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Missing Links Discovered

The mirgrations of the Sythians

                     MISSING LINKS IN ASSYRIAN TABLES



CHAPTER 10



THE SCYTHIAN MIGRATIONS

     In the early part of the eighteenth century A.D., a British
historian suggested that the Anglo-Saxons were descended from the
Sakka Scythians. He maintained the Saxons had come from the
"Sakki." While it is true some of the Scythians known as "Sakkas"
did migrate into Europe around north of the Aral and Caspian
Seas, archaeological and historical evidence has shown that the
Saxons, as a whole, were not derived from the Sakka branch of the
Eastern Scythians (Israelites) in Central Asia. Instead, they
were mainly derived from the Western Scythians (Israelites) that
migrated through the Caucasus into Europe around the sixth
century B.C. This migration was undoubtedly because many Scythian
Israelites, due to their love of liberty, were unwilling to
submit to Persian rule.
     For the most part, the Sakkas migrated eastward (over the
centuries) reaching the border of China about 175 B.C. A series
of incidents occurred about that time, on the border of Mongolia.
The warlike Hiung-nu (believed to be the ancestor of the Huns)
attacked and drove a peaceable people, known as the "Yuehchi "
out of their homes, on the border of China. About 165 B.C. the
Yueh-chi, fleeing westward, in turn displaced some people called
"Sai-wang" from the region of Lake Issk-kul and the Ili River. It
appears that Sai-wang was originally pronounced "Sok-wang,"
meaning the "Sakka princes."  Chinese records record that these
people fled south into India, apparently through the great
mountain passes of Afghanistan. It is known from coins that have
been found there, that shortly after 100 B.C., a Sakka kingdom
was established in the valleys of the upper Indus between Kashmir
and Afghanistan. (The Indo-Greeks, A.K. Narain, 1957, pgs. 128 -
153).
     Other Chinese historians write that "the population of the
Sai were scattered, and in some places they constituted several
countries. (Narain, op, cit., pgs. 137-138). Those named
countries lay to the west, in the general direction of the Aral
Sea. Some of the Sakka probably fled to Ferghana near the upper
Jaxartes region. Russian archaeologists have identified numerous
burial mounds there, dating from the first century B.C. down to
the fourth century A.D. Others, no doubt, fled further west, and
were absorbed by the various Massagetae tribes around the Aral
Sea.
     The Sakka or "Sai" may account for the rise of Buddhism.
Horne, the author of 'Great Events' says: "One hundred miles
north-east of Benares, at Kapilivastu, on the banks of the river
Rohini, the modern Kohans, there lived about 500 B.C. a tribe
called Sakyas (Sacau?) ... Gautama (Lord Buddha) had many titles,
one of which was Sakyashina. He was also called 'the lion of the
tribe of Sakya, Sakyamuni, the Sakya Sage, Sugata the Happy One,
Sakya the Teacher.'"
     Tombs of the Sakka (Eastern Scythians) have been found in
the vicinity of the upper Ili River, and even as far east as the
Altai Mountains of Siberia. The earliest of these have been dated
to the fifth century B.C. Among the graves in the Altai
Mountains, several were found that had been partly looted
centuries ago. The removal of the timber roofing had allowed rain
water to seep into the graves. The water froze on the corpses and
objects buried with them. In this condition, the fragile items of
clothing, wood, leather and felt objects were preserved.

     The so-called "Indo-Scythians" who were driven into India
and Afghanistan from the north and west probably lost their
Israel identity, early in the first century A.D. as they
intermingled with the native population. It is noteworthy that
missionaries visiting Afghanistan (early in the nineteenth
century) record meeting people who called themselves
"Beni-Israel" and claimed to be of Israel descent. It is quite
possible they were, in fact, descended from the ancient Sakka
Scythians and thus of Israel.

     In the fifth century B.C., Herodotus reported the Scythians
as occupying South Russia from the Carpathians to the Don River.
In the Fourth Book of his Histories, he provides us with a
detailed account of them. Undoubtedly, these Scythians migrated
northwards through the Caucasus Mountains. Archaeological
evidence of the Scythians occupation of South Russia, starting
about 575 B.C., has confirmed Herodotus' writings. The evidence
is in the form of Scythian burial mounds found scattered all over
the Russian Steppes.

     The kings and chieftains of the Scythians were given
elaborate burials. These royal and semi-royal tombs contained
splendorous relics buried with their dead. Diverse in style, with
elements adapted from Greece, Iran and the Near East, these
artifacts were created or bought to decorate themselves, their
horses, their weapons and their dwellings. From the lively
intricacies of the animal style to the serenely balanced
naturalism of works (probably by Greek artisans) the objects
found give us a glimpse of the nomadic life of the Scythians.
Of special interest is the craftsmanship of the Scythian artisans
in gold castings. Most notable in their art is the recurring
appearance of stags, felines, griffins, and birds of prey. The
numerous appearances of the stag suggest it may have been a
'totem' animal for the Scythian Israelites. Known as "Scythian
animal style," representations of animals of great visual
vitality appear in poses indicating they are either in a passive
state or dead; legs and heads may droop, rear legs may be folded
over the front ones, or a body may curl into a full circle.
Often, only a head, beak, antler, or hooves may be used to
symbolize the entire animal.
     Another characteristic of Scythian animal art style is the
incorporation of many smaller animals within the body of a larger
one. Such images may have been designed to indicate the combined
powers of all the creatures portrayed.

     The tombs of the Scythian were constructed of wood or stone
and covered with mounds of earth and stone. Herodotus, who
visited the Scythians, gives us a vivid description of the burial
of a Scythian ruler. The chieftain's body was embalmed, and
placed on a wagon, and carried around to visit the various tribes
over whom he had ruled in life. When this ceremony was over, the
king's body was brought to the grave that had been dug for it.

"In the open space around the body of the king they bury one of
his concubines first, killing her by strangling, and also his
cupbearer, his cook, his groom, his lackey, his messenger, some
of his horses, firstlings of all his other possessions, and some
golden cups ... After this they set to work, and raise a vast
mound above the grave, all of them vying with each other and
seeking to make it as tall as possible. " (The Persian Wars, IV,
pg. 711). A year later, the grisly burial ceremony was continued.
Fifty young men and fifty horses were killed, then placed around
the royal tomb as a final token of the late king's power over his
people.
     The timbered chamber and cross sections originally supported
a hemp-smoking tent on its site. Inside the chamber are several
coffins (with their lids open) containing small furnishings.
Contained in the burial are the parts of a four-wheeled wagon, a
carpet, felt hangings and a felt cover for the wagon. The tomb
contained the body of a man of European type with a large narrow
skull and a narrow arched nose. His hands were folded across his
breast.

The above sketch (none of the many photos, scetches, drawings,
are reproduced, for the sake of space on this Website - Keith
Hunt) of a Scythian burial tomb is an example of the older and
simpler type of Scythian royal tomb from which later types were
elaborated. The wooden framework, the human skeleton and the
skeletons of sacrificed horses are shown as described in
the text. This barrow was found in Kostromskaya, immediately
north of the Caucasus.
     Royal tombs have been found, both south and north of the
Caucasus Mountains. Just as described by Herodotus, horses and
grooms were interred along with the main burial. While the form
of the burials often varied from site to site, the tombs were
always large underground structures of wood and stone, lavishly
furnished with royal possessions, and covered with mounds of
earth and stone. The objects found in the royal tombs were always
things used in everyday life - clothing, cooking pots, weapons
and jewelry.

     Mastery of the horse was the most significant factor in the
life of the Scythian nomads. Their cavalry and light, horse-drawn
chariots gave extreme mobility to their warfare and made them the
terror of enemies on foot. Scythian battle steeds wore elaborate
ornaments of bronze, silver and gold. For protection against
enemy weapons, they wore handsomely worked eye-pieces and nose
shields, richly decorated with the likenesses of animals.
     The Scythians may not have been the earliest mounted archers
in antiquity, but they were among the most skilled, as indicated
on the relief from the palace of Ashurbanipal. The Scythian bows
were short but powerful and their distinctive, socketed
arrowheads were usually constructed of bronze and trilobate
(three-edged) in shape. Their "gorytus," a case which held both
arrows and bow, was often elaborately decorated in gold.

     The Scythian-type arrowheads may have been used for two
different purposes. Those found dating from the seventh century
B.C. probably were employed by marauding bands of Scythians.
Those dating from the sixth century and later, may be attributed
to the Scythians groups who remained in the Near East, to serve
as mercenaries with the great powers, especially Egypt and
Babylonia. Greek history records Scythian bowmen employed as
"policemen" in Classical Athens. Scythian arrowheads, uncovered
from the Babylonian attack on Jerusalem, suggests that Scythian
mercenaries may have served as the vanguard of the Chaldean
assault.
     The Western Scythian, occupying a central position in the
Steppes of South Russia, had no natural barriers against invasion
by hostile forces from east or west. Its frontier rivers, the
Volga and the Danube, could easily be bridged. The rich
grasslands of the Steppes were a magnet for the dispossessed
peoples of Central Asia, who were driven westward by the growing
aridity of climate and the expansion of the Chinese empires that
barred the road to the east. The first wave of invaders to
intrude into Scythian territory were the Sarmatians.
The Sarmatians were first mentioned by ancient historians in
the 5th century B.C. under the name "Sauromatae." Herodotus says
that their land lay "three days journey" east of the Don River,
and three days journey northwards from the Sea of Azov.
Archaeological research has shown they extended over the wide
grassland of the Eurasiatic border east of the Don River nearly
up to the Ural River, and northwards along the Volga up to the
Saratov. They were of mixed Iranian stock, combining features of
various Late Bronze Age cultures, particularly of the Maeotians
and later some Greek and Scythian people - with whom they were in
close contact. Herodotus mentioned that the Sarmatians "use the
Scythian language, speaking it corruptly."
     The Sarmatians had no permanent settlements. They lived for
the most part on horses and their dwellings were wagons drawn by
oxen. In the dress, culture and customs, they were similar to the
Scythians. They wore trousers and pointed caps. Their wives
retained the 'ancient Amazon' mode of living, joining their
husbands in the hunt and in war, and wearing the same dress as
the men. No virgin was permitted to marry until she had killed an
enemy.
     The Sarmartians developed new innovations in war tactics and
armor. Their armor consisted of leather or other material on
which were sewn small copper or iron plaques; horses were
protected in the same manner. Their main weapons were long, heavy
lances held in a hooked bar fixed to the horse's neck. Also, they
used long iron swords. Their cavalry fought in close array and
few adversaries could resist them. These new tactics of warfare
resulted in a reorganization of all the armies in the east, even
those of the Huns and the Chinese. Light mounted archers were
replaced by armored cavalry which became the typical Sarmatian
war-formation. Even the Romans were, in the end, forced to equip
some of their units in the same fashion.
     By 338 B.C., the Sarmatians had crossed the Don regions and
engaged in battles with the Scythians who were occupying the
regions west of the Don River. By the end of the fourth century
B.C., the Scythians disappeared from the Kuban and are found
further west, on the other side of the Dnieper River. The
implication is that they were pushed westward by the advancing
Sarmatians. By 300 B.C., the Sarmatians controlled the whole of
the area between the Don and the Dnieper Rivers.
     Soon after 300 B.C., the Sarmatians advanced from the
Dnieper to the Carpathians and finally into what is today known
as Hungary.
     The Scythians, again pushed westwards, divided into a
northern and southern group. The latter, were ultimately driven
into two pockets, one in the islands of the Danube delta, the
other in the Crimea where they were forced to pay tribute to the
Sarmatians. (Cambridge Ancient History Vol IX, pg. 228). Both
southern groups appeared to have been wiped out by the Goths in
the third century A.D.
     The larger northern group of Scythians migrated northwest.
Strabo, (the Greek writer) describing the various parts of Asia
and Europe shortly before the beginning of the Christian Era
wrote: 

"Of the portions thus divided, the first is inhabited in
the region toward the north and the ocean by the Scythian nomads
and wagon dwellers. and south of these by the Sarmatians."
(XI,ii, I).

     This would indicate that the Scythians had settled to
the north of the Sarmatians as far as the "ocean." This may be
either the Baltic or the North Sea.

     Pliny, the Elder, in his "Natural History" also written in
the early part of the Christian Era, mentions various islands in
the "Northern Ocean" off the coast of Scythia. One was named
"Bau-nonia," (Bornholm?) which was said to lie "off Scythia at a
distance of a day's voyage from the coast, on the beach of which
in spring time amber is cast up by the waves." Pliny also
mentions a report that "three days" sail from the Scythian coast
there is an island of enormous size called "Balcia," which may
well be a description of Scandinavia. These statements plainly
reveal that the northern Scythians had migrated as far as the
Baltic coast.
     In his description of central Europe, from the Danube to the
Baltic, Pliny states that, "The name of the Scythians is
everywhere changed to that of Sarmatae and Germans, and his old
designation has not been continued for any except the most
outlying sections of this nation who live almost unknown to the
rest of mankind (IV, xii). By outlying sections, Pliny doubtless
meant those on the north coast of Europe just mentioned. The
reason why the name "Scythian" was changed was because they no
longer lived in the country immediately north and west of the
Black Sea that had been called "Scythia," as this land had become
largely occupied by Sarmatians.

     It was to distinguish between the Sarmatian inhabitants and
the true Scythians, that the Romans dropped the name "Scythian"
and substituted "Sarmatae" and "Germani." (Germans)  "Germanus"
being the Latin word for "genuine." Seemingly, Pliny thought it
was unnecessary to give the reason for the name change, perhaps
because it was well known in his time. Strabo, on the other hand
felt an explanation was called for. But, he confused the
Scythians with the Cimimerians. (Celts) He said, "It was for this
reason that the Romans assigned to them the name Germani, as
though they wished to indicate thereby that they were the
"genuine" Galatae, for in the language of the Romans, "germani"
means "genuine. " (Strabo VII,i,2) He should have said the
Germani were the "genuine" Scythians, not Galatae. (Galatians).
     Archaeological evidence confirms the historical record of
the name change. Prior to 100 B.C. the lands bordering on the
southern Baltic Sea (now Poland and East Germany) had been rather
sparsely populated and burials found of that period invariably
contained cremated remains - the ashes usually being buried in an
urn and little or no grave offerings accompanying the interment.
However, later interments contained bodies without cremation and
usually contained the dead person's personal belongings. In
addition, there was an increasing number of "royal" or chieftains
graves, consisting of a wooden chamber in which the body was
buried along with gold and silver ornaments.
     Because of the similarity between these later burials and
the mode of burial of the Scythians; inhumination, (burial
without cremation) often in timber tombs, and noted for the
quantity of weapons and ornaments placed in them, the new burial
rites may well be accounted for by the arrival of the Scythians
in these lands. Generally, modern archaeologists have failed to
recognize these burials as Scythian, even though Pliny and Strabo
both reported that Scythians actually inhabited these regions.
One reason may be because of minor cultural changes.
     It is well known that the Anglo-Saxons, who came to Britain
were called "Germans" by the Romans, and that the Normans, the
last to arrive (A.D. 1066) were of the same stock. Tacitus and
Ptolemy both name the region of the River Elbe and the base of
the Jutland Peninsula as the places inhabited by the Angles and
the Saxons before they came to Britain. According to Roman
terminology, this was "Germany," but it is noted that the British
historian, Nennius, in his account of the arrival (about A.D.
449) of Hengist and Horsa, (two brothers claiming descent from
Odin) hired as mercenaries to fight against the Picts and Scots,
says:


"messengers were sent to Scythia" for reinforcements. The context
of the report shows that the brothers came from north Germany.
So, evidently, the ancient name of the "genuine Scythians"
persisted for some time in northern Europe.
     The Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain was divided into two
phases:

     The first, between A.D. 280-450, when the Saxons
periodically raided the coast of Britain, returning home
immediately. The second, between A.D. 450-600 when the
Anglo-Saxons, after the withdrawal of the Roman garrisons from
Britain, landed and settled in various parts of the country. One
group of Saxons, under the rule of Cerdic, (founder of the famous
Saxon dynasty which produced in later years, King Alfred) landed
with five ships somewhere west of the Solent. The historical King
Arthur is believed to have organized the British defense which
was able to keep Cerdic from gaining a decisive victory for
thirteen years.
     Other important Saxon settlements were in Surrey on the
south bank of the Thames estuary and on the north bank of the
estuary.
     Here, about A.D. 530 the small kingdom of Essex was formed.
This was later expanded to include Middlesex. Starting about A.D.
527, the Angles followed the Saxons into Britain. The most
important group, historically, was that led by Ida, who arrived,
about A.D. 547, with forty ships. They landed on the east coast
of Scotland. Ida founded the kingdom of Bernicia, between the
Tweed and Forth. Bernicia later became part of the kingdom of
Northumbria. Another kingdom formed by the Angles was Mercia,
under a dynasty of kings who claimed descent from Offa, king of
Angeln, in south-east Jutland.

     By the end of the sixth century A.D., seven kingdoms had
been formed, known as the "Heptarchy." These divisions each were
governed by chiefs, or kings, and were called by the following
names: Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia,
and Essex. These separate kingdoms were united by Egbert, the
king of Wessex (West Saxons) who made all the other kingdoms
subordinate to his own, raising himself to be the first Saxon
king of England. This union proved to be a permanent blessing to
the country, and enabled Egbert to consolidate the Saxon power,
and insured the prosperity of his reign.
     Bede, the English historian (known as the Venerable Bede) in
the eighth century wrote an account of the Anglo-Saxon invasion
of Britain: 

"Those who came over were of the three most powerful nations of
Germany - Saxons, Angles and Jutes. From the Jutes are descended
the people of Kent and the Isle of Wight, and also those in the
province of the West Saxons who are to this day called Jutes,
seated opposite to the Isle of Wight. From the Saxons, that is
the country which is now called Old Saxony, (modern North Germany
and Holland) came the East Saxons, the South Saxons, and the West
Saxons. From the Angles, this is the country which is called
Angeln, and which is said from that time to remain a desert to
this day, between the province of the Jutes and the Saxons, are
descended the East Angles, the Midland Angles, Mercians, all the
race of the Northumbrians, that is of those nations that dwell
north of the river Humber, and the other nations of the English."
(Quoted from Everyman's edition).

     As the Saxons were being united and were growing in power,
greatly assisted by its conversion to Christianity, the ancient
Britons who had fled to the extreme west and north remained free
and independent. The remnants of the Roman colonies became
extinct. Saxon laws, customs, manners and institutions under the
influences of the Christian religion gradually changed and laid
the groundwork of the liberties and privileges which the British
people enjoy today.
     Sharon Turner writes: 

"The first great change in the Anglo-Saxons appeared in the
discontinuance of their piracies. They ceased to be the ferocious
spoilers of the ocean and its coasts; they became land-owners,
agriculturists, and industrious citizens;...Their war-leaders
became territorial chiefs; and the conflicts of capricious and
sanguinary robbery were exchanged for the possession and
inheritance of property in its various sorts; for trade and
manufactures. for useful luxuries, peaceful industry,
and domestic comfort" (History of the Anglo-Saxons Vol. III, p.
5).

     The archaeological evidence indicates that the Angles and
the Saxons comprised only the western fringe of the great
Scythian horde that extended east as far as the Vistula River.
The more easterly tribes, on finally reaching the Baltic,
eventually made their way to the Danish islands. This is borne
out by the close affinity between the archaeological finds in
Denmark and those on the south Baltic coast. Only a very few
migrated to Sweden, because at that time Sweden already had a
surplus population.

     A new empire had been established in the northern half of
Sweden, founded by the historical Odin. The account of Odin, as
narrated by Snorre in the "Ynglinga Saga," states that Odin came
from Asaland or Asaheim. (Central Scythia) Odin assembled, at
Asgard, (modern Kiev) once the capital of Asaland, a huge army
which marched up the valley of the Dnieper, then westward to the
shore of the Baltic (Pelagus Scythicum) and finally to
Scandinavia. It was from Odin's army, known as the "Svear," that
Sweden takes its name. In their own language, the Swedes call
their country "Sverige," - the "land of the Svear." The date of
Odin is given variously as between A.D. 200 and 300. 

     In the Herald's College, London, there is a very ancient
manuscript deducing the Saxon Kings from Adam and from David.
Odin is listed in the genealogy (as is also his wife, Frea)
tracing the Royal House of Britain back to David.

DAVID - Ancestor of Anna, the Cousin of the Virgin Mary
Penardim m. Leah, of Judah through Troy 
Bran
Caradoc
Coilus
Lucius - Cadwallader - Frea m. ODIN
0DIN descended through Troy  from Judah     
Tudors, Stuarts, Plantagenets, Hanoverians, Saxe-Coburgs, Danes
King George V  QUEEN MARY

     Odin introduced among the people a new religion, the tenents
of which Faith included the Fatherhood of God, the immortality of
the soul, future rewards and punishments, the consecration of
valor, "seeking ever to die in battle rather in peace," - this
being the ultimate goal by which they might attain to "Valhalla"
(The Hall of Heroes) or Heaven. 

     After the death of Odin, his authority was transmitted to
his five sons, whom he had placed on neighboring thrones. In time
Odin came to be regarded by the early Scandinavians as a mythical
"god."
     From Odin's son, Skiold, descended the "Skiolduns" - a race
of Kings, which long held the scepter of Denmark. Yngue, another
son, reigned in Sweden, and from him sprung the "Ynglings" - a
name by which the ancient sovereigns of that country were
distinguished in history. Yet another son, Balder, became viceroy
over the Angles, and from him the Anglo-Saxon Princes all traced
their origin. Horsa and Hengist, the two Saxon Chiefs who fought
the English in the fifth century, reckoned Odin (or "Wodin" in
their dialect) as their ancestor.


     Another principal progenitor of the inhabitants of Sweden
were the Goths (a branch of the German Scythians) who occupied
the southern half of the country known as "Goth-land." In
Swedish, this area is called "Gatarike." (kingdom of the Goths)
The Goths also occupied the largest island in the Baltic, also
called "Gothland" and is today a Swedish possession. On the
western coast of Sweden there is naturally an element of
Dano-Norse blood.
     Due to the close proximity of Finland, the Swedes naturally
established colonies around the coast lands, where the Swedish
language is still spoken today. The inland parts of Finland are
occupied today by descendants of Tartar tribes (Fenni, Esths, and
Lapps) that once occupied Sweden before being pushed out by the
Goths and Svear. Some of the Finns are descended from the old
Goths who never crossed the Baltic. The Tartar tribes are
believed to have once inhabited central and western Europe but
were pushed north by the Cimmerians as they fled westward before
the Scythians.
     About the year A.D. 330, an offshoot under the name of
"Visigoths" broke away from the main body of Goths, then often
called "Ostrogoths." These Visigoths, (Western Goths) under
Alaric (the Bold), invaded Italy in A.D.400, and took Rome in
410. Four years later, they extended their conquests to France,
and then to Spain. Their rule in France, however, ended in A.D.
507, when they were defeated by Clovis at Vougle. Their dominion
in Spain was brought to an end in A.D.711, when they were
conquered by the Saracens (Muslims) under Musa.

     The Ostrogoths (Eastern Goths) however, did not penetrate so
far west in Europe, nor did they stay so long. They ravaged
eastern Europe, including the Balkans. In A.D.493, under their
renowned leader Theodoric (the Great), they became masters of the
greater part of Italy. There, they retained their power until
A.D.553, when they were ultimately conquered by Narses,
Justinian's general. Under negotiated terms the Ostrogoths were
allowed to leave Italy as free people, collect and remove their
movable property, and receive financial assistance to defray
their expenses on the road. In the month of March, A.D.553, they
left Italy, and from that time the name "Ostrogoth" is rarely
found in historical writings.

     After the Anglo-Saxon migration to England (A.D.450-600)
there remained in and on the west coast of Norway, two important
groups of people of Scythian origin. These we shall refer to as
"Danes" and "Norsemen," although the two groups are sometimes
confused in history books and are often called "Vikings," a term
which also includes pirates of Swedish origin. The present
population of Norway is almost wholly of Norse descent, and the
Norwegian people still call themselves "Norsk" in their language.
The first mention of the depredations of the Danes (or Northmen
as some writers prefer to call them) on the English coast was on
their landing upon the Isle of Thanet in the year A.D.787.
     According to the Saxon Chronicle: "First came three ships of
Northmen, out of Haeretha-land. (Denmark) And then the reve
(governor) rode to the place, and would have driven them to the
king's town, because he knew not who they were; and they there
slew him. These were the first ships of Danishmen which sought
the land of the English nation."

     The more congenial climate of Britain drew more Norsemen who
settled in the Shetland and Orkney Islands, where they absorbed
the remaining Celtic population. To this day they are almost
entirely Norse, and the people are proud of their Norse descent
and refuse to be called Scots. Both the Shetlands and the Orkneys
remained part of Norway until 1468, when they were ceded to James
III of Scotland by Christian I of Denmark and Norway.
     Between A.D. 800-900, Norse and Danish raiders plundered the
coast lands of Britain and Ireland, spreading havoc and
destruction on all sides. They not only burned the churches and
destroyed cities, but perpetrated the most barbarous cruelties
upon the inhabitants. Encouraged by the rich booty the raids
produced, the Norsemen, for over thirty years, regularly swarmed
down the west coast of Scotland. At the beginning of the ninth
century, raids on the east and west coasts of Ireland became an
annual event.

     In A.D.835, a Norse chieftain, named "Turges," landed in
Ireland with a large fleet and declared himself king of all the
Norsemen in Ireland. He built himself a fortress at Dublin,
previously an obscure village called "Ath Cliath," and the new
city became the center of the government for the Norse colonies.
After some eight or nine years, Turges was captured and drowned
in Lough Owel by the Irish king of Meath. Shortly after this some
Danish Vikings arrive from the south and the Irish enlisted them
to fight against the Norsemen. For several years Ireland was
devastated by wars between Norsemen and Danes, until a Norse
prince known as "Olaf the White," recaptured Dublin and restored
Norse rule.

     In A.D. 853 another group of Norsemen left Scandinavia under
the leadership of Rollo (Rolf the Ganga), and invaded the north
of France. The territory which they acquired was called
"Normandy" (Northman's Land) and the Norsemen themselves who
settled that part of France became known as "Normans." (A
softened form of the word "Northman") In a short time these
colonists adopted the French tongue and French customs. They
adopted the growing feudal practices of France and developed
them, both in Normandy and in England, into a harmonious system.
     During the ninth and tenth centuries many Norsemen settled
peaceably among the Celts in the Hebrides and parts of the west
coast of Scotland. However, in Ireland there were frequent wars
between Norse and Irish, first one and then the other gaining the
upper hand. In A.D.1014 the Irish gained control of their
country when they defeated the Norsemen in a fiercely fought
battle at Clontarf, in which some 7,000 Norsemen and 4,000
Irishmen, including most of the leaders on both sides, lost their
lives. After this battle the Norse settlers were allowed to
continue to occupy the same cities and territories as before.

     In England, many groups of Norsemen and Danes settled down,
taking possession of parcels of land and for the first time began
to grow their own crops. Other groups left England for the
Continent, where they ravaged France, Belgium and west Germany.
The Norse and Danish invasions of Britain cost the lives of
hundreds of both invaders and defenders. But, through all the
warfare, England did not become subject to a foreign power.
Although Norsemen ruled for a time in Ireland, and the Danes in
parts of England, eventually they both became a second wave of
immigrants from the common stock that had gathered in Denmark at
the beginning of the Christian Era.

     The Norman conquest of Britain started in A.D.1066 when
William the Conqueror (sixth generation from Rolf the Ganga )
landed with an army of Normans, on the Sussex coast. An English
army, led by Harold, the Saxon claimant to the English throne,
met the Normans. In the ensuing Battle of Hastings, Harold was
killed and the Saxon government came to an end. The English
estates were divided among the Norman victors. William was
crowned King of England on the following Christmas Day. Forty
years later the English regained the throne of England and an
English invasion of Normany followed. For over a hundred years
England and France struggled for possession of Normandy. Finally,
the French under King Philip Augustus, won complete control -
between 1202 and 1204 A.D.
     The Normans who remained in Britain gradually became
absorbed into the peoples of Britain - they became English,
Scots, Irish and Welsh. 

     In considering the many conquests of Britain, first by the
Anglo-Saxons from Germany, the Danes and Norsemen from Denmark
and Scandinavia and finally the Normans from France, one might
imagine that the resulting population of the British Isles,
including the original ancient Britains, would have produced a
mongrel breed of several different races. Such, however, is not
the case. The Normans were a branch of the Scythians who came
from Scandinavia. They and the other invading peoples are all of
one origin, Israelites of either the Scythian or the Cimmerian
branch of the ancient (ga-me-ra-a-a) Gimira, the Assyrian name
for Israelites. The Ancient Britains are also descended from the
same stock - Hebrews that left Egypt before the Exodus or later
from Palestine before the Captivities of Israel.

     Having identified the western European nations as
predominately of the ancient Cimmerians (Israelites) and the
Scythians (Israelites) the question naturally arises concerning
the racial makeup of the modern inhabitants of central Europe.   
Because of a greater admixture with non-Israel peoples, it is
difficult to distinguish with certainty the ethnic origin of the
individual peoples making up these nations. One can only
generalize:

     The inhabitants of modern Hungary are descended from several
sources. The early people were no doubt Scythians. (Germanic)
During historical times, this flatland between the Danube and the
Tisza (Theiss) has experienced incessant human ebb and flow -
Dacians, Goths, Vandals, Gepidae, and Hun. Nearly half of the
present inhabitants are descendants of the Magyars, who came in
from the Siberian steppes, (at the beginning of the tenth
century) and pushed into the heart of Germany and Italy. They
suffered reverses and finally settled back into present-day
Hungary. The Magyars, who were once subject to the Khazar kings,
are recorded in modern history books as belonging, in origin and
language, to the "Finno-Ugrian division of the Alpo-Carpathian
stock." It is quite possible the Magyars contained a strong
element of Scythians who allied themselves with them.
The Austrian population of today is changed from that of the
original ancient Nordics (generally long-headed) that once
occupied the land. Toward the close of the sixth century A.D.,
the Slovenes (Slavs) pressed on by the Avars (a Turkish tribe
closely akin to the Huns) invaded Austria. The Slovenes advanced
as far as the Tyrol, until checked at Salzburg by the Germans.
The Slovenes are identified by Pliny as the "Venedi." (Slavs) The
Slavs are an Alpine (generally round-headed) people, and it is
noted that among the modern Bavarians and Austrians are found a
proportion of roundheads. But there is also noted a decided
difference between these round-heads and those (round-heads)
found in other parts of Europe. For example, the physical height
of the Czechs and Moravians in the north, of the Austrians in the
middle, and the Slovenes of Yugoslavia in the south, is greater
than that of the round-heads in general. As in the case of
Hungary, there is a strong strain of the Nordic (Scythian) blood
found in Austria.
     The people of Bulgaria are also of diverse origin. They are
taller than the European average and frequently long-headed. A
certain proportion of both Bulgars and Serbs are related,
racially, to each other and possibly to the prehistoric people of
south Russia, who once inhabited the shores of the Black Sea. The
Serbs also show an ethnic mixture, probably linked to the peoples
who invaded the lands south of the Save and Danube. Neither the
Serbs nor the Bulgars are related to the Russian Slavs. The
modern Rumanians show common ancestory with the Bulgarians. They
too, contain a proportionate strain of Nordic (i.e., Gothic)
ancestry.
     The problem of the origin of the present day Slavs is a very
complex one to solve. It is generally believed the primitive Slav
people had their cradle between the Oder and the Dnieper, north
of the Carpathians. They seem to have had their area of
characterization in Poland and the country between the Carpathian
and the Dnieper. Today, the people of Poland are generally
round-headed, (Alpine) small of stature and show ethnic mixture.
However, people of Nordic ancestry make up a proportion of the
population.

     The migrations of the Celts and the Gauls, as they crossed
the western Pyrenees about the end of the sixth century B.C.,
brought the first Nordic blood into Spain. They introduced the
Tryan speech into the Iberian peninsula, The Vandals and
Visigoths who later conquered and held Spain for 300 years added
to the Nordic blood. Evidence of their blood is found in the
"hidalgos" (the son of a Goth) and in the "blue-bloods." Through
losses in wars outside of Spain, Nordic blood faded and is today
found only in a small minority of the country. The same is
somewhat true in Italy and Greece, where Nordic blood was
replaced by that of Alpine and Mediterranean people, as well as
that of Arab invaders. A large part of the southern Italians and
some Spaniards are racially identified with the Berbers of North
Africa. (The Berbers are a branch of the indigenous 'Libyan'
race. They are distinctively a 'white' race. Dark hair and brown
or hazel eyes are the rule, although blue-eyed blonds are found. 
     In northern Italy there is a large amount of Nordic blood
(Lombards) attributed to the Celtic invasions of the fourth
century B.C.

     To summarize, it is probable that as the Nordics (Scythians
and Cimmerians) moved westward, the Slav-speaking Alpines filled
up their places, just as the Nordics submerged the earlier
Alpines
in the west. In central Europe (and to a lesser degree in western
Europe) there has been a strong admixture of blood between the
Nordic and Alpine peoples, due to the long periods of time they
have been in contact with one another. This mixture is found in a
portion of the people of France and Germany. In France, it is
noticeable in the great plateau of the Vosges, Jura, and part of
the French Alps. In Germany, it is identifiable in the south and
east, due in part to the continuing replacement of the Nordics by
the Alpines during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).

                           ....................


NOTE:

Capt did a reasonable job in tracing the movements of the people
of the House of Israel into Europe and Britain, but MUCH work has
been done since Capt wrote this book "Missing Links Discovered in
Assyrian Tablets."

Now we have the scholastic work of Craig White with his two books
"The Origin of Nations" and "The Great German Nation" - both
obtainable from Amozon.com

We have the ever moving scholastical work of Yair DAVIDIY (with
his Jewish friends) on the Website: BRITAM.ORG

The latter is THE website to prove the nations of North-western
Europe, the British Commonwealth and the United States of America
are the peoples of the House of Israel - Britain and America
being the tribe of Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh).

For serious students of history there can be no question that
most of the Western world nations are the tribes of so-called
lost Israel. 

I well remember a conversation that took place between two men,
one having his PhD in history. The one man said to the PhD man,
"I remember many years ago you believed most of the Western world
was the lost tribes of Israel, do you still beleive this?" To
which the PhD historian replied, "With further study I've done,
EVEN MORE SO!!" 

Keith Hunt

Entered on this Website November 2008


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