling room in the heart of the
structure - weighing over 70 tons each. Comparison of the blocks
with the quarries in Egypt has confirmed the theory that the
stones were brought to the site from a few miles away at Mokattan
as well as from Aswan to 500 miles south at Aswan.
     Here, too, we face a problem when following in the tracks of
the builders. How were the blocks transported to the building
site and, almost equally important, how many workmen were
required to move them and how long did it take?
     Guesswork will not suffice in ascertaining the truth about
these crucial points, for these problems are real.
     I recall from my early studies that orthodox historians
spouted forth the same set of answers: Quarry inscriptions on a
number of the blocks ascribe the building of the pyramid to the
Pharaoh Cheops in the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Since his
reign lasted only 22 years, this would suggest a maximum time
period during which the structure was erected. The blocks were
either transported on wooden sledges or floated down the Nile on
wooden rafts. It is further believed that 100,000 men, working
for twenty years, completed the task of building the pyramid.
Fantastic? Not to the historians, for this is what is believed
and what is currently taught. After all, how can one expect great
efficiency from a nation whose citizenry was only one step beyond
the cave-man stage? As credible as it may seem to the historians,
this simple solution will certainly not resolve any of the
outstanding questions. The historians are concerned only with
history, not with logistics; yet that is where the answer lies.

     Let's look at a few basic statistics. If 2,300,000 blocks
were placed in the pyramid in 20 years' time, that is, in 7,300
days, then we must assume that an incredible 315 blocks were
positioned each day, or 26 blocks per hour per 12-hour day. With
100,000 men, utilizing the most modern construction equipment
available today, our engineers would not be able to match this
"primitive" accomplishment. In addition, since nine months of the
year were customarily set aside for planting, cultivating and
harvesting, the work force could have spent only three months out
of every year on the construction site. Thus, even at the
exceptional rate of 315 stones per day, the amount of
time spent in building the pyramid would have been eighty years,
not twenty.
     The famed Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie has estimated
that eight men might have been able to handle 10 of the 2 and
1/2-ton blocks in the required three months. Using only ropes and
wooden levers, it would have taken them six weeks to pull the
stones out of the quarry, another week to float them down the
Nile, and still another six weeks to drag them to the base of the
     Eight men moving ten blocks means that 100,000 men could
have transported 125,000 blocks a year, completing the massive
construction project in the proposed twenty years. But this
increases the number of blocks to 1,500 per day-an impossibility
even by modern standards!
     Manpower is another area that presents a problem. The
100,000 man labor force mentioned above is only the estimated
size of the transportation crew. Add to this another 100,000
stonemasons at the quarries; 100,000 builders at the pyramid
itself; still another 100,000 architects, planners, and
supervisors coordinating the project; 250,000 women and children
preparing meals and keeping shelters in good repair; and a
standing guard force of 300,000 policing the workers and keeping
order among them, and we are speaking of a project that required
almost one million people - in the total construction - one third
to one-half the estimated population of all of Egypt around 2700
     Does this sound even remotely reasonable? Not really; yet
this is what we are being taught at the universities of the
world. But to continually call upon the energies of a million
people, year after year for twenty years, is stretching
credibility to the limit.
     Some maintain that the workers were mere slaves and did not
really detract from the native Egyptian labor force, but here too
we run into a snag. Herodotus, who visited Egypt in ancient times
and recorded its history, tells us that the Egyptians were paid
for their services in building the pyramids in wheat, beer and
other foodstuffs. What ruler could have paid one million workers
for three months labor every year for twenty years without going
bankrupt? And where would he have obtained the immeasurable
quantity of food with which to pay them?

     The source from which we gather much of our knowledge about
Egyptian history has been the hieroglyphic inscriptions and tomb
paintings. Many orthodox historians use these tomb paintings to
support their improbable claim that the building blocks for the
pyramids were either hauled or floated, or both. To substantiate
their claims, they direct us to two tomb paintings, one in the
Twelfth-Dynasty tomb of the nobleman Djehutihotep, the other in
the funerary sanctuary of Queen Hatshepsut. The first shows a
statue being drawn on a wooden sledge pulled by 172 men, over
ground which has been purposely dampened. The second picture
depicts a number of Queen Hatshepsut's royal barges, which were
used to float stone obelisks down the Nile. Each barge, it
appears, had a displacement of about 1,500 tons.

     On the surface this seems to provide adequate material to
defend the historians' position, but a closer examination of the
facts completely repudiates this. The objection is that the two
tomb paintings were made a thousand years after the pyramid was
     Sledges and barges may have been used to transport heavy
objects in the Twelfth Dynasty and later, but we are concerned
with methods employed in the Third Dynasty, not in the Twelfth.
There is no concrete evidence that these methods were used in the
construction of the Great Pyramid. In addition, we are referring
not merely to the transportation of a few heavy statues, but to
the logistical problem of moving 2,300,000 blocks. If for
argument's sake we want to believe in wooden sledges and barges,
from where would the voluminous supply of wood come? The trees of
the Nile Valley are date palms, a vital source of food that could
not have been spared. The wood therefore must have been imported.
We know from the Egyptians' records that as early as 2800 B.C.
they were importing large quantities of lumber from the Lebanon,
the ancient world's major source of cedar wood. Considering the
need and the size of the average Lebanese cedar, mathematicians
tell us 26 million trees would have been required to fashion the
necessary number of sledges and rafts. Neither the Lebanon nor
all the forests in the ancient world could have supplied that
much wood in twenty years, whether or not there was a fleet that
could carry it all!

     The truth is that it did not take twenty years to build the
Great Pyramid of Cheops. Evidence from other pyramids built in
the same period indicates that such structures were erected at
incredible speeds. At Dahshur, for example, is the Pyramid of
Sneferu, approximately two-thirds the volume of the Great
Pyramid. An inscription in the northeast cornerstone of the
structure reveals that it was laid in the 21st year of Sneferu's
reign, while halfway up is a block with another inscription,
dated in the 22nd year. In other words, it took only
two years to raise the entire Pyramid of Sneferu.
     A similar situation may also have occurred with the Cheops
structure, because it was completed in as little as four years
time. The fact that recent excavations not far from the Great
Pyramid have uncovered the remains of only 4,000 workmen's huts
increases rather than decreases the problem. There is no way
100,000 laborers could have been housed in 4,000 small huts, not
to mention the additional hundreds of thousands who were
involved. This undoubtedly places the historians in a difficult
position, for how can one explain the building of the Great
Pyramid in only four years time by just 4,000 workers, if only
wooden sledges and barges were utilized during a three months'
period every year?

     Yet it was done, and probably in just that length of time,
but the builders used construction and engineering skills and
techniques known only to them. It was a technological feat beyond
comparison in either the ancient or the modern world. The
generations following the one that built Cheops soon found
themselves, however, in a steep decline. They were suffering from
atrophy of knowledge, a recession in technical ability and
cultural sophistication that permeated each succeeding dynasty
until the Egyptian civilization became a vague shadow of its
historical greatness. The hieroglyphics from the various
dynasties reveal decided changes in the Egyptians' life-style and
technology, and the combination of funerary texts known as the
Book of the Dead (mentioned in Chapter 1) strongly supports this.
     The Egypt we know from the history books was indeed a mere
remnant of a highly progressive people who inherited technical
ability beyond our understanding. The knowledge that sparked
their civilization was transmitted to them by the eight survivors
of the Flood, and using this knowledge, Menes, the founder of
Egypt, rose to the challenge and began to transform chaos into


     What really transpired on this planet in the relatively
early years of human development will undoubtedly remain the
subject of heated controversy for years to come. Even a detailed
account of the nearunbelievable feats of prehistoric
technological inventiveness still leaves it difficult for us to
comprehend fully the outstanding accomplishments of our
"primitive" ancestors. Yet a thoughtful look at what the earth's
crust has quietly preserved for us can enable our minds to slip
back into the realm of unrecorded history and retrieve from it
those minute details which increase not only our understanding
but also our bewilderment, and which stimulate our desire to
learn more and more and more.

     There is another way to interpret history - the ooparts have
proven that. The major assumption of orthodox historians - that
our civilization is the result of gradual development from
primitive beginnings - can now seriously be challenged. Ooparts,
Biblical history, archaeology, geology, paleontology, and
ordinary level-headed thinking have guided us in that direction.
The weight of evidence is growing daily - evidence that our early
ancestors created a society that surpassed ours in all aspects of
development. Let's not sell humanity short by attempting to link
the remains of the ancient technology to supposed visits of
creatures from outer space, by ascribing to beings from other
planets what in reality is the logical effect of the synergistic
growth of a human supercivilization.

     Our beliefs about the prehistoric ages are constantly being
altered by new archaeological and paleoanthropological findings,
and thus in time significant portions of previously accepted and
even of now developing historical frameworks may become outdated
and may need to be changed. The surface of historical
interpretation has scarcely been scratched. Even the accumulated
facts gathered in these pages should be viewed as a vehicle to
stimulate deeper and more detailed studies.
     An overview of history as it now appears to us may have
grave implications for our future, for the world has undergone a
number of important transitions, with still more to come.
Although we cannot accurately assign dates to memorable events
that transpired in history, it is believed that the years between
1950 and 220 B.C. marked a period of transition for almost every
civilization of the Old and New worlds. During this time, Egypt's
first kingdom slipped into paralyzing deterioration; Sumeria and
India were overwhelmed by barbaric invaders; China and the rest
of the Far East suffered a disastrous flood; and in the Americas,
the so-called primitive cultures were suddenly followed by more
advanced ones. In many instances, the societies that collapsed
and disappeared had had historical ties of one kind or another
with scattered remnants of the lost super-civilization, which in
turn was related to the world order of the antediluvians
through the Babel world center. The disintegration of the primary
stages of the known civilizations within a relatively short time
of each other at the end of the third millennium B.C. is
historically unexplainable. No single all-embracing cause can be
given for their sudden decline. The first global order was swept
away by a devastating Flood; the revival of world order broke
down at Babel. Both of these catastrophes destroyed order, but
not the memory of the technology the ancients had once enjoyed.

     The terrifying means by which an oppressive authority might
once again consolidate its power for world domination remained
intact. Some of those who were entrusted with the preservation of
this awesome knowledge eventually used it to destroy one another
in a succession of nuclear holocausts. The survivors who
safeguarded the secret of the great knowledge ultimately fused it
with the cultures of subsequent civilizations. These
civilizations lasted to the end of the third millennium B.C. and
might have possessed sufficient potential to enable yet another
global authority to threaten nuclear warfare, but too much time
had elapsed and the desire for a world order had passed.
     After 2000 B.C., as each of the Middle Eastern civilizations
experienced a brief period of revival, remnants of earlier
advanced technology once again surfaced, now greatly diminished,
however. Both Egypt and Babylonia seem to have preserved a number
of sophisticated records and artifacts from former civilizations.
The years between 250 B.C. and the dawn of the Christian era
witnessed a technological rekindling in these lands, which
produced, among other things, the electric battery used in Iraq
during the Parthian period, a small computer calendar constructed
in Greece in approximately 80 B.C., and a model glider plane
tested on the banks of the Nile during the reign of the
     The brutal Roman invasion of the Middle East in the first
century B.C. extinguished this spark of revival. The Romans'
ruthlessness was an integral part of a wave of wanton destruction
that struck the Library of Carthage in 146 B.C., reducing its
irreplaceable 500,000 volumes to ashes. Later, at Pergamus in
Asia Minor, another 200,000 manuscripts, known to have contained
occult knowledge and perhaps the pre-Flood and pre-Babel wisdom
of the occult energies, were consigned to flames by rampaging
Christians. The most devastating blow, however, was dealt by
Julius Caesar when he burned the athenaeum of Alexandria,
destroying 700,000 of the most valued scientific works of the
classical world.
     The few records that survived were jealously guarded by the
secret societies. Gradually these too passed into oblivion as a
result of relentless persecution and mounting ignorance; as each
society died, its secrets perished with it or were hidden in
depositories, never to be found again.

     Today we are witnessing a rebirth in science and technology,
which to a large degree is a phenomenon totally independent of
historical developments. The first signs of a new scientific
thrust appeared in the West, primarily in Europe, and finally
achieved full maturity in the Industrial Revolution. As our
modern development becomes more complex and more daring, we are
beginning to reevaluate the remains and the artifacts of the past
and to recognize in them plateaus of knowledge we ourselves are
only now attaining.
     We can wonder at this startling discovery of past
accomplishments, but it must also serve as a warning. Once again,
science is beginning to reach beyond the boundary separating
natural science from supernatural manipulation and again we are
stepping into the perilous region of the occult that was so boldy
penetrated by the antediluvians and the builders. Are we once
again approaching a danger point?

     It has been said that history possesses the strange and
unexplainable ability to repeat itself.
     Will we give it the impetus to make it happen - again?






Keith Hunt

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