From the book JEWISH ROOTS by Daniel Juster (published by
Davar publications, Rockville, Maryland), is the following quotes
concerning some of the passages in the OT with reference to WHO
the angel of the Lord was at times. You will note his correct
use of Bible passages to let them interpret themselves, and give
forth the answer, to our question of who the angel of the Lord
was in some specific instances of Scripture.
I do recommend this book to all readers, bearing in mind I
may not agree fully with everything written therein. All emphasis
is mine throughout unless otherwise stated.
QUOTES from pages 182-190.
".......In Genesis 1:26 God said, 'let US create man in our own
image' (emphasis Juster). 'Eloheem' (God) itself is a unique
UNI-plural form which takes the singular verb, but could be
translated 'gods.' .......God says, 'God created man in his own
image....male and female CREATED HE THEM' (1:27 emphasis Juster).
The fact that male and female TOGETHER are in God's image must
bear some significance. Further, God says of marriage, 'For this
reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to
his wife, and they will become ONE flesh' (Gen.2:24). The word
for one here is ECHAD, the same used in the Sh'ma, 'Hear O
Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord ALONE (echad)' (Deut.6:4,
One Jewish authority PERSONALLY ADMITTED in a class at a
PROMINENT Jewish college that the Sh'ma was NOT a statement at
all about God's MATHEMATICAL SINGULARITY, but that this invisible
God of revelation was to be worshipped APART FROM ALL OTHER
IDOLS. (It was the true God and that which made up the Godhead
that ALONE, all false gods being cast away, was to be worshipped.
He, the true God was the only one God/Godhead, all others were
false gods - Keith Hunt).
Furthermore, if the Sh'ma is an assertion of God's oneness,
it would be a statement COUNTER to the obvious indications of the
PLURALITY in the Tenach. (See also Ezra 2:64 and Ezekiel 37:17.
'Echad,' however, DOES NOT connote SINGULAR oneness in MANY
The example of plurality in the Tenach are arresting to say
In Gen.18, one of the three angels is designated the LORD,
the Holy name of God. Here is a manifestation of God, yet he is
NOT ALL OF GOD HIMSELF. Is it God or an angel of God? It is both.
In Gen.32, Jacob wrestles with the Angel of God, called a
man in v.24. Jewish literature explains this as only an angel.
Yet how then do we explain Jacob's words in v.30, 'So Jacob
called the place Peniel, saying, it is because I saw God face to
face and yet my life was spared.' Jacob was amazed because it
was believed that no man could see God and live. Jacob did not
see God FULLY; no one ever has. However, this was a manifestation
of God in human form which cannot be put aside by calling it a
powerful angel which, being from a divine level of reality, would
cause the fear. This explanation completely ignores Jacob's own
In Exodus, the Angel of the Lord is distinguished FROM God
Himself and yet is CONTINUALLY CALLED by the holy name of God
Himself, written THE LORD (all caps) in English and Hebrew:
Exodus 14:19 - the Angel of God travels before the people in
a pillar of cloud.
Exodus 13:17 ff. - God Himself leads the people.
Exodus 13:21 - God is called the LORD who went ahead.
Exodus 33:14 - God says, 'MY PRESENCE WILL GO WITH YOU.'
Moses prays for God's presence to precede Israel, in verse
16, However, in verse 9, the presence is identified with the
Lord, as Moses prays for the presence of the LORD to go with
Israel. Clearly, the LORD goes with Israel in leaving the
tabernacle, in Exodus 40: 36-38.
There are several other examples where the Angel of God is
distinguished from God and then called God or the LORD. In
Genesis 22:11, we have the Angel of the Lord; but in 22:12, He is
God (cf 16:7; 16:13).
In Exodus 23:20-23, God's name is said to be in the Angel in
such a way that he can PARDON SIN. 'Behold, I send an angel
before you, to guard you on the way and to bring you to the place
which I have prepared. Give heed to him and harken to his voice,
do not rebel against him, for he will not pardon your
transgression; for my NAME is in him.' (emphasis Juster).......
Judges 13 brings out the phenomenon clearly. Beginning with
verse 9, we read, ' the angel of God came to the woman while she
was in the field....Menoah got up and followed his wife. When he
came to the man he said....the Angel of the LORD replied'
(v.3). Menoah inquired of the name of the Angel of the LORD
(v.17). Menoah said, 'we are doomed to die. We have SEEN GOD'
(v.22). However, his wife assured him that IF they were to die,
the LORD would not have accepted the offering. Just as in the
story of Jacob wrestling with God, we have the Angel of God both
distinguished FROM God AND identified WITH God. (emphasis Juster
Most astonishing of all the examples is Exodus 3, where the
'Angel of the LORD' appeared to Moses in fames of fire from
within a bush. What did He say? ' I am the God of your father,
the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.' As Menoah, Moses asked
His name and God gave the inscrutable name which He did not give
to Manoah in Judges 13 saying, 'I am who I am' (a variant of
So the Angel IS God and yet distinct FROM God.......
We note especially Isaiah 48:12-16,
' Hearken to me, O Jacob, and Israel, whom I called! I am
He, I am the FIRST, and I am the LAST (Jesus claimed that also in
Revelation, see a red letter edition - Keith Hunt). My hand laid
the foundation of the earth, and my right hand spread out the
heavens; when I call to them, they stand forth together.
Assemble, all of you, and hear! Who among them has declared these
things? The Lord loves him; he shall perform his purpose on
Babylon, and his arm shall be against the Chaldeans. I, even I,
have spoken and called him, I have brought him, and he will
prosper in his way. Draw near to me, hear this: from the
beginning I have not spoken in secret, from the time it came to
be I have been there. AND NOW THE LORD HAS SENT ME AND HIS
In this passage, GOD is the SPEAKER, but then at the END of
the passage, says that He is DISTINGUISHED FROM the LORD and the
Furthermore, there are hints of the Messiah being MORE than
just HUMAN. In Isaiah 9:6-7, the Messiah is given the NAMES OF
GOD - literally in Hebrew, ' WONDERFUL COUNSELLOR, ALMIGHTY GOD -
EVERLASTING FATHER, PRINCE
This child who is born will rule and reign over all the
earth. The Messiah king is addressed, ' The Lord said to my Lord
' (Psalms 110:1). Who is this that David calls Lord? How this
question puzzled Yeshua's listeners!.......
'If David calls him Lord, how can he be his son? No one
could say a word in reply.' (Matt.22:42-46. See also Micah 5:22;
The Messiah is from Ancient of Days).......
The evidence of Tenach leaves us with a belief in ONE God
with PLURAL dimension.......
In the New Covenant Scriptures, God's PLURALITY is clearly
In John 8:58, Yeshua claims to be ONE with the ' I AM '
saying, '....before Abraham was, I AM ' (cf., Exodus
He was in the FORM of God (Philippians 2:6) but emptied
Himself, becoming a servant.......
Yet the New Testament, although recognizing Yeshua's
divinity, recognizes that God is MORE than Yeshua. It ONLY RARELY
addresses PRAYER to Yeshua, while recognizing that by His life,
teaching, death and resurrection, He is the FULLEST
REVELATION of God to man....... "